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In the nineteenth century, no assumption about female reading generated more ambivalence than the supposedly feminine facility for identifying with fictional characters. The belief that women were more impressionable than men inspired a continuous stream of anxious rhetoric about “female quixotes”: women who would imitate inappropriate characters or apply incongruous frames of reference from literature to their own lives. While the overt cultural discourse portrayed female literary identification as passive and delusional, Palacios Knox reveals increasing accounts of Victorian women wielding literary identification as a deliberate strategy. Wayward women readers challenged dominant assumptions about “feminine reading” and, by extension, femininity itself. Victorian Women and Wayward Reading contextualizes crises about female identification as reactions to decisive changes in the legal, political, educational, and professional status of women over the course of the nineteenth century: changes that wayward reading helped women first to imagine and then to enact.
The continuous presence of active male small ruminants prevents seasonal anestrus in females, but evidence of the same mechanism operating from the females to the males is scarce. This study assessed the effects of the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring on ram sexual activity, testicular size and echogenicity, and LH and testosterone concentrations. On 1 March, 20 rams were assigned to two groups (n = 10 each): isolated (ISO) from other sheep, or stimulated (STI) by 12 ewes, which were separated from the rams by an openwork metal barrier, allowing contact between sexes. Each week, four ewes were induced into estrus by intravaginal sponges. Live weight, scrotal circumference, testicular width (TW) and length (TL) were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and testicular volume (TV) was calculated; at the same time, testicular ultrasonography and color Doppler scanning were performed. Blood samples (March to May) were collected once per week for testosterone determinations, and at the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for 6 h at 20-min intervals for LH analysis. Rams were exposed to four estrous ewes in a serving-capacity test. Scrotal circumference, TW and TL were higher in the STI than in the ISO rams (P < 0.05) in May, and TV was higher (P < 0.05) in the STI (391 ± 17 cm3) than in the ISO rams (354 ± 24 cm3). In ISO rams, the number of white pixels was higher (P < 0.01) in May (348 ± 74) than in March (94 ± 21) and differed significantly (P < 0.01) from that of the STI rams in May (160 ± 33). In ISO rams, the number of grey pixels was higher (P < 0.05) in May (107 ± 3) than it was in March (99 ± 1). Stimulated and ISO rams did not differ significantly in mean LH plasma concentrations (0.8 ± 0.5 v. 0.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml), LH pulses (2.1 ± 0.5 v. 2.2 ± 0.2) and amplitude (2.0 ± 0.4 v. 3.2 ± 0.7 ng/ml, respectively). Stimulated rams had significantly higher testosterone concentrations than ISO rams from April to the end of the experiment. Stimulated rams performed more (P < 0.05) mountings with intromission (3.0 ± 0.4) than did ISO rams (1.5 ± 0.5). In conclusion, after 3 months in the continuous presence of ewes in estrus in spring, rams had higher TV and some testicular echogenic parameters were modified than isolated rams. Although exposed rams also had higher levels of testosterone after 2 months in the presence of estrous ewes, their LH pulsatility at the end of the study was not modified.
Results of in situ U–Pb dating of calcite spherulites, cone-in-cone (CIC) calcite and calcite fibres from a calcareous concretion of the upper Ediacaran of Finnmark, Arctic Norway, are reported. Calcite spherulites from the innermost layers of the concretion yielded a lower intercept age of 563 ± 70 Ma, which, although imprecise, is within uncertainty of the age of sedimentation based on fossil assemblages. Non-deformed CIC calcite from the bottom part of the concretion yielded an age of 475 ± 25 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of CIC calcite formation during a period of fluid overpressure induced during burial of the sediments. Deformed CIC calcite from the top part of the concretion yielded an age of 418 ± 23 Ma, which overlaps with a known Caledonian tectono-metamorphic event, and indicates a potential post-depositional overprint at this time. Calcite fibres that grew in small fissures along spherulite rims, which are interpreted as a recrystallization feature during deformation and formation of a cleavage, gave an imprecise age of 486 ± 161 Ma. Our results show that U–Pb dating of calcite can provide age constraints for ancient carbonates and syn- to post-depositional processes that operated during burial and metamorphic overprinting.
New information on acritarchs from the Duolbagáisá Formation, Digermulen Peninsula, Arctic Norway, enable recognition of the three Cambrian Series 2 acritarch-based zones: the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Assemblage zones. Acritarchs of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea Zone (Cambrian Stage 3) appear near the base of the unit, close to an undetermined trilobite. In the Upper Member of the Duolbagáisá Formation, in levels with Kjerulfia n. sp. and Elliptocephala n. sp., appears an assemblage with abundant Skiagia ciliosa, indicative of the Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa Zone. A few metres higher appear Liepaina plana, Heliosphaeridium notatum and Retisphaeridium dichamerum, which indicate the Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana Zone (Cambrian Stage 4). The transition between the Duolbagáisá Formation and the overlying Kistedalen Formation is marked by the appearance of Comasphaeridium longispinosum, Multiplicisphaeridium llynense and Eliasum llaniscum, diagnostic of the Miaolingian Series. This coincides with the disappearance of Skiagia; occurrences of Skiagia in Miaolingian strata consist of reworked material related to the Hawke Bay regression at the Cambrian Stage 4–Wuliuan transition. The absence of Skiagia in higher levels of the Duolbagáisá Formation and Kistedalen Formation suggests that no unconformity formed during the Hawke Bay regression in this area. The chronostratigraphical significance of the Skiagia ornata–Fimbriaglomerella membranacea, Heliosphaeridium dissimilare–Skiagia ciliosa and Volkovia dentifera–Liepaina plana zones is critically analysed. Correlation of the Duolbagáisá Formation with peri-Gondwanan terrains of Avalonia and Iberia is established. The Digermulen Peninsula has great potential as a reference section for establishing a Cambrian chronostratigraphy based on acritarchs.
Despite of the evidence of high psychopathological disorders in patients with ATSCI, few data are available on their psychiatric morbidity prior to the injury.
Identify psychiatric morbidity pre-post ATSCI in a sample of patients admitted in the Spinal Injuries Unit of the Vall d’ Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona (Spain).
Material and methods
54 patients with ATSCI patients were admitted between 1st. October 2009 and 1st. October 2010. SPSS (version 16.1) was used to analyze the data.
Seventy-six percent of the inpatients with ATSCI (41 cases) were evaluated by the psychiatrist and constitute the study sample. Twenty-seven (66%) were male and 14 (33%) female. The average age of the sample was 41 years with younger males (p < 0.05).
Reasons for ATSCI in males were traffic accident (26%), accidental falls and sports accidents (both 18.5%). In women were suicidal attempt by precipitation, fall accident (28.6% both) and traffic accident (21.4%).
41% of men versus 14% of women had a history of substance misuse (p < 0.01) while 64% of women versus the 14.8% of males had a prior psychiatric disorder (p < 0.01). 72.5% of men with ATSCI caused by traffic accident had used substances prior to the accident, those association was not found for women.
91% of patients underwent psychopharmacological intervention.
ATSCI patients exhibit high psychiatric morbidity and require specialized assessment. The high incidence of substance use associated with road traffic injuries suggests the need to identify risk groups in order to establish effective preventive measures.
Epidemiological studies reveal higher rates of psychotic disorders among immigrants of ethnic minorities. However, the variation in prevalence of psychosis differs, and the proposed explanations and risk factors vary across the literature.
1) to examine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in a sample of immigrants and native-born in a primary care setting context
2) to explore the effect that certain socio-demographic characteristics have in the difference in prevalence.
It is expected that the presence of psychotic symptoms will be greater for the immigrant population than for the native-born population. Low educational level, a low socio-economic status and the presence of a physical illness will partly explain these differences.
3000 patients (1500 immigrants and 1500 native-born outpatients paired in age and gender) were interviewed in a primary care setting. They completed the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, including the psychotic disorders sections, and a questionnaire that probed demographic characteristics and physical health status.
Immigrants showed significantly higher rates of psychotic symptoms than native-born patients in both sections of diagnosis: life-span psychotic symptoms only (9.8% in immigrants and 5.3% in native-born) and life span with current psychotic symptoms (7% of the immigrants and 4.8% of the native-born). Immigrants also showed a lower education level, and a lower socio-economic status. When controlling for these factors, a relationship between these factors and the symptoms was found.
Findings are discussed in the context of culture and etiology of psychotic symptoms, and suggestions with regard to future research are made.
Non-specific chronic low back pain is one of common causes of disability and a recurrent medical complaint with high costs. From rehabilitative medicine, physiotherapy programs and general postural recommendations are offered. Although this treatment is aimed to reduce disability, severity of pain and anxiety-depressive symptoms, many patients report partial improvements and recurrence of pain. Therefore, a new approach to treat this pathology with a broaden focus on psychososocial issues that might modulate pain and its evolution is required.
Aims and hypothesis
To assess the effectiveness of two complementary interventions to physiotherapy, such as relaxation techniques (specifically, sophrology) and cognitive behavioral intervention. It is hypothesized that intervention groups will significantly improve their adherence to physiotherapy and will gain control over their pain. Ultimately, this will foster better quality of life.
Longitudinal design with pre-post intervention measures and follow-up appointments (at 6 and 12 months) carried out in a sample of 66 participants. The sample will be divided into three groups: control (physiotherapy), intervention group 1 (physiotherapy & sophrology) and intervention group 2 (physiotherapy & cognitive behavioral intervention). In all groups biomedical aspects regarding type, evolution and characterization of pain as well as several psychosocial factors will be assessed.
Preliminary results are expected by December 2013.
If hypotheses are confirmed, we will be able to provide empirical evidences to justify a multidisciplinary care model for chronic low back pain, which will favor a significant cost reduction in terms of health care and human suffering.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder for many decades but information on the effects of its exposure on perinatal variables is scarce.
To determine the effects of in-utero exposure to lithium on neonatal outcomes among infants born to women with treatment with lithium during pregnancy.
Prospective and observational study including all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder type I or II (N = 22) and maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=9), attended at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, obstetric and neonatal variables.
No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic data between both groups. Rates for umbilical cord:maternal plasma lithium levels were higher in women treated with polytherapy than in women who received lithium alone (1.08 vs. 1.05). Neonates exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight percentile at birth (p70 vs p50) and greater gestational age (39.72 vs. 38.28 weeks), than those exposed to lithium alone. Acute neonatal complications were more frequently observed in infants that were exposed to lithium monotherapy (33.3% vs. 38.50), being all complications transitory and not severe.
The infants exposed to lithium polytherapy presented a higher weight at birth compared to those who received lithium monotherapy. However, no statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Further research is needed to better clarify safety of lithium and its effect on neonatal outcomes.
Mindfulness is defined as the ability of paying attention to the present moment with intentionality, moment to moment without making judgments of value.
To describe the effectiveness of group therapy performed in our mental health center according to the results in the SOFI scale of patients. This scale is designed to assess different qualities, which evolve through training in meditation practice based on mindfulness.
Group therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of an hour and a half. A total of 11 patients, 7 of which having completed therapy. The questionnaires were answered in the first and final session of therapy.
The questionnaire items were divided before and after treatment, into four categories with the following results: positive (friendly, happy, acceptance, compassion) to himself: 1.86 (0.54)/2.75 (0.78) and to others 3.57 (0.86)/3.89 (0.54); negative (hate, angry, cruel, bad) to himself: 2.92 (0.54)/2 (0.23); and to others: 2.28 (0.41)/1.96 (0.36)
In keeping with similar studies, the scale shows effectiveness of therapy in all sets of items, highlighting the variation of the aspects related to himself.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
There is little information describing the trajectories of depression and anxiety symptomatology in the context of coronary heart disease (CHD), and their comparison according to sociodemographic and disability measures, cardiac risk factors, and health care costs.
Using a primary care cohort of 803 patients with a diagnosis of CHD, a latent class growth curve model was developed to study the distinct trajectories of depression and anxiety symptoms (using the hospital anxiety and depression scale) over a 3-year period comprised of 7 distinct follow-up points. Multinomial regression analysis was then conducted to study the association between latent classes, baseline risk factors, and total health care costs across time.
The 5-class model yielded the best combination of statistical best-fit analysis and clinical correlation. These classes were as follows: “stable asymptomatic” (n = 558), “worsening” (n = 64), “improving” (n = 15), “chronic high” (n = 55), and “fluctuating symptomatology” (n = 111). The comparison group was the “stable asymptomatic” class. The symptomatic classes were younger and had higher proportion of women, and were also associated with non-white ethnicity, being a current smoker, and having chest pain. Other measures of disease severity, such as a history of myocardial infarction and comorbidities, were not associated with class membership. The highest mean total health care costs across the 3 years were the “chronic high” and “worsening” class, with the lowest being the “improving” and “stable low” classes. The total societal costs for patients in the “chronic high” and “worsening” class were significantly higher, as compared to the “stable low” class.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Evidence suggests that somatic rather than cognitive depressive symptoms are risk factors for recurrent cardiac events in at-risk patients. However, this has never been explored using a time-dependent approach in a narrow time-frame, allowing a cardiac event-free time-window.
The analysis was performed on 595 participants [70.6% male, median age 72 (27–98)] drawn from the UPBEAT-UK heart disease patient cohort with 6-monthly follow-ups over 3 years. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (four somatic, five cognitive items). New cardiac events (NCEs) including cardiac-related mortality were identified by expert examination of patient records. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models with delayed entry, with time-dependent depressive dimensions and covariates measured 12–18 months (median: 14.1, IQR: 3.5) prior to the event, with a 12-month cardiac event-free gap.
There were 95 NCEs during the follow-up [median time-to-event from baseline: 22.3 months (IQR: 13.4)]. Both the somatic (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.20, p = 0.001) and cognitive dimensions (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03–1.18, p = 0.004) were time-dependent risk factors for an NCE in the multi-adjusted models. Specific symptoms (poor appetite/overeating for the somatic dimension, hopelessness and feeling like a failure for the cognitive dimension) were also significantly associated.
This is the first study of the association between depressive symptom dimensions and NCEs in at-risk patients using a time-to-event standardised approach. Both dimensions considered apart were independent predictors of an NCE, along with specific items, suggesting regular assessments and tailored interventions targeting specific depressive symptoms may help to prevent NCEs in at-risk populations.
Currently, many cities in Colombia are starting to embrace and promote urban art even though in the recent past the police-or even worse, social-cleansing groups-have persecuted graffiti and street art artists. However, cities like Barranquilla, Valledupar, Medellin, Cali, Bucaramanga, Pereira, and Ibague have welcomed graffiti, designating places, mainly walls, for artists to express themselves via graffiti and street art. Fairs, seminars, and museum exhibitions of urban art are being held in various Colombian cities and these art forms are even boosting local tourism. Amidst this growing collection of street art, one question remains: what protection does street art-particularly lettering-based graffiti-enjoy and what kind of rights do their artists hold over them?
The present study investigated the effects of nutritional programming through parental feeding on offspring performance and expression of selected genes related to stress resistance in a marine teleost. Gilthead seabream broodstock were fed diets containing various fish oil (FO)/vegetable oil ratios to determine their effects on offspring performance along embryogenesis, larval development and juvenile on-growing periods. Increased substitution of dietary FO by linseed oil (LO) up to 80 % LO significantly reduced the total number of eggs produced by kg per female per spawn. Moreover, at 30 d after hatching, parental feeding with increasing LO up to 80 % led to up-regulation of the fatty acyl desaturase 2 gene (fads2) that was correlated with the increase in conversion rates of related PUFA. Besides, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (cox2) and TNF-α (tnf-α) gene expression was also up-regulated by the increase in LO in broodstock diets up to 60 or 80 %, respectively. When 4-month-old offspring were challenged with diets having different levels of FO, the lowest growth was found in juveniles from broodstock fed 100 % FO. An increase in LO levels in the broodstock diet up to 60LO raised LC-PUFA levels in the juveniles, regardless of the juvenile’s diet. The results showed that it is possible to nutritionally programme gilthead seabream offspring through the modification of the fatty acid profiles of parental diets to improve the growth performance of juveniles fed low FO diets, inducing long-term changes in PUFA metabolism with up-regulation of fads2 expression. The present study provided the first pieces of evidence of the up-regulation of immune system-related genes in the offspring of parents fed increased FO replacement by LO.
This article examines collective petitioning in metropolitan Spain during the Age of Revolution, focusing on the practices and discourses that framed petitioning as a meaningful form of action. There was a deeply rooted tradition of petitioning in old regime Spain, which was part of the ordinary bureaucratic workings of the crown and also provided a legitimizing framework for rioting in specific contexts. The collective experimentation in popular participation after the 1808 Napoleonic invasion transformed petitioning. Petitioning was first reconceptualized in accordance with the emerging language of rights and popular sovereignty. Activists and commentators had some awareness of the use of public petitioning in Britain, and once the representative Cortes met in Cadiz in 1810, public petition drives on public issues became part of the political culture. At the same time, the need to legitimate unconventional forms of action in the context of a crisis in the state converted petitioning into an all-embracing right. The right to petition, not only encompassed signed protest texts but also legitimated the old tradition of petitioning by riot and further was used to justify provincial rebellions, juntas, and military pronunciamientos. In comparative terms, this article highlights the elasticity of the language of petitioning during the Age of Revolution and cautions against narrowly associating it with one particular form of collective action or historical trajectory.
The Sun is our dynamic host star due to its magnetic fields causing plentiful of activity in its atmosphere. From high energetic flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to lower energetic phenomena such as jets and fibrils. Thus, it is of crucial importance to learn about formation and evolution of solar magnetic fields. These fields cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, starting on the larger end with active regions harbouring complex sunspots, via isolated pores, down to the smallest yet resolved elements – so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). Here, we revisit the various manifestations of solar magnetic fields by the largest European solar telescope in operation, the 1.5-meter GREGOR telescope. We show images from the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI) and spectropolarimetric data from the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS). Besides, we outline resolved convective features inside the larger structures – so-called light-bridges occurring on large to mid-sized scales.
Parenting interventions have important consequences for the wellbeing and emotional competences of parents and their children. Technology provides an opportunity with advantages for psychological intervention. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to analyze the characteristics and effectiveness of technology-based interventions for parents to promote children's physical health or psychological issues.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for articles about parenting skills for prevention or treatment of children's physical or psychological concerns using technology. We explore the aim of the intervention with parents, kind of problem with children, intervention model, instruments, methodological quality, and risk of bias. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted.
Twenty-four studies were included in the systematic review and a meta-analysis of 22 studies was performed to find out the effects of intervention depending on the kind of problem, intervention model, follow-up, type of intervention, type of control condition, and type of outcome data. Results show the usefulness of technology-based therapy for parenting interventions with moderate effect sizes for intervention groups with statistically significant differences from control groups.
Technology-based parenting programs have positive effects on parenting and emotional wellbeing of parents and children. Attendance and participation level in technology-based treatment increase compared with traditional parenting intervention.
Popper’s ‘Situational Analysis’ (SA) constitutes his methodological proposal for the social sciences. We claim that the two hallmarks of SA are: (i) that scientists assume they possess a ‘wider’ view of the problem-situation than actors do, and (ii) use the model as an ideal ‘benchmark’ scenario to identify the deviation of actors’ actual behaviour from the former. We argue that SA is not a generalization of the neoclassical theory of individual behaviour but captures instead the methodology adopted by modern behavioural economists. Last, we argue that SA highlights a way of acquiring knowledge that has gone unnoticed in the literature.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.