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Intracerebral calcifications are a facultative symptom of hypoparathyreoidism in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS). We describe a patient with 22qDS, basal ganglia calcification (BGC) and psychotic symptoms and discuss the etiological connection of BGC with psychiatric symptoms. Future work needs to determine the prevalence of BGC in 22qDS and psychiatric disorders.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
To examine the impact of determinants of incident dementia in three different old age groups (75–79, 80–84, 85+years) in Germany.
Multicenter prospective AgeCoDe/AgeQualiDe cohort study with baseline and nine follow-up assessments at 1.5-year intervals.
Primary care medical record registry sample.
General practitioners’ (GPs) patients aged 75+years at baseline.
Conduction of standardized interviews including neuropsychological assessment and collection of GP information at each assessment wave. We used age-stratified competing risk regression models (accounting for the competing event of mortality) to assess determinants of incident dementia and age-stratified ordinary least square regressions to quantify the impact of identified determinants on the age at dementia onset.
Among 3027 dementia-free GP patients, n = 704 (23.3%) developed dementia during the 13-year study period. Worse cognitive performance and subjective memory decline with related worries at baseline, and the APOE ε4 allele were associated independently with increased dementia risk in all three old age groups. Worse cognitive performance at baseline was also associated with younger age at dementia onset in all three age groups. Other well-known determinants were associated with dementia risk and age at dementia onset only in some or in none of the three old age groups.
This study provides further evidence for the age-specific importance of determinants of incident dementia in old age. Such specifics have to be considered more strongly particularly with regard to potential approaches of early detection and prevention of dementia.
The imaging of stones in the salivary glands and ducts poses a challenge, even to experienced ultrasound examiners. This study investigated whether the ‘twinkling artefact’, which occurs at internal calcific foci during Doppler ultrasound examinations, is useful for detecting salivary gland stones.
In a model test, 20 salivary stones were analysed in vitro, via Doppler ultrasound, with regard to their representability and the triggering of the twinkling artefact. In a follow-up study, 28 patients with sialolithiasis and food-related large salivary gland swellings were examined, using both power and colour Doppler modes, with regard to the twinkling artefact. All ultrasound examinations were performed by an experienced examiner and retrospectively graded by two experienced sonographers.
All stones could reliably be detected using the twinkling artefact in the model test. Twenty-seven of 28 salivary stones (96 per cent) also showed twinkling in vivo, during patient assessment. The power Doppler mode showed a significantly higher intensity level of twinkling than the colour Doppler mode (p < 0.0001).
The twinkling artefact is a very reliable sign for the diagnosis of sialolithiasis. Power Doppler is superior to colour Doppler for detection of the twinkling artefact.
Acute kidney injury is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in infants. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been suggested to be a promising early biomarker of impending acute kidney injury. On the other hand, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has been shown to be elevated in systemic inflammatory diseases without renal impairment. In this secondary analysis of data from our previous study on acute kidney injury after infant cardiac surgery, our hypothesis was that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may be associated with surgery-related inflammation.
We prospectively enrolled 59 neonates and infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for CHD and measured neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in plasma and urine and interleukin-6 in the plasma. Values were correlated with postoperative acute kidney injury according to the paediatric Renal-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage classification.
Overall, 48% (28/59) of patients developed acute kidney injury. Of these, 50% (14/28) were classified as injury and 11% (3/28) received renal replacement therapy. Both plasma and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin values were not correlated with acute kidney injury occurrence. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin showed a strong correlation with interleukin-6. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin values correlated with cardiopulmonary bypass time.
Our results suggest that plasma and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin values are not reliable indicators of impending acute kidney injury in neonates and infants after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Inflammation may have a major impact on plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin values in infant cardiac surgery. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin may add little prognostic value over cardiopulmonary bypass time.
The current study investigates potential pathways from socio-economic status (SES) to BMI in the adult population, considering psychological domains of eating behaviour (restrained eating, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating) as potential mediators stratified for sex.
Data were derived from the population-based cross-sectional LIFE-Adult-Study. Parallel-mediation models were conducted to obtain the total, direct and indirect effects of psychological eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI for men and for women.
We studied 5935 participants aged 18 to 79 years.
Uncontrolled eating mediated the association between SES and BMI in men only and restrained eating in both men and women. Emotional eating did not act as mediator in this relationship. The total effect of eating behaviour domains on the association between SES and BMI was estimated as β=−0·03 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·062, −0·003) in men and β=−0·18 (se 0·02; 95 % CI −0·217, −0·138) in women.
Our findings do not indicate a strong overall mediation effect of the eating behaviour domains restrained eating, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating on the association between SES and BMI. Further research on other pathways of this association is strongly recommended. Importantly, our findings indicate that, independent from one’s social position, focusing on psychological aspects in weight reduction might be a promising approach.
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD), the potentially earliest notable manifestation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, was consistently associated with lower quality of life in cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such an association persists longitudinally – particularly with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older individuals without cognitive impairment.
Data were derived from follow-up 2–6 of the prospective Germany Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care (AgeCoDe) covering a total six-year observation period. We used linear mixed effects models to estimate the effect of SCD on HRQoL measured by the EQ-5D visual analogue scale (EQ VAS).
Of 1,387 cognitively unimpaired individuals aged 82.2 years (SD = 3.2) on average, 702 (50.6%) reported SCD and 230 (16.6%) with SCD-related concerns. Effect estimates of the linear mixed effects models revealed lower HRQoL in individuals with SCD (unadjusted: –3.7 points on the EQ VAS, 95%CI = –5.3 to –2.1; SE = 0.8; p < 0.001; adjusted: –2.9 points, 95%CI = –3.9 to –1.9; SE = 0.5; p < 0.001) than in individuals without SCD. The effect was most pronounced in SCD with related concerns (unadjusted: –5.4, 95%CI = –7.6 to –3.2; SE = 1.1; p < 0.001; adjusted: –4.3, 95%CI = –5.8 to –2.9, SE = 0.7; p < 0.001).
SCD constitutes a serious issue to older cognitively unimpaired individuals that is depicted in persisting lower levels of HRQoL beyond depressive symptoms and functional impairment. Therefore, SCD should be taken seriously in clinical practice.
How to theorise religion in International Relations (IR)? Does the concept of post-secularity advance the debate on religion beyond the ‘return of religion’ and the crisis of secular reason? This article argues that the post-secular remains trapped in the logic of secularism. First, a new account is provided of the ‘secularist bias’ that characterises mainstream IR theory: (a) defining religion in either essentialist or epiphenomenal terms; (b) positing a series of ‘antagonistic binary opposites’ such as the secular versus the religious; and (c) de-sacralising and re-sacralising the public square. The article then analyses post-secularity, showing that it subordinates faith under secular reason and sacralises the ‘other’ by elevating difference into the sole transcendental term. Theorists of the post-secular such as Jürgen Habermas or William Connolly also equate secular modernity with metaphysical universalism, which they seek to replace with post-metaphysical pluralism. In contrast, the alternative that this article outlines is an international theory that develops the Christian realism of the English School in the direction of a metaphysical-political realism. Such a realism binds together reason with faith and envisions a ‘corporate’ association of peoples and nations beyond the secularist settlement of Westphalia that is centred on national states and transnational markets. By linking immanent values to transcendent principles, this approach can rethink religion in international affairs and help revive grand theory in IR.
CdTe and Cd0.9Zn0.1Te (CZT) crystals have been studied extensively at EIC Laboratories, Inc. for various applications including x- and γ-ray imaging and high energy radiation detectors. The crystals were grown from in-house zone refined ultra pure precursor materials using a vertical Bridgman furnace. The growth process has been monitored, controlled and optimized by a computer simulation and modeling program (MASTRAPP). The grown crystals were thoroughly characterized after sequential surface passivations and post-growth annealing treatments with and without component overpressures. The infrared (IR) transmission images of the post-treated CdTe and CZT crystals showed average Te inclusion size of ∼10 μm for CdTe crystal and ∼8 μm for CZT crystal. The etch pit density was ≤ 5×104 cm−2 for CdTe and ≤ 3×104 cm−2 for CZT. Various planar and Frisch collar detectors were fabricated and evaluated. From the current-voltage measurements, the electrical resistivity was estimated to be ∼1.5×1010 Ω·cm for CdTe and 2-5×1011 Ω·cm for CZT. The Hecht analysis of electron and hole mobility-lifetime products (μτe and μτh) showed μτe=2×10−3 cm2/V (μτh=8×10−5 cm2/V) and μτ3-6×10−3 cm2/V (μτh=4-6×10−5 cm2/V) for CdTe and CZT, respectively. Final assessments of the detector performance have been carried out using 241Am (60 keV) and 137Cs (662 keV) energy sources and the results are presented in this paper.
Las calcificaciones cerebrales son un síntoma facultativo de hipoparatiroidismo en el síndrome de eliminación 22q11.2 (22qDS). Describimos a una paciente con 22qDS, calcificación de los ganglios basales (CGB) y síntomas psicóticos y analizamos la conexión etiológica de la CGB con los síntomas psiquiátricos. Trabajos futuros tienen que determinar la prevalencia de la CGB en el 22qDS y los trastornos psiquiátricos.
The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic efficacy of osteopathic treatment in infants with postural asymmetry. A randomized clinical trial of efficacy with blinded videoscoring was performed. Sixty-one infants with postural asymmetry aged 6 to 12 weeks (mean 9wks) were recruited. Thirty-two infants (18 males, 14 females) with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks were found to be eligible and randomly assigned to the intervention groups, 16 receiving osteopathic treatment and 16 sham therapy. After a treatment period of 4 weeks the outcome was measured using a standardized scale (4–24 points). With sham therapy, five infants improved (at least 3 points), eight infants were unchanged (within 3 points), and three infants deteriorated (not more than –3 points); the mean improvement was 1.2 points (SD 3.5). In the osteopathic group, 13 infants improved and three remained unchanged; the mean improvement was 5.9 points (SD 3.8). The difference was significant (p=0.001). We conclude that osteopathic treatment in the first months of life improves the degree of asymmetry in infants with postural asymmetry.
North Atlantic harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (L.) face considerable energetic challenges, as they are relatively small marine mammals with an intense reproductive schedule and a cold-water habitat. Post-natal growth of these porpoises was described using ontogenetic allometry and body composition techniques. The cross-sectional sample contained robust calves, immature, and mature porpoises (n = 122) incidentally killed in commercial fishing operations between 1992 and 1998. Total mass and the mass of 26 body components were measured using a standard dissection protocol. Most body components grew similarly in female and male porpoises. Blubber, brain and skull were negatively allometric, while muscle and reproductive tissues exhibited positive allometry. Female heart, liver, intestine and mesenteric lymph node grew at significantly higher rates than in males. Male locomotor muscle and pelvic bones grew significantly faster than in females. High growth rates for visceral and reproductive organs in porpoises, relative to other mammals, may underlie their early maturation and support their intensive, annual reproductive schedule. Relative to other cetaceans, porpoises seem to allocate a larger percentage of their total body mass to blubber. This allocation to blubber, which is greatest in calves (37% of body mass), may provide harbour porpoises with the thermal insulation required to live in cold water. The factors influencing growth rates and differential investments in body composition seem to change at various stages of a porpoise's life. Energy allocation in porpoises seems to shift from an emphasis on developing an insulative blubber layer in young animals to preparing the body for annual reproduction at sexual maturity.
The histology and structure of 38 spleens of the dromedary (aged 0.5–15 y) were studied in relation to age.
The spleen was found to have a thick capsule (292±106 mm) divided into an outer layer (113±39 mm)
composed mainly of connective tissue and an inner layer (180±81 mm) consisting mainly of smooth muscle
cells. Vascular and avascular trabeculae extend from the capsule, the former containing arteries and nerves
but no trabecular veins, the latter being divided structurally into primary and secondary trabeculae.
Subcapsular and peritrabecular blood sinuses around primary and vascular trabeculae are unique to the
camel spleen. The central artery emerges from the periarterial lymphatic sheath and branches into up to 4
penicilli which extend as sheathed arterioles (42±8 μm). These are found near or surrounded by blood
sinusoids of the red pulp. A wide marginal zone surrounds the white pulp and contains sheathed arteries but
no marginal sinuses. The red pulp is characteristically divided into cords by secondary trabeculae and
contains venous sinusoids of different sizes. The camel spleen is of a sinusal type that can store blood. The
thick muscular capsule and trabeculae pump the stored blood according to the body's need. Both closed and
open circulations are found. The venous return is unique as the blood flow is from the venous sinusoids of
the red pulp to the peritrabecular sinuses to the subcapsular sinuses to the splenic vein. No significant
structural differences related to age were found.
The detection of image regions and their borders is one of the basic requirements for further (object domain-) image processing in a generalpurpose technical pattern recognition system and, very likely, also in the visual system. It is a pre-requisite for object separation (figure-ground discrimination, and separation of adjoining and intersecting objects), which in turn is necessary for the generation of invariances for object recognition (Reitboeck & Altmann, 1984).
Texture is a powerful feature for region definition. Objects and background usually have different textures; camouflage works by breaking this rule. For texture characterization, Fourier (power) spectra are frequently used in computer pattern recognition. Although the signal transfer properties of visual channels can be described in the spatial (and temporal) frequency domain, there has been no conclusive evidence that pattern processing in the primary visual areas would be in terms of local Fourier spectra.
In the following we propose a model for texture characterization in the visual system, based on region labeling in the time domain via correlated neural events. The model is consistent with several basic operational principles of the visual system, and its texture separation capacity is in very good agreement with the pre-attentive texture separation of humans.
Texture region definition via temporal correlations
When we look at a scene, we can literally generate a ‘matched filter’ and use it to direct our attention to a specific object region.
Let Σ be the projective 3-space over the field GF(q) where q = pe, p an odd prime. A spread W in ∑ is a set of q2 + 1 lines in ∑ which are such that each point of Σ lies on exactly one line of W. Thus the lines of W are all mutually skew. The notion of a spread extends to higher dimensions and also applies for arbitrary fields [1; 3; 6, p. 29; 7, p. 5]. Our concern, however, will be within the narrower but still extensive bounds indicated.
Data collected in the Meat and Livestock Commission's pedigree recording scheme have been analysed by least square procedures to assess the relationship between, and heritability of, birth, 200-day and 400-day weights. In total 5524 birth weights, 16 484 200-day weights and 6248 400-day weights were available for 765 herds, in which were represented 2031 sires of seven breeds. Heritability estimates were calculated using the complete data and a set restricted to the larger herds and sire progeny groups. The influence of single effects on the heritability estimates was computed. Linear relationships were established between birth and 200-day weights in the Aberdeen-Angus and Charolais breeds but in the Hereford, Devon and Sussex breeds they were curvilinear. The data from the Hereford breed indicated an optimum range of birth weights. The partial regressions of 400-day on 200-day weights were positive; they were not linear for the Charolais, Devon and Sussex breeds. In these cases there was a more than proportionate increase in 400-day weights for an increase in 200-day weights. The heritability estimates varied widely and were dependent on the method and underlying model used. The most reliable estimates were as follows: birth weight 0·23, 200-day weight 0·38 and 400-day weight 0·27.
Data collected on the Meat and Livestock Commission's pedigree recording scheme have been analysed by least-squares procedures to measure the effect of environmental factors on calf performance. In total 5524 birth weights, 16 484 200-day weights and 6248 400-day weights were available for 765 herds and seven breeds. The model adopted included terms representing type of cattle within breed, sex of calf, age of dam, year and month of birth, pre-weaning management, herd average level of performance and herd size as fixed effects with sires as random effects. The model accounted for between 19 and 36% of the variation in birth weights and for 36 to 49% and 39 to 69% of variation in 200- and 400-day weights respectively, depending upon breed. For birth weights and 200-day weights age of dam was a significant effect in all breeds. Sex of calf was the main source of variation at all ages, its relative importance increasing with age. Calves from 2-yr-old dams had 200-day weights 5 to 11% lower and calves out of 3-yr-old dams 2 to 9% lower than calves from 5- to 8-yr-old dams. Month of birth was a significant source of variation in most breeds. Pre-weaning management system was confounded with sex and breed. Correction factors for use in the MLC recording scheme were derived from the data.