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Reading is a highly complex task that relies on the integration of visual, orthographic, phonological and semantic information. This complexity is clearly reflected in current computational models of reading (Coltheart et al., 2001; Harm & Seidenberg, 1999, 2004; Perry, Ziegler, & Zorzi, 2007, 2010; Plaut et al., 1996). These models specify the “ingredients” of the reading process in a precise and detailed fashion as they implement the units and computations that are necessary to go from the visual information to word recognition and word production. Such models make it possible to simulate real reading performance in terms of reading latencies (how long it takes to compute the pronunciation of a word or pseudoword) and reading accuracy (whether the output of the model is correct). Computational models are particularly well suited to helping us understand reading impairments, such as developmental or acquired dyslexia.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Childhood abuse is a risk factor for poorer illness course in bipolar disorder, but the reasons why are unclear. Trait-like features such as affective instability and impulsivity could be part of the explanation. We aimed to examine whether childhood abuse was associated with clinical features of bipolar disorder, and whether associations were mediated by affective instability or impulsivity.
We analysed data from 923 people with bipolar I disorder recruited by the Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Adjusted associations between childhood abuse, affective instability and impulsivity and eight clinical variables were analysed. A path analysis examined the direct and indirect links between childhood abuse and clinical features with affective instability and impulsivity as mediators.
Affective instability significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and earlier age of onset [effect estimate (θ)/standard error (SE): 2.49], number of depressive (θ/SE: 2.08) and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.32), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.98) and rapid cycling (θ/SE: 2.25). Impulsivity significantly mediated the association between childhood abuse and manic episodes/illness year (θ/SE: 1.79), anxiety disorders (θ/SE: 1.59), rapid cycling (θ/SE: 1.809), suicidal behaviour (θ/SE: 2.12) and substance misuse (θ/SE: 3.09). Measures of path analysis fit indicated an excellent fit to the data.
Affective instability and impulsivity are likely part of the mechanism of why childhood abuse increases risk of poorer clinical course in bipolar disorder, with each showing some selectivity in pathways. They are potential novel targets for intervention to improve outcome in bipolar disorder.
The mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) is to catalyze the generation of innovative methods and technologies that will enhance the development, testing, and implementation of diagnostics and therapeutics across a wide range of human diseases and conditions.1 NCATS funded a predoctoral TL1 training grant at our institution. We developed a novel team-based Translational Journal Club utilizing three-member teams to find a basic science paper and two clinical study papers that covered a single therapeutic, either a pivotal study or a dissemination and implementation study; one member of the team presented a paper on the above topics in successive weeks. In addition, the trainees attended lectures on: how to design a pivotal clinical trial, dissemination and implementation, and drug development from a basic science discovery through its approval. From these presentations, the trainees appreciated the T0 to T3/4 continuum and its challenges. They also attended sessions on how to present scientific concepts, making them better communicators. The trainees found the Translational Journal club to be very rewarding, illuminating, and providing a much better understanding of the translational research processes required to develop new therapies.
There is discontent and turnover among faculty at US academic health centers because of the challenges in balancing clinical, research, teaching, and work–life responsibilities in the current healthcare environment. One potential strategy to improve faculty satisfaction and limit turnover is through faculty mentoring programs.
A Mentor Leadership Council was formed to design and implement an institution-wide faculty mentoring program across all colleges at an academic health center. The authors conducted an experimental study of the impact of the mentoring program using pre-intervention (2011) and 6-year (2017) post-intervention faculty surveys that measured the long-term effectiveness of the program.
The percent of faculty who responded to the surveys was 45.9% (656/1428) in 2011 and 40.2% (706/1756) in 2017. For faculty below the rank of full professor, percent of faculty with a mentor (45.3% vs. 67.1%, P < 0.001), familiarity with promotion criteria (81.7% vs. 90.0%, P = 0.001), and satisfaction with department’s support of career (75.6% vs. 84.7%, P = 0.002) improved. The percent of full professors serving as mentors also increased from 50.3% in 2011 to 68.0% in 2017 (P = 0.002). However, the percent of non-retiring faculty considering leaving the institution over the next 2 years increased from 18.8% in 2011 to 24.3% in 2017 (P = 0.02).
Implementation of an institution-wide faculty mentoring program significantly improved metrics of career development and faculty satisfaction but was not associated with a reduction in the percent of faculty considering leaving the institution. This suggests the need for additional efforts to identify and limit factors driving faculty turnover.
With the more and more growing demand for semantic Web services over large databases, an efficient evaluation of Datalog queries is arousing a renewed interest among researchers and industry experts. In this scenario, to reduce memory consumption and possibly optimize execution times, the paper proposes novel techniques to determine an optimal indexing schema for the underlying database together with suitable body-orderings for the Datalog rules. The new approach is compared with the standard execution plans implemented in DLV over widely used ontological benchmarks. The results confirm that the memory usage can be significantly reduced without paying any cost in efficiency.
Repeated executions of reasoning tasks for varying inputs are necessary in many applicative settings, such as stream reasoning. In this context, we propose an incremental grounding approach for the answer set semantics. We focus on the possibility of generating incrementally larger ground logic programs equivalent to a given non-ground one; so called overgrounded programs can be reused in combination with deliberately many different sets of inputs. Updating overgrounded programs requires a small effort, thus making the instantiation of logic programs considerably faster when grounding is repeated on a series of inputs similar to each other. Notably, the proposed approach works “under the hood”, relieving designers of logic programs from controlling technical aspects of grounding engines and answer set systems. In this work we present the theoretical basis of the proposed incremental grounding technique, we illustrate the consequent repeated evaluation strategy and report about our experiments.
Laura Perry argues that Plath’s concerns with purity and cleanliness take the form of a poetics of hygiene. This poetics engages in conversation with a transatlantic discourse evident in post-war advertisements and government publications that trafficked in mid-century anxieties about biological containment, sexual purity and interracial contact. Perry shows how Plath links hygiene to gender, geopolitics, and poetic form throughout her writings. She reframes Plath’s search for transcendental purity by showing how this purity is embodied and historically located.
The potters’ wheel was reintroduced to England in the late ninth century. It spread rapidly throughout eastern England, yet little is known about the mechanisms that facilitated its dissemination and success. This article presents the results of multidisciplinary research into the diffusion of this technology. Focusing on pottery production in late Saxon Newark, Nottinghamshire, an industry thought to have been founded by a potter(s) who had relocated from Torksey, Lincolnshire, this study offers a rare opportunity to examine the movements and craft practices of an individual artisan(s). By considering their manufacturing choices in the context of pottery distribution networks and the contemporary political, social and economic climate, it is demonstrated that the supply of pottery to Newark from regional production centres was restricted, creating a gap in the market and providing an incentive for a potter to relocate, encouraging the spread of the potters’ wheel throughout eastern England.
This study assessed whether S-100β protein could be measured in urine when detectable in plasma after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Clinical data, plasma and urine samples were collected for the 46 adult patients prospectively enrolled in the emergency department (ED) of a Level 1 trauma center. S-100β protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA. S-100β protein was detectable in 91% and 71% of plasma and urine samples, but values were not correlated (r = 0.002). Urine sampling would have been a non-invasive procedure, but it does not appear to be useful in the ED during the acute phase after an mTBI.
Chaucer’s God considers how characters invoke God, both in terms of the everyday language of late medieval England and in the ways that the idea of God is reflected in Chaucer’s fiction. Conventional, non-theological utterances of the names for God by Chaucer’s characters as part of their, by turns, outwardly pious and unthinkingly impious phraseologies are discussed in the opening section, God Woot – ‘God knows’. Under the heading God Forwoot – ‘God foreknows’, some of the more challenging invocations of God are considered, such as the implications of divine foreknowledge and predestination on human free will in the Knight’s Tale, the Nun’s Priest’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde. The concluding section, God in a Cruel World, asks whether in the Clerk’s Tale and the Franklin’s Tale, if Chaucer allowed his tales to reflect, and characters to reflect upon, the heretical notion of a God lacking in compassion for humanity.
Dietary behaviour is influenced by a complex web of biological, psychological, physiological, social, economic and cultural factors. Understanding socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics that influence food choice may be important in guiding dietary interventions. The present study aimed to identify whether socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics influence food choice in an Irish working population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 as part of the Food Choice at Work Study, a large clustered non-randomised, controlled trial based in county Cork, Ireland. Information regarding food motives was collected at the 3–4 months follow-up. The ‘Food Choice Questionnaire’ was used to measure food motives. Multiple linear regression was conducted to test the association between socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics (age, sex, BMI, education, type of accommodation, living situation, marital status, parental status) and worksite and food motives. A total of 678 employees were included in the analysis. Overall, only a small percentage of food choice was influenced by the characteristics included in this analysis (1·6 to 8·8 %). Sensory appeal and satisfaction were scored most important by all sub-populations. Sex was most often associated with differences in food motives (i.e. all food motives except for familiarity and ethical concern were significantly more important to females compared with males; P = 0·001/P < 0·001). Worksite, age, BMI and marital status also seemed to play a small role in influencing food choice. The results show that food choice is complex and not easily explained by differences in socio-demographic or anthropometric population characteristics.
Among various grassroots governance practices adopted by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), few have proven more adaptive and effective than the deployment of work teams—ad hoc units appointed and directed by higher-level Party and government organs and dispatched for a limited time to carry out a specific mission by means of mass mobilization. Yet, perhaps because work teams straddle the boundary between formal and informal institutions, they have received scant analytical attention. While work teams figure prominently in narrative accounts of the major campaigns of Mao's China, their origins, operations, and contemporary implications have yet to be fully explored. This article traces the roots of Chinese work teams to Russian revolutionary precedents, including plenipotentiaries, shock brigades, and 25,000ers, but argues that the CCP's adoption and enhancement of this practice involved creative adaptation over a sustained period of revolutionary and post-revolutionary experimentation. Sinicized work teams were not only a key factor in securing the victory of the Chinese Communist revolution and conducting Maoist mass campaigns such as Land Reform, Collectivization, and the Four Cleans; they continue to play an important role in the development and control of grassroots Chinese society even today. As a flexible means of spanning the center-periphery divide and combatting bureaucratic inertia, Chinese work teams, in contrast to their Soviet precursors, contribute to the resilience of the Communist party-state.
Empirical studies increasingly testify to the capacity for archaeological and cultural heritage sites to engender wonder, transformation, attachment, and community bonding amongst diverse individuals. Following political theorist Jane Bennett, these sites have the power to ‘enchant’ and, in so doing, they are seedbeds of human generosity, ethical mindfulness, and care for the world at large. However, the means by which such enchantment is created, and the extent to which these intimate encounters with the prehistoric or historic record can be deliberately crafted, are little understood. Worsening the predicament, professional practices commonly thwart the potential for archaeology to provoke ethical action amongst humans. Here, I propose a multi-stranded conceptual model for generating enchantment with the archaeological record across both professional audiences and broader publics. With reference to the European Commission-funded EMOTIVE Project, I articulate one particular strand of this model: facilitated dialogue. Alongside exploring the role of digital culture in its advancement, I argue that an enchantment-led approach is imperative for achieving a truly socially-beneficial archaeological discipline.
Central nervous system (CNS) may be infected by several agents, resulting in different presentations and outcomes. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers could be helpful to differentiate specific conditions and setting an appropriate therapy.
Patients presenting with signs and symptoms were enrolled if, before receiving a diagnostic lumbar puncture, signed a written informed consent. We analyzed CSF indexes of blood–brain barrier permeability (CSF to serum albumin ratio or CSAR), inflammation (CSF to serum IgG ratio, neopterin), amyloid deposition (1–42 β-amyloid), neuronal damage (Total tau (T-tau), Phosphorylated tau (P-tau), and 14.3.3 protein) and astrocyte damage (S-100β).
Two hundred and eighty-one patients were included: they were mainly affected by herpesvirus encephalitis, enterovirus meningoencephalitis, bacterial meningitis (Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae), and infection by other etiological agents or unknown pathogen. Their CSF features were compared with HIV-negative patients and native HIV-positive individuals without CNS involvement. 14.3.3 protein was found in bacterial and HSV infections while T-tau and neopterin were abnormally high in the herpesvirus group. P-tau, instead, was elevated in enterovirus meningitis. S-100β was found to be high in patients with HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections but not in those with Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). Thirty-day mortality was unexpectedly low (2.7%): patients who died had higher levels of T-tau and, significantly, lower levels of Aβ1–42.
This work demonstrates that CSF biomarkers of neuronal damage or inflammation may vary during CNS infections according to different causative agents. The prognostic value of these biomarkers needs to be assessed in prospective studies.