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Young women aged 16–24 are at high risk of common mental disorders (CMDs), but the risk during pregnancy is unclear.
To compare the population prevalence of CMDs in pregnant women aged 16–24 with pregnant women ≥25 years in a representative cohort, hypothesising that younger women are at higher risk of CMDs (depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder), and that this is associated with low social support, higher rates of lifetime abuse and unemployment.
Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a cohort of 545 women (of whom 57 were aged 16–24 years), attending a South London maternity service, with recruitment stratified by endorsement of questions on low mood, interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV-TR.
Population prevalence estimates of CMDs were 45.1% (95% CI 23.5–68.7) in young women and 15.5% (95% CI 12.0–19.8) in women ≥25, and for ‘any mental disorder’ 67.2% (95% CI 41.7–85.4) and 21.2% (95% CI 17.0–26.1), respectively. Young women had greater odds of having a CMD (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.8, 95% CI 1.8–18.6) and CMDs were associated with living alone (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1–8.0) and abuse (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8–2.8).
Pregnant women between 16 and 24 years are at very high risk of mental disorders; services need to target resources for pregnant women under 25, including those in their early 20s. Interventions enhancing social networks, addressing abuse and providing adequate mental health treatment may minimise adverse outcomes for young women and their children.
Fluorescent x-ray energy spectra were successfully acquired from uranium and plutonium in 400:1 ratios in samples containing 2 Ci/gram of mixed fission products. The analytical system consists of a silver transmission anode x-ray tube, a low-Z scattering chamber, a magnetic ß-ray trap, a beam monitor probe, a commercial Si(Li) detector, a set of modified electronics to handle the large γ-ray overload rate, and a Computer analyzer using a higher-level language to handle data reduction.
The Computer programs used to obtain peak areas from the closely spaced uranium and plutonium (Lα 1+2) peaks were constructed to make use of knowledge of upper-edge tailing gained in this experiment. Programs are being developed to properly remove background under the uranium and plutonium peaks. Absorption effects in the larger samples have been measured using the ratio of uranium (Lℓ) to uranium (Lα) peak area and are incorporated in the data-analysis schemes. A titanium monitor probe, consisting of a fixed titanium plate near the sample, introduces a constant-area titanium K x-ray line into the spectrum. The program uses the area of this peak to correct for effects of total exciting flux, geometry, and system dead-time losses. Standard samples of various types are used to generate calibration curves from which quantitative results are obtained.
Samples are taken from dissolved high-burnup power-reactor fuel rods. The liquid sample is acidic and has a radiation level at one foot of approximately 2 R/hr ß and 300 mR/hr γ. Sample preparation involves only the evaporation of the liquid sample on a 1/2-mil polycarbonate substrate and subsequent sealing with another layer of polycarbonate film. The samples are then mounted in standard 35-mm slide-holders.
Preliminary testing on a limited number of prepared uranium and plutonium samples indicates a precision of about 1% and an accuracy of about 2%, over a range of 1 to 58 μg total mass. The samples have not yet been verified by independent chemical analysis. The system has been installed at the AEC Savannah River facility for extensive testing.
Two methods of obtaining polarized x-rays for fluorescence experiments are discussed. Compton scattering from a low-Z scatterer is the usual method used in such experiments. The polarization of x-rays undergoing anomalous Borrmann transmission in a dislocation-free crystal is also described and preliminary results are presented. Approximate expressions, useful for comparing scatter-polarizing systems, are derived for the dependence of scatter rejection and fluorescent efficiency on two scattering-system parameters: the thickness of the scattering polarizer and the geometric limit to solid angles and angular divergences in the system.
Interactions between an oblique shock wave generated by a sharp fin placed on a cylindrical surface and the incoming boundary layer are investigated to unravel the mean features of the resulting shock/boundary layer interaction (SBLI) unit. This fin-on-cylinder SBLI unit has several unique features caused by the three-dimensional (3-D) relief offered by the cylindrical surface that noticeably alter the shock structure. Complementary experimental and computational studies are made to delineate both the surface and off-body flow features of the fin-on-cylinder SBLI unit and to obtain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that dictate the mean flow and wall pressure features of the SBLI unit. Results show that the fin-on-cylinder SBLI exhibits substantial deviation from quasi-conical symmetry that is observed in planar fin SBLI. Furthermore, the separated flow growth rate appears to decrease with downstream distance and the separation size is consistently smaller than the planar fin SBLI with the same inflow and fin configurations. The causes for the observed diminution of the separated flow and its downstream growth rate were investigated in the light of changes caused by the cylinder curvature on the inviscid as well as separation shock. It was found that the inviscid shock gets progressively weakened in the region close to the triple point with downstream distance due to the 3-D relief effect from cylinder curvature. This weakening of the inviscid shock feeds into the separation shock, which is also independently impacted by the 3-D relief, to result in the observed modifications in the fin-on-cylinder SBLI unit.
Communication deviance (CD) reflects features of the content or manner of a person's speech that may confuse the listener and inhibit the establishment of a shared focus of attention. The construct was developed in the context of the study of familial risks for psychosis based on hypotheses regarding its effects during childhood. It is not known whether parental CD is associated with nonverbal parental behaviors that may be important in early development. This study explored the association between CD in a cohort of mothers (n = 287) at 32 weeks gestation and maternal sensitivity with infants at 29 weeks in a standard play procedure. Maternal CD predicted lower overall maternal sensitivity (B = –.385; p < .001), and the effect was somewhat greater for sensitivity to infant distress (B = –.514; p < .001) than for sensitivity to nondistress (B = –.311; p < .01). After controlling for maternal age, IQ and depression, and for socioeconomic deprivation, the associations with overall sensitivity and sensitivity to distress remained significant. The findings provide new pointers to intergenerational transmission of vulnerability involving processes implicated in both verbal and nonverbal parental behaviors.
BACKGROUND: IGTS is a rare phenomenon of paradoxical germ cell tumor (GCT) growth during or following treatment despite normalization of tumor markers. We sought to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of IGTS in patients in 21 North-American and Australian institutions. METHODS: Patients with IGTS diagnosed from 2000-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 739 GCT diagnoses, IGTS was identified in 33 patients (4.5%). IGTS occurred in 9/191 (4.7%) mixed-malignant GCTs, 4/22 (18.2%) immature teratomas (ITs), 3/472 (0.6%) germinomas/germinomas with mature teratoma, and in 17 secreting non-biopsied tumours. Median age at GCT diagnosis was 10.9 years (range 1.8-19.4). Male gender (84%) and pineal location (88%) predominated. Of 27 patients with elevated markers, median serum AFP and Beta-HCG were 70 ng/mL (range 9.2-932) and 44 IU/L (range 4.2-493), respectively. IGTS occurred at a median time of 2 months (range 0.5-32) from diagnosis, during chemotherapy in 85%, radiation in 3%, and after treatment completion in 12%. Surgical resection was attempted in all, leading to gross total resection in 76%. Most patients (79%) resumed GCT chemotherapy/radiation after surgery. At a median follow-up of 5.3 years (range 0.3-12), all but 2 patients are alive (1 succumbed to progressive disease, 1 to malignant transformation of GCT). CONCLUSION: IGTS occurred in less than 5% of patients with GCT and most commonly after initiation of chemotherapy. IGTS was more common in patients with IT-only on biopsy than with mixed-malignant GCT. Surgical resection is a principal treatment modality. Survival outcomes for patients who developed IGTS are favourable.
Recent findings highlight that there are prenatal risks for affective disorders that are mediated by glucocorticoid mechanisms, and may be specific to females. There is also evidence of sex differences in prenatal programming mechanisms and developmental psychopathology, whereby effects are in opposite directions in males and females. As birth weight is a risk for affective disorders, we sought to investigate whether maternal prenatal cortisol may have sex-specific effects on fetal growth. Participants were 241 mothers selected from the Wirral Child Health and Development Study (WCHADS) cohort (n=1233) using a psychosocial risk stratifier, so that responses could be weighted back to the general population. Mothers provided saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol, at home over 2 days at 32 weeks gestation (on waking, 30-min post-waking and during the evening). Measures of infant birth weight (corrected for gestational age) were taken from hospital records. General population estimates of associations between variables were obtained using inverse probability weights. Maternal log of the area under the curve cortisol predicted infant birth weight in a sex-dependent manner (interaction term P=0.029). There was a positive and statistically significant association between prenatal cortisol in males, and a negative association in females that was not statistically significant. A sex interaction in the same direction was evident when using the waking (P=0.015), and 30-min post-waking (P=0.013) cortisol, but not the evening measure. There was no interaction between prenatal cortisol and sex to predict gestational age. Our findings add to an emerging literature that suggests that there may be sex-specific mechanisms that underpin fetal programming.
An investigation of the flow around an obstacle positioned within the wake of a rotor is described. A flow visualisation survey was performed using a smoke wand and particle image velocimetry, and surface pressure measurements on the obstacle were taken. The flow patterns were strongly dependent upon the rotor height above the ground and obstacle, and the relative position of the obstacle and rotor axis. High positive and suction pressures were measured on the obstacle surfaces, and these were unsteady in response to the passage of the vortex driven rotor wake over the surfaces. Integrated surface forces are of the order of the rotor thrust, and unsteady pressure information shows local unsteady loading of the same order as the mean loading. Rotor blade-tip vortex trajectories are responsible for the generation of these forces.
It is not known whether associations between child problem behaviours and maternal depression can be accounted for by comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) dysfunction.
To examine the contributions of maternal depression and BPD symptoms to child problem behaviours.
Depression trajectories over the fist-year postpartum were generated using repeated measurement from a general population sample of 997 mothers recruited in pregnancy. In a stratified subsample of 251, maternal depression and BPD symptoms were examined as predictors of child problem behaviours at 2.5 years.
Child problem behaviours were predicted by a high maternal depression trajectory prior to the inclusion of BPD symptoms. This association was no longer significant after the introduction of BPD symptoms.
Risks for child problem behaviours currently attributed to maternal depression may arise from more persistent and pervasive difficulties found in borderline personality dysfunction.
There is limited evidence on the prevalence and identification of antenatal mental disorders.
To investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in early pregnancy and the diagnostic accuracy of depression-screening (Whooley) questions compared with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), against the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV-TR.
Cross-sectional survey of women responding to Whooley questions asked at their first antenatal appointment. Women responding positively and a random sample of women responding negatively were invited to participate.
Population prevalence was 27% (95% CI 22–32): 11% (95% CI 8–14) depression; 15% (95% CI 11–19) anxiety disorders; 2% (95% CI 1–4) obsessive–compulsive disorder; 0.8% (95% CI 0–1) post-traumatic stress disorder; 2% (95% CI 0.4–3) eating disorders; 0.3% (95% CI 0.1–1) bipolar disorder I, 0.3% (95% CI 0.1–1%) bipolar disorder II; 0.7% (95% CI 0–1) borderline personality disorder. For identification of depression, likelihood ratios were 8.2 (Whooley) and 9.8 (EPDS). Diagnostic accuracy was similar in identifying any disorder (likelihood ratios 5.8 and 6).
Endorsement of Whooley questions in pregnancy indicates the need for a clinical assessment of diagnosis and could be implemented when maternity professionals have been appropriately trained on how to ask the questions sensitively, in settings where a clear referral and care pathway is available.
Declaration of interest
L.M.H. chaired the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence CG192 guidelines development group on antenatal and postnatal mental health in 2012–2014.
False positive findings in science are inevitable, but are they particularly common in psychology and psychiatry? The evidence that we review suggests that while not restricted to our field, the problem is acute. We describe the concept of researcher ‘degrees-of-freedom’ to explain how many false-positive findings arise, and how the various strategies of registration, pre-specification, and reporting standards that are being adopted both reduce and make these visible. We review possible benefits and harms of proposed statistical solutions, from tougher requirements for significance, to Bayesian and machine learning approaches to analysis. Finally we consider the organisation and methods for replication and systematic review in psychology and psychiatry.
Information on density and abundance of globally threatened species such as tigers Panthera tigris is essential for effective conservation as well as to evaluate the success of conservation programmes. We monitored tigers in Parsa Widlife Reserve, Nepal, using camera traps, in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Once believed to be a sink for tigers from adjacent Chitwan National Park, Parsa now provides a new hope for tigers. Spatially explicit capture–recapture analysis over 3 survey years revealed an increase in tiger density from 0.78 to 1.38 individuals per 100 km2 from 2013 to 2016. The tiger abundance was estimated to be seven (6–13), 11 (10–16) and 17 (17–20) in 2013, 2014 and 2016, respectively. Resettlement of communities from the core area, reduced anthropogenic pressure, and improved security have made Parsa Wildlife Reserve a suitable habitat for tigers. Tiger abundance increased considerably within a 5 km radius of the evacuated village sites, from two in 2013 to eight in 2014 and 10 in 2016. Population turnover has remained moderate (< 30% per year), with persistence of individuals in multiple years. Dispersing tigers from Chitwan's source population accounted for a large portion (c. 40%) of the tigers detected in Parsa. Conservation efforts along with annual monitoring should be continued in Parsa to sustain the increase and monitor the persistence of tigers. The Chitwan–Parsa complex should be managed as a single ecological unit for conserving the Endangered tiger and other wide-ranging species.
CVD accounted for 27 % of all deaths in the UK in 2014, and was responsible for 1·7 million hospital admissions in 2013/2014. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent with age, affecting 34·1 and 29·8 % of males and females over 75 years of age respectively in 2011. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism with age, often observed as a rise in LDL-cholesterol, has been associated with the pathogenesis of CVD. To compound this problem, it is estimated by 2050, 22 % of the world's population will be over 60 years of age, in culmination with a growing resistance and intolerance to pre-existing cholesterol regulating drugs such as statins. Therefore, it is apparent research into additional therapies for hypercholesterolaemia and CVD prevention is a growing necessity. However, it is also imperative to recognise this complex biological system cannot be studied using a reductionist approach; rather its biological uniqueness necessitates a more integrated methodology, such as that offered by systems biology. In this review, we firstly discuss cholesterol metabolism and how it is affected by diet and the ageing process. Next, we describe therapeutic strategies for hypercholesterolaemia, and finally how the systems biology paradigm can be utilised to investigate how ageing interacts with complex systems such as cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by emphasising the need for nutritionists to work in parallel with the systems biology community, to develop novel approaches to studying cholesterol metabolism and its interaction with ageing.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
The soft X-ray source HO 139-68 was originally detected with the low energy detectors of the HEAO A-2 experiment, and confirmed by later IPC observations (Agarwal et al. 1981). The X-ray observations show flux variations in the 0.15 – 0.4 keV band of a factor of two, or timescales of a few hours, with evidence for short time-scale flickering. Following communication of the source position to us by Agarwal and Riegler, we obtained time-resolved optical spectrophotometry of a star close to the X-ray position, using the IDPCA on the MSO 1.9m telescope. The spectrophotometry and later polarisation observations confirm the optical identification and that the source is an AM-Herculis type binary system, with a late type dwarf secondary overflowing its Roche lobe in a magnetically constrained funnel onto a magnetic white dwarf (WD) primary (Visvanathan and Pickles 1982).
The polarisation observations of the central region (containing the jet) of the galaxy M87 were obtained in May 1980, with the polarimeter (Visvanathan 1972) attached to the f/15 cassegrain focus of the AAT. The IPCS was used in direct mode to record the images of the field. Figure 1 shows a single, raw image of M87 in the light of B (the image shown is 90 arcsec square). The knots referred to in the text are marked. One complete observation consists of 12 images of the object field, corresponding to the 12 selected position angles of the polaroid filter, rotated from 0° to 330° in 30° increments. The Taurus software (Taylor and Atherton 1980) was used to increment the data to the relevant memory location. The data were stored on tape after a sufficient number of complete rotations of the polaroid were completed.