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In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Ideology shapes militant recruitment, organization, and conflict behavior. Existing research assumes doctrinal consistency, top-down socialization of adherents, and clear links between formal ideology and political action. But it has long been recognized that ideological commitments do not flow unaltered from overarching cleavages or elite narratives; they are uneven, contingent, fraught with tension, and often ambivalent. What work does ideology do in militant groups if it is not deeply studied, internalized, or sincerely believed? How can scholars explain collective commitment, affinity, and behavioral outcomes among militants who clearly associate themselves with a group, but who may not consistently (or ever) be true believers or committed ideologues? I argue that practical ideologies—sets of quotidian principles, ideas, and social heuristics that reflect relational worldviews rather than specific published political doctrines, positions, platforms, or plans—play a key role in militant socialization through everyday practices. Ethnographic evidence gained from fieldwork among Palestinians in Lebanon demonstrates how militants and affiliates render ideas about ideological closeness and distance accessible through emotional, intellectual, and moral appeals. This approach reaffirms the role of discourse and narrative in creating informal mechanisms of militant socialization without expressly invoking formal doctrine.
Even though for heuristic purposes we may separate space and time as distinctive categories for analysis, their implications can never be fully worked out individually, but only in the manner by which they are integrated into the entire magical realist textual apparatus of which they are a part. Thus, even though the focus of this essay will be predominantly on questions of space–time, I shall be following the constitution of space–time in direct relation to other aspects and dimensions of magical realist textuality while simultaneously returning to this category as the primary nexus of interpretation. While a range of texts will be referenced for this exercise, the significance of different modalities and configurations of space–time for grasping the relationship between indexicality, iconicity and a putative real world will be focused on, primarily using Robert Kroetsch’s What the Crow Said and Ben Okri’s The Famished Road, two texts that illustrate the magical realist juxtaposition of different ontologies and the leakages that take place between such domains.
The aim of the study was to assess the experiences of discrimination as reported by people with mental health problems and to explore the impact of hospitalisation.
306 people with mental health problems provided sociodemographic data and data on discrimination using the discrimination and stigma scale version 12 (DISC-12) with the domains negative experienced discrimination, anticipated discrimination, overcoming stigma and discrimination, and positive experienced discrimination. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the impact of hospitalisation on discrimination, controlled for age, gender, education, employment, diagnosis and having been prescribed medication.
Hospitalisation had a major impact on negative discrimination: People were more likely to be treated unfairly in making or keeping friends, in marriage or divorce, by people in their neighbourhood, in social life, by mental health staff and in terms of privacy, if they had been hospitalised. They were also more likely to be avoided or shunned by people who knew about the mental health problem. People with a history of hospitalisation also reported more anticipated discrimination: They had stopped themselves more often from having a close personal relationship and concealed their mental health problem from others more often than those without a history of hospitalisation. However, people who had been hospitalised also experienced more positive discrimination in terms of being treated more positively in getting welfare benefits or disability pensions and in housing.
Findings suggest that treatment in hospital contributed to a higher extent to experienced discrimination than treatment in the community.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
This article explores how computation opens up possibilities for new musical practices to emerge through technology design. Using the notion of the cultural probe as a lens, we consider the digital musical instrument as an experimental device that yields findings across the fields of music, sociology and acoustics. As part of an artistic-research methodology, the instrumental object as a probe is offered as a means for artists to answer questions that are often formulated outside semantic language. This article considers how computation plays an important role in the authors’ personal performance practices in different ways, which reflect the changed mode-of-being of new musical instruments and our individual and collective relations with them.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
A central function of many emotions is to influence other people. Indeed, people often engage in emotion regulation precisely to modify or extend the interpersonal regulatory functions that emotions already serve. This chapter focuses on these regulatory functions, and on how emotions acquire them in the first place. According to social functional theories, emotions play a role in achieving interpersonal goals relating to affiliation, interpersonal distance, dominance, or appeasement. Supporting this account, many socially oriented emotions are directly attuned to their actual and anticipated interpersonal consequences. Emotions not only communicate appraisals and relational orientations, but also provide more direct incentives and disincentives that motivate other people’s responses or prompt their cessation. Emotion components such as facial and bodily movements serve social functions too, either by communicating information, or by cuing adjustments in attention and action more directly. Although natural selection contributes to the development of many of these functions, emotions only consolidate into integrated strategies of social influence over the course of socialisation and enculturation.
Emotions not only affect other people individually but also also help to form and consolidate wider social alliances or divisions. This chapter focuses on emotion’s effects and functions in group life and on how interpersonal processes might scale up to produce collective outcomes. Ingroup members’ emotions signal their shared or distinct social identities and communicate relevant group norms, as well as aligning intragroup relations more directly. Mutual entrainment of movements may be facilitated by temporally structured interaction rituals, and joint participation in collective action can reinforce a sense of efficacy and shared purpose. Emotions not only align relations within groups but also between them. Like interpersonally targeted emotions, intergroup emotions are often attuned to actual or anticipated responses from their targets and respond directly to emotional feedback from the outgroups at which they are directed. Many theorists explain these social-functional outcomes by reference to single-minded processes of self-categorization and group-based appraisal, paying relatively less attention to the relation-aligning consequences of the collective enactment of identities. However, group emotions make most sense when grounded and contextualised in processes of group mobilization and intergroup exchange.
Emotional influence not only depends on a person’s group membership, but also on their particular position within the group’s structured interpersonal relations. When the group is part of a wider organisation, additional regulatory regimes may constrain or afford particular forms of emotional conduct. This chapter focuses on how work roles shape emotion communication and regulation. Team leaders’ emotions can set the emotional tone of work-groups, encouraging solidarity and common purpose. In the service sector, clients and customers impose different kinds of emotional demand on employees. Workers whose jobs involve interacting with consumers present the company’s outward face, and are encouraged to regulate their emotional presentations accordingly (emotional labour). Caring professionals need to manage the potential personal costs of empathising with clients undergoing potentially devastating life changes. In all of these cases, employees’ emotions influence and are influenced by the people they deal with in their working lives.
How do faces convey emotional information? Some psychologists believe that private emotions automatically surface as facial expressions. Others argue that the main purpose of facial activity is to communicate social motives and influence other people’s behaviour. This chapter evaluates these competing accounts using evidence from judgement and production studies. Judgement studies ask participants to decide what emotion is being expressed in photos or videos of facial expressions. Production studies assess facial activity in emotional situations more directly. Findings obtained using these two methods do not always converge but neither kind of study provides direct support for universal or consistent emotion-expression connections. A range of different factors seems to influence facial activity, only some of which relate to emotion. However, some forms of emotional influence clearly do depend on facial communication and calibration.
This chapter discusses how and why emotions affect other people’s actions, appraisals and emotions. One popular explanation of interpersonal influence is primitive emotional contagion. According to this account, people arrive at similar emotional states because they copy one another’s gestures and expressions (mimicry). The feelings and sensations produced by these gestures and expressions then produce convergent emotional experiences (interoceptive feedback). However, mimicry effects are too selective and feedback effects too weak to make this process work consistently. An alternative process is social appraisal, which involves calibrating emotional orientations to objects or events in the shared environment. Most studies of social appraisal present participants with verbal or facial information about someone else’s emotion and assess their inferences about that information. However, relation alignment may also operate at a more implicit level when people adjust to each other’s developing object-directed signals and movements. Similar processes may also produce divergent or conflicting emotional orientations when two people approach the same event from different angles or interpret its consequences in different ways.
Are emotions simply private experiences concealed inside individual minds and bodies? Psychologists often search for their distinguishing characteristics in these internal locations. But focusing on physiological responses and cognitive appraisals distorts our understanding of emotion’s relations to the contexts in which it occurs. In fact, emotion is a form of relational activity. Unfolding transactions between people, objects, and events give structure to our emotional orientations to what is happening. And these orientations in turn influence other people and their own reciprocal orientations. Some social emotions, such as anger and embarrassment, directly target other people’s responses as ways of dealing with current concerns. Other emotions are oriented at non-social objects but still serve social functions by affecting other people’s orientations to those objects. Although emotions are often experienced privately, this is only possible because we have learnt how they work in more public arenas.