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Do emotions happen inside separate hearts and minds, or do they operate across the spaces between individuals? This book focuses on how emotions affect other people by changing their orientation to what happens in the social world. It provides the first sustained attempt to bring together literature on emotion's social effects in dyads and groups, and on how people regulate their emotions in order to exploit these effects in their home and work lives. The chapters present state-of-the-art reviews of topics such as emotion contagion, social appraisal and emotional labour. The book then develops an innovative and integrative approach to the social psychology of emotion based on the idea of relation alignment. The implications not only stretch beyond face-to-face interactions into the wider interpersonal, institutional and cultural environment, but also penetrate the supposed depths of personal experience, making us rethink some of our strongly held presuppositions about how emotions work.
Interpersonally presented emotions help to calibrate people’s orientations to things happening in the shared environment. For example, social referencing involves one person seeking clarification of the appropriate appraisal of an object, event, or person, and another person responding with an emotional orientation that disambiguates things. However, this paradigmatic case represents only one of the possible ways in which emotions affect other people’s physical or mental attitudes. In other cases, emotion-related responses affect other people’s orientations independent of their explicit informational content. Further, emotional knowledge may be co-constructed dynamically rather than transmitted unidirectionally from one person to another. In these cases, affective social learning need not involve changes in the perceived meaning of emotional objects, but rather adjustments in interactants’ orientations to what is happening. This chapter suggests ways of extending and going beyond existing methodological and theoretical approaches to emotional influence and identifies some of the blindspots of previous research.
While the burden of caring for people living with dementia has been well documented, considerably less is known about how carers transition into post-care life. This study aimed to understand the experiences of primary family care-givers of people with dementia after the person with dementia has died. A specific focus of the research was understanding the barriers to transitioning into a positive post-care life, and facilitators that help sustain carers as they move forward after their care journey has ended. A qualitative exploratory, descriptive study was undertaken with nine primary carers for a family member who died with dementia (five spouses and four adult children). Semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews were conducted with carers between July and August 2016. Interview transcripts were analysed using a thematic approach. A number of factors that can act as barriers or facilitators to transition for carers were identified. Contextualising loss, restructuring identity, psychological health issues and the influence of social attitudes seemed to have a strong influence on carer outcomes. The findings highlight the need for further systematic social and informational support for carers to moderate post-care trajectories and improve carer transition.
This research identified a gap in understanding the lived experience of long-term disaster resilience (LTDR). Increasing disasters could influence more people. Therefore, understanding LTDR becomes imperative. Little research documents men and women’s reflections following disasters. Current research highlights survivors’ mental health, particularly clinical diagnoses like PTSD. Research remains limited on the social impacts long after disasters.
Research aimed to identify a gendered perspective of the lived experience about what contributes to LTDR three years after Ash Wednesday in 1983, the Victorian floods in 1993 and 2010-11, and the 2009 Black Saturday fires.
A comprehensive, systematized search was conducted of peer-reviewed, grey, and secondary literature for a narrative review and thematic analysis.
106 references were identified. After removing duplicates and papers not fitting the inclusion criteria, two papers met the criteria. However, two borderline papers were included due to the closeness of the timeframe and brevity of research available.
Most research is related to the immediate aftermath or short-term resilience. Papers provided no specific attributes to enhance the lived experience of LTDR as it related to gender. However, factors that could enhance the lived experience of LTDR were drawn from six themes in sociological studies. Presumptive interpretations were made about what factors may provide insight into the social and contextual issues of LTDR. The literature dearth identified the need for long-term disaster resilience research. The most striking conclusion drawn from themes tells how people perceived the way a disaster and the ensuing period affected their personal relationships and circumstances. Overall, positive experiences strengthened their resilience while negative experiences hindered their resilience. While the review resulted in a disappointing outcome, the dearth of LTDR research lacked any reference to gender but confirmed research opportunities for innovative research that could influence policy and practice.
Birth weight and early growth have been associated with later blood pressure. However, not all studies consistently find a significant reduction in blood pressure with an increase in birth weight. In addition, the relative importance of birth weight and of other lifestyle and environmental factors is often overlooked and the association is rarely studied in adolescents. We investigated early life predictors, including birth weight, of adolescent blood pressure in the Gateshead Millennium Study (GMS). The GMS is a cohort of 1029 individuals born in 1999–2000 in Gateshead in Northern England. Throughout infancy and early childhood, detailed information were collected, including birth weight and measures of height and weight. Assessments of 491 returning participants at age 12 years included measures of body mass and blood pressure. Linear regression and path analysis were used to determine predictors and their relative importance on blood pressure. Birth weight was not directly associated with blood pressure at the age of 12. However, after adjustment for contemporaneous body mass index (BMI), an inverse association of standardized birth weight on systolic blood pressure was significant. The relative importance of birth weight on later systolic blood pressure was smaller than other contemporaneous body measures (height and BMI). There was no independent association of birth weight on blood pressure seen in this adolescent population. Contemporaneous body measures have an important role to play. Lifestyle factors that influence body mass or size, such as diet and physical activity, where interventions are directed at early prevention of hypertension should be targeted.
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa that can cause diarrhoeal disease. Although cases of infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium have been reported in Alaska, the seroprevalence and correlates of exposure to these parasites have not been characterised. We conducted a seroprevalence survey among 887 residents of Alaska, including sport hunters, wildlife biologists, subsistence bird hunters and their families and non-exposed persons. We tested serum using a multiplex bead assay to evaluate antibodies to the Giardia duodenalis variant-specific surface protein conserved structural regions and to the Cryptosporidium parvum 17- and 27-kDa antigens. Approximately one third of participants in each group had evidence of exposure to Cryptosporidium. Prevalence of Giardia antibody was highest among subsistence hunters and their families (30%), among whom positivity was associated with lack of community access to in-home running water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.28) or collecting rain, ice, or snow to use as drinking water (aPR 1.09, 95% CI 1.01–1.18). Improving in-home water access for entire communities could decrease the risk of exposure to Giardia.
To achieve high yields of total solids in a dairy herd requires the implementation of appropriate breeding and feeding strategies. The Edinburgh School of Agriculture's Langhill herd, which consists of 200 cows, embarked on a long-term breeding programme in the early 1970s to demonstrate to what extent genetic improvement might be achieved within a herd, using selection methods available to commercial dairy farmers. The specific selection objective was yield of total solids, with artificial insemination (AI) sires being chosen on their improved contemporary comparison for fat plus protein production and females being selected on their genetic index for the same traits. To measure genetic change, a genetic control population was established. Thus, a section of the herd, currently 25 animals but increasing to 20% of the total herd, are bred from a panel of 50 AI sires selected randomly from the 1976 Milk Marketing Board and Scottish Milk Marketing Board Dairy Bull Progeny Testing Schemes. The herd is given complete diets during the winter housing period, September to May, and grazed on a paddock system in the summer months. The average 305-day yield in the selected herd in 1983 was 6924 kg at 41.8 g fat and 34.2 g protein/kg. This yield shows an increase from the 1977 yield of 5732 kg at 38.7 g fat and 32.5 g protein/kg. Current first-lactation yields average 6107 kg at 42.5 g fat and 33.9 g protein/kg. The food intake of a section of the herd is recorded and initial results suggest that cows producing high yields of solids are more efficient than cows producing lower yields.
The Star Centre is a national astronomy and space science base which
facilitates public access to news and information
promotes public awareness, interest, enjoyment and understanding.
The Star Centre meets these twin aims by providing an information service which can be accessed in a variety of ways and by offering a menu of public observing events.
The concept of a national astronomy base developed as part of the Centre for Science Educations growing portfolio of initiatives in both the formal education sector and the wider umbrella of the Public Understanding of Science. In December 1996 the Star Centre was launched with the aid of a Royal Society COPUS development grant and matching funding from Sheffield Hallam University.
The last 40 years or so have seen massive changes in family life in many post-Christian countries. Marriage is no longer the only accepted basis for family formation and, indeed, in many countries more children are born outside of marriage than within it. Ours is, to some extent, a post-marital age. What kinds of relationships, then, should be covered in default rules for property division if the relationship breaks down? These issues are explored through three vignettes:
– Cameron and Sandra are in their mid-20s and are contemplating if and how to formalise their relationship.
– Amir, a refugee from Afghanistan, is married to Sanaubar. They have three children together. He takes a second (de facto) wife, Basira, and they also have a child together. The relationship with Basira does not last.
– Melissa has had a succession of relationships, including a failed marriage. She gains sole ownership of the former matrimonial home in the divorce. Then she lives with Jim for over five years in an intimate domestic relationship; but neither want to marry. Finances are kept separate.
In the light of these vignettes, consideration is given to whether dyadic Judaeo-Christian marriage can remain the paradigm for a default law of property division on separation.
THE EMERGENCE OF THE POST-MARITAL AGE
The last 40 years have seen very rapid social change, especially in terms of family life and moral values about sexual behaviour in Western countries. New Zealand, it seems, is no exception to the patterns of change in post-Christian societies.
The idea that many of these societies could actually be post-marital societies, as well as post-Christian societies, may at first be confronting. Marriage still remains reasonably popular as a basis for a long-term commitment amongst university-educated people in Western countries. It remains obligatory as the basis for family life in deeply religious communities. For many in the lesbian, bisexual, gay and transgender (LBGT) communities, achieving legal recognition of their relationships as marriages has been a fervently sought goal.
However, as university-educated people moving in professional circles, we need to resist the temptation to see the world around us through the coloured glasses of those with whom we associate. For a large proportion of the population in Western societies, marriage is no longer seen as the conventional norm for founding a family.
This article contributes to the growing research base in Turkish popular music studies with a focus on indie music from Istanbul. It situates this music within Turkey's contemporary social, cultural and political landscapes, and in relation to the country's historical cultural narrative. Istanbul indie musicians’ responses to the 2013 Gezi protests suggest that indie's counter-hegemonic aesthetics are being explored and engaged with in alignment with ‘Third Republicanism’, an emerging vision for Turkey that holds liberalism and human rights as its core ideals where the ‘First’ and ‘Second’ Republican visions held secularism and Islam respectively.
Direct photoelectrochemical water splitting offers several advantages over PV-powered electrolysis and may become the technology of choice in the future. However, significant R&D efforts and breakthroughs are needed to accomplish this goal.
The sustainable production of hydrogen would be an important first step for both powering fuel cells and for enabling large-scale and technologically mature gas phase processes to reduce CO2 and nitrogen to get desired products. Specifically, the central challenge is to produce hydrogen from water using sunlight. Photovoltaics and wind-powered electrolysis are likely to be the technology of choice to produce renewable hydrogen for the next few decades. However, the integration of light absorption and catalysis in ‘direct’ photoelectrolysis routes offers several advantages, such as lower current densities and better heat management, and may become technologically relevant in the second half of this century. This article discusses the research and development efforts and needed breakthroughs to achieve this goal. New chemically stable semiconductors with a band gap between 1.5 and 2.0 eV and long carrier lifetimes are urgently needed to make efficient tandem devices. Scale-up of these research level devices beyond a few cm2 introduces mass transport limitations that require creative electrochemical engineering solutions. Last but not least, standardized methods for measuring efficiencies and stabilities need to be implemented and should lead to official benchmarking and certification laboratories to guide commercial scale up efforts.
In pasture-based dairying systems it is important to maintain a 365-day calving interval, which requires that cows have a rapid resumption of postpartum ovulatory activity and high conception rates. The major form of infertility in New Zealand (NZ) dairy cows is an extended postpartum anovulatory interval (ppai; Macmillan, 2002), a problem that can be exacerbated by low body condition score (BCS) at calving (McDougall, 1995). Furthermore, Holstein cows, originating from North American genetic strains (Overseas; OS), which have been widely used in NZ in recent years, have longer intervals to first mating and conceive later than do NZ strains, suggesting a possible delay in the initiation of postpartum cyclicity (Harris and Winkleman, 2000). Worldwide, there is concern over an apparent decline in the fertility of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle (Butler et al., 1995; Royal et al., 2000). The purpose of this trial was to determine whether there was a difference in ppai and BCS between NZ and OS Holstein Friesians that may affect reproductive performance.
Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.
One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art.
Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting.
The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.