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The Germanic language family ranges from national languages with standardized varieties, including German, Dutch and Danish, to minority languages with relatively few speakers, such as Frisian, Yiddish and Pennsylvania German. Written by internationally renowned experts of Germanic linguistics, this Handbook provides a detailed overview and analysis of the structure of modern Germanic languages and dialects. Organized thematically, it addresses key topics in the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of standard and nonstandard varieties of Germanic languages from a comparative perspective. It also includes chapters on second language acquisition, heritage and minority languages, pidgins, and urban vernaculars. The first comprehensive survey of this vast topic, the Handbook is a vital resource for students and researchers investigating the Germanic family of languages and dialects.
A small body of research shows that the working alliance mediates the relation between outcome expectancy and treatment response, but this model has not been applied to the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The present study tests the hypothesis that the working alliance mediates the relation between outcome expectancy and symptom improvement within a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder. A sample of 54 individuals diagnosed with social anxiety disorder completed eight sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy or exposure group therapy. Participants completed standardized self-report measures of outcome expectancy at the first session, of the working alliance at each session, and three measures of social anxiety symptoms at pre- and post-treatment. The working alliance did not mediate the relation between outcome expectancy and symptom improvement across time points, dependent measures, and treatment type. Bayes factors were calculated for the relation between the working alliance and symptom reduction, while controlling for outcome expectancy and therapist effects. Results were inconclusive. These null findings are intriguing and urge further study of the mechanisms through which common factors relate to treatment response. Utilization of Bayesian analyses may help to clarify the nature of these relations.
Key learning aims
(1)Readers will consider the role of common factors in treatment for social anxiety disorder.
(2)Readers will learn about how different common factors may interact with each other.
(3)Readers will be encouraged to consider how the therapeutic relationship may manifest in a unique manner in treatment for social anxiety.
Apparently the Middle Ages did not produce much music criticism. It could scarcely be otherwise if, as has been claimed, criticism as an institution, meaning ‘a specific discursive medium characterized by the controlled exercise of authority and judgment’ has ‘a history reaching back to the eighteenth century’ and seemingly no further. Consider the substantial repertoire of Gregorian chant, once employed throughout much of the Latin West, and the plainsong that is principally evoked in the title of this chapter. The monks, friars, nuns and clerics who sang this music in the liturgy were not required to perform in any sense of the word recognisable from many later periods of musical history, even when they were cantors assigned solo chants. Those standing near them in the choirstalls heard them sing, but we may suppose that they did not exactly listen for much of the time; plainsong was not designed to promote concentration upon an art of autonomous musical sound. Even if the music of a particular chant drew the ear of someone present, it was surely difficult to bring a varied discernment to bear upon material for which a pope, inspired by the Holy Spirit, was believed to be responsible.
Host shifts of parasites are often causing devastating effects in the new hosts. The Varroa genus is known for a lineage of Varroa destructor that shifted to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, with disastrous effects on wild populations and the beekeeping industry. Despite this, the biology of Varroa spp. remains poorly understood in its native distribution range, where it naturally parasitizes the Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana. Here, we combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses with the assessment of mite reproduction to determine the population structure and host specificity of V. destructor and Varroa jacobsonii in Thailand, where both hosts and several Varroa species and haplotypes are sympatric. Our data confirm previously described mite haplogroups, and show three novel haplotypes. Multiple infestations of single host colonies by both mite species and introgression of alleles between V. destructor and V. jacobsonii suggest that hybridization occurs between the two species. Our results indicate that host specificity and population genetic structure in the genus Varroa is more labile than previously thought. The ability of the host shifted V. destructor haplotype to spillback to A. cerana and to hybridize with V. jacobsonii could threaten honey bee populations of Asia and beyond.
How brain damage after stroke is related to specific clinical manifestation and recovery is incompletely understood. We studied cognitive reserve (CR) in stroke patients by two types of measurements: (i) objectively verifiable static proxies (i.e., education, occupational attainment), and (ii) subjective, dynamic proxies based on patient testimony in response to a questionnaire. We hypothesized that one or both of these types of CR measurements might correlate positively with patient cognitive performance during the post-acute and chronic phases of recovery.
Thirty-four stroke patients underwent neuropsychological assessment at 2, 6 and 24 months after stroke onset. In chronic stage at 24+ months, self-rating assessments of cognitive performance in daily life and social integration were obtained. CR before and after stroke was estimated using static proxies and dynamic proxies were obtained using the Cognitive Reserve Scale (CRS-Pre-stroke, CRS-Post-stroke).
CRS-Pre-stroke and CRS-Post-stroke showed significant mean differences. Dynamic proxies showed positive correlation with self-assessment of attention, metacognition, and functional ability in chronic stage. In contrast, significant correlations between static proxies and cognitive recovery were not found.
Dynamic proxies of CR were positively correlated with patients’ perception of their functional abilities in daily life. To best guide cognitive prognosis and treatment, we propose that dynamic proxies of CR should be included in neuropsychological assessments of patients with brain damage.
This Essay responds to thoughtful analyses from Ashley Rubin, Johann Koehler, Geoff Ward, and Fergus McNeill on our book Breaking the Pendulum: The Long Struggle Over Criminal Justice (2017). In particular, we revisit our claim that consensus within the penal field is illusory. Drawing inspiration from our interlocutors, we argue that while recognized actors constantly struggle over the character and scope of criminal justice, they agree (at least implicitly) that certain positions are “unthinkable” and certain actors must remain outside the field. This “conflictual consensus” limits radical transformations of criminal justice. Our revised perspective encourages scholars to analyze how marginal positions and actors become part of the field, as well as the effects they produce while trying to reshape its boundaries. We conclude by sketching out how scholars have extended and revised the agonistic perspective we advance in Breaking the Pendulum and where we might turn next.
This paper reports the results of preparing alloy nanoparticles by mechanical grinding followed by filtration to sort the particles according to size. Although the long-term goal of this work is to prepare icosahedral quasicrystalline nanoparticles, the alloy used in this study is of Al65Cu25Fe15 composition and multi phases, under the assumption that the established procedure is applicable to future quasicrystalline nanoparticle fabrication. The obtained particle size and elemental information were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Problems with filter fragment fall-out and salt contamination were encountered and procedures to address the problems have been suggested and tested. The study is successful in obtaining alloy particles with reduced sizes.
While mastery of aspects of music theory is relevant to rapid learning and understanding of a new choral part, many choirs comprise members with no formal education in music theory. Also, the language of music theory is not intuitive, with many terms having meanings different from those in common use, which can present obstacles for mature learners. The authors hypothesised that students joining an internationally recognised university choir might master aspects of music theory as a by-product of rehearsals. This was tested by having new admissions to such a choir complete a music theory test at the commencement and at the end of a year. The test evaluated the ability to name and write intervals and name notes and the duration of notes. Overall results did not reject the hypothesis. Subjects with no formal music training also showed most, and statistically significant, improvement in the questions related to intervals, which are arguably the most useful skills for choristers who do not sight-read. This appears to be a new finding: the literature shows occasional references to music theory skills, but their acquisition in a learning-by-doing style is not reported. Some insights into ways of enhancing choral performance are a by-product of the principal focus of the study.
As additive manufacturing (AM) continues to grow in its abilities, so does the need for a quick and effective method of determining how it should be applied. Over time, these methods are naturally developed and passed on as tacit knowledge. However, with the rapid advancement of AM technologies, identifying parts which are eligible for AM as well as gaining insight on what value it may add to a product needs to be modelled in an objective and transferrable way. This paper presents a framework for determining the candidacy of a part or assembly for AM, represented by its economic feasibility and potential for AM-specific benefits. A set of selection criteria is developed with the goal of fast-screening in mind; that is specific data which can be automatically extracted from CAD models and resource planning databases. A case study is performed to validate the criteria and decision model chosen, as well as gain insight to the potential for a more widespread application. The decision model successfully identified economic feasibility and AM potentials, which suggests the results of the case study show promise for a semi-automatic decision support system for identifying AM candidates.
To study thermal desulfurization of pyrite (FeS2), we conducted in situ neutron diffraction experiments in the temperature range 298–1073 K. On heating, pyrite remained stable up to 773 K, at which it started to decompose into pyrrhotite (Fe1−xS) and S2 gas. Rietveld analysis of the neutron data from 298 to 773 K allowed determination of the thermal expansion coefficient of pyrite (space group Pa
) to be αV = 3.7456 × 10−5 K−1, which largely results from the expansion of the Fe–S bond. With further increase in temperature to 1073 K, all the pyrite transformed to pyrrhotite (Fe1−xS) at 873 K. Unit-cell parameters of Fe1−xS (space group P63/mmc) increase on heating and decrease on cooling. However, the rates in cell expansion are larger than those in contraction. This hysteresis behavior can be attributed to continuous desulfurization of pyrrhotite (i.e., x in Fe1−xS decreases) with increasing temperature until the stoichiometric troilite (FeS) was formed at 1073 K. On cooling, troilite underwent a magnetic transition to an orthorhombic structure (space group Pnma) between 473 and 573 K. In addition, using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) implemented with a differential scanning calorimeter, we performed kinetic measurements of pyrite decomposition. Detailed peak profile and Arrhenius (k = A exp(−Ea/RT)) analyses yielded an activation energy Ea of 302.3 ± 28.6 kJ/mol (based on DTA data) or 302.5 ± 26.4 kJ/mol (based on TGA data) and a ln(A) of 35.3 ± 0.1.
Male-biased sex ratios have been observed in multiple small-scale societies. Although intentional and systematic female-biased mortality has been posited as an explanation, there is often a lack of ethnographic evidence of systematic female neglect and/or infanticide. The Agta, a foraging population from the Philippines, have a skewed sex ratio of 1.29 (129 males per 100 females) aged 15 years or under. We hypothesised that this skew was not caused by greater female deaths, but due to an adaptive response, where more males were produced at birth in reaction to high male-biased extrinsic mortality. To test this hypothesis we utilise census, childcare and mortality data from 915 Agta. The Agta's sex ratio is significantly male-biased in the <1 (n = 48, 2:1) and 1–5 year (n = 170, 1.39:1) age cohorts; however, we find no evidence of systematic female neglect in patterns of childcare. Furthermore, the sex ratio decreases over cohorts, becoming balanced by the end of the juvenile period, owing to significantly higher male mortality. Taken together, these results are not supportive of female infanticide or neglect, and instead suggest an adaptive mechanism, acting in utero as a response to male-biased juvenile mortality, following Fisherian principles of equalising parental investment.
Hydrilla is an invasive aquatic plant that has rapidly spread through many inland water bodies across the globe by outcompeting native aquatic plants. The negative impacts of hydrilla invasion have become a concern for water resource management authorities, power companies, and environmental scientists. The early detection of hydrilla infestation is very important to reduce the costs associated with control and removal efforts of this invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a tool for rapid, frequent, and large-scale monitoring and predicting spatial extent of hydrilla habitat. This was achieved by integrating in situ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data for Lake J. Strom Thurmond, the largest US Army Corps of Engineers lake east of the Mississippi River, located on the border of Georgia and South Carolina border. The predictive model for presence of hydrilla incorporated radiometric and physical measurements, including remote-sensing reflectance, Secchi disk depth (SDD), light-attenuation coefficient (Kd), maximum depth of colonization (Zc), and percentage of light available through the water column (PLW). The model-predicted ideal habitat for hydrilla featured high SDD, Zc, and PLW values, low values of Kd. Monthly analyses based on satellite images showed that hydrilla starts growing in April, reaches peak coverage around October, begins retreating in the following months, and disappears in February. Analysis of physical and meteorological factors (i.e., water temperature, surface runoff, net inflow, precipitation) revealed that these parameters are closely associated with hydrilla extent. Management agencies can use these results not only to plan removal efforts but also to evaluate and adapt their current mitigation efforts.
Tall weeds escaping early weed management, such as weeds resistant to one or multiple herbicides, are an increasing concern. When weeds reach a certain size, few options other than hand weeding will limit the production and dispersal of seeds. The objective of this project was to evaluate the efficacy of the Bourquin Organic Weed Puller® (a rotating series of wheels that grab and pull) at removing tall weeds before they shed seeds in soybean and adzuki bean. Trials were set up in Canada at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada research farms at Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu (SJR), QC (2 yr), and Harrow (HAR), ON (1 yr), on a loamy and a sandy soil, respectively. The experimental design included crops of different potential heights (different soybean cultivars and adzuki bean), two weed species per location (common lambsquarters [both locations] and common ragweed or redroot pigweed at HAR), and two pulling dates. The set-up also included weedy and herbicide-treated control plots. Weeds overtopping the crop canopy by at least 10 cm were tagged and characterized. Damage from the weed puller was rated as 1, pulled (desired effect); 2, cut; 3, folded; 4, stripped; and 5, intact. The seed production of damaged and intact weeds was also recorded. Less than one-third of common ragweed or redroot pigweed plants were pulled during any treatment combination. The highest pulling rates were observed for common lambsquarters at SJR (43%), but very few were pulled at HAR (3.1% max). Pulling rates were not high enough to potentially control seed inputs from herbicide-resistant populations, and successfully pulled common lambsquarters left on the ground produced thousands of viable seeds.
The relationship between alcohol consumption and body weight is complex and inconclusive being potentially mediated by alcohol type, habitual consumption levels and sex differences. Heavy and regular alcohol consumption has been positively correlated with increasing body weight, although it is unclear whether this is due to alcohol consumption per se or to additional energy intake from food. This review explores the effects of alcohol consumption on food energy intake in healthy adults. CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, Medline and PsycINFO were searched through February 2018 for crossover and randomised controlled trials where an alcohol dose was compared with a non-alcohol condition. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. A total of twenty-two studies involving 701 participants were included from the 18 427 papers retrieved. Studies consistently demonstrated no compensation for alcoholic beverage energy intake, with dietary energy intake not decreasing due to alcoholic beverage ingestion. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted on twelve studies and demonstrated that alcoholic beverage consumption significantly increased food energy intake and total energy intake compared with a non-alcoholic comparator by weighted mean differences of 343 (95 % CI 161, 525) and 1072 (95 % CI 820, 1323) kJ, respectively. Generalisability is limited to younger adults (18–37 years), and meta-analyses for some outcomes had substantial statistical heterogeneity or evidence of small-study effects. This review suggests that adults do not compensate appropriately for alcohol energy by eating less, and a relatively modest alcohol dose may lead to an increase in food consumption.