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Powerful synergies between phosphonate, zinc oxide, and acrylamido-tert-butyl-sulfonate (ATBS) copolymer chemical additives render superior performance in a high-temperature retarder system for oil well grade Portland cement. The phosphonate retarder and ATBS-based retarders establish a two-tiered strength development where amorphous C-S-H converts to crystalline dicalcium silicate hydrate (C2SH) in the first (low compressive strength) tier prior to the reaction of Portlandite with quartz. The three additive retarder system can be tuned with nanosilica to eliminate the two-tiered strength development effect leading to a smooth transition from the cement in the slurry form directly to its highest compressive strength.
Centenarians have survived into very late life, but whether they reach very old age in good health remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular health status and cognitive functioning of centenarians in the United States with centenarians in Japan.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
This cross-national design compared centenarians from the United States and Japan. The sample of U.S. centenarians was recruited from the Georgia Centenarian Study and included 287 centenarians. The sample of Japanese centenarians was recruited from the Tokyo Centenarian Study and included 304 centenarians.
Cognitive functioning was assessed with a mental status questionnaire, and cardiovascular disease by a health history assessment, blood pressure, and selected blood parameters.
The results suggest that Tokyo centenarians had lower disease experiences and BMI values, when compared to Georgia centenarians, but blood pressure was higher among Japanese centenarians. Lower levels of hemoglobin in Japanese centenarians and higher levels of C-reactive protein in Georgia were also found. The positive association of hypertension and albumin levels with cognitive functioning and the negative association of stroke occurrence with cognitive functioning were replicated in both countries. Differential effects were obtained for heart problems, BMI, and C-reactive protein (with positive effects for Tokyo centenarians, except for C-reactive protein).
For extremely old individuals, some markers of cardiovascular disease are replicable across countries, whereas differential effects for cardiovascular health also need to be considered in cardiovascular health.
Intrauterine myocardial infarction is a rare and frequently fatal diagnosis. It has been presented in the literature only as case reports and short series. We present a case report of a coronary occlusive intrauterine myocardial infarction and survival and present a systematic review of the literature. This is the first summative description of current data on intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction. We performed the systematic review based on the guidelines established by the PRISMA statement. Our population of intrauterine and perinatal myocardial infarction included published cases who presented as a live birth within the first 28 postnatal days, and had a diagnosis of myocardial infarction. We conducted descriptive statistics and regression analysis on short-term mortality as the primary outcome. After applying exclusion criteria we described 84 individual cases of myocardial infarction from 63 full-text articles including our own case. Presentation within the first 12 hours was associated with mortality (OR 3.90, p=0.004). Treatment modalities were varied and inconsistently recorded. The aetiologies and comorbidities are varied in our systematic review. We would have a low threshold to perform viral testing, consider anticoagulation early and coronary imaging if feasible. The use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenation may serve as a bridge to cardiac recovery.
Accurate modeling of ice sheets requires proper information on boundary conditions, including the geothermal heat flow (or heat-flow density (HFD)). Traditionally, one uniform HFD value is adopted for the entire modeled domain. We have calculated a distributed, high-resolution HFD dataset for an approximate core area (Sweden and Finland) of the Scandinavian ice sheet, and imbedded this within lower-resolution data published for surrounding regions. Within the Last Glacial Maximum ice margin, HFD varies with a factor of as much as 2.8 (HFD values ranging between 30 and 83 mWm–2), with an average of 49 mWm–2. This average value is 17% higher than 42 mWm–2, a common uniform value used in ice-sheet modeling studies of Fennoscandia. Using this new distributed dataset on HFD, instead of a traditional uniform value of 42 mWm–2, yields a 1.4 times larger total basal meltwater production for the last glacial cycle. Furthermore, using the new dataset in high-resolution modeling results in increased spatial thermal gradients at the bed. This enhances and introduces new local and regional effects on basal ice temperatures and melt rates. We observed significant strengthening of local ‘ice streaming’, which in one case correlates to an ice-flow event previously interpreted from geomorphology. Regional to local variations in geothermal heat flow need to be considered for proper identification and treatment of thermal and hydraulic bed conditions, most likely also when studying Laurentide, Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
We present color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) based on HST F555W (“V”) and F814W (“I”) observations of three old LMC clusters: NGC 2210, NGC 1786, and Reticulum. The fiducial derived from the CMD of NGC 2257, another LMC cluster, provided a good fit to the data for the new clusters. Because NGC 2257 has a similar metallicity ([Fe/H]∼ −1.8) to NGC 2210, NGC 1786, and Reticulum, the agreement between the CMDs of all four clusters indicates that they have the same age. This preliminary analysis suggests that any age differences are smaller than 2 Gyr. These new results mean that there are now 11 old LMC clusters with similar ages. An initial epoch of star cluster formation therefore happened in a short period over a large volume of space, a volume much larger than is now covered by the present-day optical LMC.
As part of an ongoing program to better understand the early stages of massive star cluster evolution and the physical conditions required for their formation, we have obtained 10 μm (N-band) images with Gemini North of the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy He 2-10. Five massive star clusters still enshrouded in their natal cocoons with no optical counterparts were previously discovered by Kobulnicky & Johnson (1999) as optically thick thermal radio sources. Three of these five radio sources have strong 10 μm detections in only 10 minutes of integration time with Gemini. The blackbody temperatures of the dust cocoons are estimated to range from ∼ 40 — 150 K at their outer and inner edges, and the mass of these dust shells is ∼ 107 M⊙. The ages of the embedded stellar clusters must be < 106 years. The bolometric luminosities of the exciting clusters can be constrained to ∼ 108–9 L⊙, and the implied masses are > 106 M⊙. These three embedded clusters are responsible for at least 60% of the IRAS flux of the entire galaxy He 2-10.
On 1 December 2011 the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice-core project reached its final depth of 3405 m. The WAIS Divide ice core is not only the longest US ice core to date, but is also the highest-quality deep ice core, including ice from the brittle ice zone, that the US has ever recovered. The methods used at WAIS Divide to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the US National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NICL are described and discussed.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies’ (CBHA; United Kingdom), now “Start Network’s,” Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx).
All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators’ assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member.
This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of this tool in future humanitarian training exercises and potentially in real time, in the field. This could impact the efficiency and effectiveness of humanitarian operations.
EvansAB, HulmeJM, NugusP, CranmerHH, CoutuM, JohnsonK. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):253–260.
The effects on very low-frequency surface-impedence measurements of lateral variations commonly found in ice environments have been measured and modelled numerically using die quasi-static two-dimensional boundary-element method. Results indicate that surface-impedance measurements made in the vicinity of crevasses oriented perpendicular to the plane Of incidence, and those made in the vicinity of moraines and melt streams, can all show significant changes to the measured apparent resistivity. It is, therefore, misleading to use such measurements in the interpretation of ice depth.
Glaciated valleys of the Dalton Range in the south-west Yukon Territory are dominated by rock glaciers identified as glacier ice-cored debris systems. The two rock glaciers studied have different amounts of deformation at present, resulting from post-formation mechanics.
The primary formation of lobes of the rock glaciers resulted from periods of glacier activity in the Neoglacial, although older lobes, probably late Pleistocene in age, occur below the Neoglacial lobes. The hydrological systems of the rock glaciers have played a major role in the post-formation deformation of the land forms and the present drainage system is entirely sub-surface. The explanation for the extensive occurrence of rock glaciers in the Dalton Range is lithological as a result of the high susceptibility of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous sediments to frost action and glacier erosion.
To assess the effects of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) on clinical symptoms and global improvement in schizophrenia after switching from an oral antipsychotic.
In a multicenter, open-label, mirror-image, naturalistic study in patients with schizophrenia (>1 year, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] criteria), changes in efficacy measures were assessed during prospective treatment (6 months) with AOM 400 after switching from standard-of-care oral antipsychotics. During prospective treatment, patients were cross-titrated to oral aripiprazole monotherapy (1–4) weeks followed by open-label AOM 400 (24 weeks). Mean change from baseline of the open-label AOM 400 phase in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores (total, positive and negative subscales) and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) scores; mean CGI–Improvement (CGI-I) score; and proportion of responders (≥30% decrease from baseline in PANSS total score or CGI-I score of 1 [very much improved] or 2 [much improved]) were assessed.
PANSS and CGI-S scores improved from baseline (P<0.0001) and CGI-I demonstrated improvement at all time points. By the end of the study, 49.0% of patients were PANSS or CGI-I responders.
In a community setting, patients with schizophrenia who were stabilized at baseline and switched to AOM 400 from oral antipsychotics showed clear improvements in clinical symptoms.
There is a growing body of literature describing the characteristics of patients who plan for the end of life, but little research has examined how caregivers influence patients' advance care planning (ACP). The purpose of this study was to examine how patient and caregiver characteristics are associated with advance directive (AD) completion among patients diagnosed with a terminal illness. We defined AD completion as having completed a living will and/or identified a healthcare power of attorney.
A convenience sample of 206 caregiver–patient dyads was included in the study. All patients were diagnosed with an advanced life-limiting illness. Trained research nurses administered surveys to collect information on patient and caregiver demographics (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, and individual annual income) and patients' diagnoses and completion of AD. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to model predictors for patients' AD completion.
Over half of our patient sample (59%) completed an AD. Patients who were older, diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and with a caregiver who was Caucasian or declined to report an income level were more likely to have an AD in place.
Significance of results:
Our results suggest that both patient and caregiver characteristics may influence patients' decisions to complete an AD at the end of life. When possible, caregivers should be included in advance care planning for patients who are terminally ill.
N-band (10.8 μm) imaging of the blue compact starburst galaxy He 2-10 reveals the presence of four emission regions, which have no optical or near-IR counterparts. These sources correspond to the ‘ultradense H ii’ regions recently identified in 2cm and 6cm radio maps of this galaxy. We have used the N-band data to place constraints on the properties of the stellar clusters, that are deeply embedded within these dust-emitting regions.