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A multitude of processes in hydrology and environmental engineering are either random or entail random components which are characterized by random variables. These variables are described by frequency distributions. This book provides an overview of different systems of frequency distributions, their properties, and applications to the fields of water resources and environmental engineering. A variety of systems are covered, including the Pearson system, Burr system, and systems commonly applied in economics, such as the D'Addario, Dagum, Stoppa, and Esteban systems. The latter chapters focus on the Singh system and the frequency distributions deduced from Bessel functions, maximum entropy theory, and the transformations of random variables. The final chapter introduces the genetic theory of frequency distributions. Using real-world data, this book provides a valuable reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals interested in frequency analysis.
The availability of large healthcare datasets offers the opportunity for researchers to navigate the traditional clinical and translational science research stages in a nonlinear manner. In particular, data scientists can harness the power of large healthcare datasets to bridge from preclinical discoveries (T0) directly to assessing population-level health impact (T4). A successful bridge from T0 to T4 does not bypass the other stages entirely; rather, effective team science makes a direct progression from T0 to T4 impactful by incorporating the perspectives of researchers from every stage of the clinical and translational science research spectrum. In this exemplar, we demonstrate how effective team science overcame challenges and, ultimately, ensured success when a diverse team of researchers worked together, using healthcare big data to test population-level substance use disorder (SUD) hypotheses generated from preclinical rodent studies. This project, called Advancing Substance use disorder Knowledge using Big Data (ASK Big Data), highlights the critical roles that data science expertise and effective team science play in quickly translating preclinical research into public health impact.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common pathogen associated with nosocomial infections and is characterised serologically by capsular polysaccharide (K) and lipopolysaccharide O antigens. We surveyed a total of 348 non-duplicate K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected over a 1-year period in a tertiary care hospital, and determined their O and K serotypes by sequencing of the wbb Y and wzi gene loci, respectively. Isolates were also screened for antimicrobial resistance and hypervirulent phenotypes; 94 (27.0%) were identified as carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) and 110 (31.6%) as hypervirulent (hvKP). isolates fell into 58 K, and six O types, with 92.0% and 94.2% typeability, respectively. The predominant K types were K14K64 (16.38%), K1 (14.66%), K2 (8.05%) and K57 (5.46%), while O1 (46%), O2a (27.9%) and O3 (11.8%) were the most common. CRKP and hvKP strains had different serotype distributions with O2a:K14K64 (41.0%) being the most frequent among CRKP, and O1:K1 (26.4%) and O1:K2 (17.3%) among hvKP strains. Serotyping by gene sequencing proved to be a useful tool to inform the clinical epidemiology of K. pneumoniae infections and provides valuable data relevant to vaccine design.
The low-frequency linearly polarised radio source population is largely unexplored. However, a renaissance in low-frequency polarimetry has been enabled by pathfinder and precursor instruments for the Square Kilometre Array. In this second paper from the POlarised GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA Survey-the POlarised GLEAM Survey, or POGS-we present the results from our all-sky MWA Phase I Faraday Rotation Measure survey. Our survey covers nearly the entire Southern sky in the Declination range
at a resolution between around three and seven arcminutes (depending on Declination) using data in the frequency range 169−231 MHz. We have performed two targeted searches: the first covering 25 489 square degrees of sky, searching for extragalactic polarised sources; the second covering the entire sky South of Declination
, searching for known pulsars. We detect a total of 517 sources with 200 MHz linearly polarised flux densities between 9.9 mJy and 1.7 Jy, of which 33 are known radio pulsars. All sources in our catalogues have Faraday rotation measures in the range
rad m−2. The Faraday rotation measures are broadly consistent with results from higher-frequency surveys, but with typically more than an order of magnitude improvement in the precision, highlighting the power of low-frequency polarisation surveys to accurately study Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We discuss the properties of our extragalactic and known-pulsar source population, how the sky distribution relates to Galactic features, and identify a handful of new pulsar candidates among our nominally extragalactic source population.
Surface waves called meniscus waves often appear in systems that are close to the capillary length scale. Since the meniscus shape determines the form of the meniscus waves, the resulting streaming circulation has features distinct from those caused by other capillary–gravity waves recently reported in the literature. In the present study, we produce symmetric and antisymmetric meniscus shapes by controlling boundary wettability and excite meniscus waves by oscillating the meniscus vertically. The symmetric and antisymmetric configurations produce different surface capillary–gravity wave modes and streaming flow structures. The root-mean-square speed of the streaming circulation increases with the second power of the forcing amplitude in both configurations. The flow symmetry of streaming circulation is retained under the symmetric meniscus, while it is lost under the antisymmetric meniscus. The streaming circulation pattern beneath the meniscus observed in our experiments is qualitatively explained using the method introduced by Nicolás & Vega (Fluid Dyn. Res., vol. 32 (4), 2003, pp. 119–139) and Gordillo & Mujica (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 754, 2014, pp. 590–604).
The latest Ordovician to earliest Silurian graptolite Avitograptus avitus is important in the biostratigraphy of the Ordovician–Silurian boundary interval. Two additional species of Avitograptus are described from the sponge-dominated Anji Biota of the Upper Ordovician Wenchang Formation (Metabolograptus persculptus Biozone) of Zhejiang Province, South China. One species, Avitograptus akidomorphus new species, is new; the other, Avitograptus acanthocystus new combination, which was previously placed in Climacograptus, is herein assigned to Avitograptus. The former species may represent the ancestral akidograptid because it is identical in thecal form to Akidograptus, but differs in the development of the proximal end. The evolutionary changes from Avitograptus avitus to Akidograptus and Parakidograptus involved distal movement of the origins of th11 and th12, thecal elongation, and greater outward inclination of the thecal walls.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
Acute change in mental status (ACMS), defined by the Confusion Assessment Method, is used to identify infections in nursing home residents. A medical record review revealed that none of 15,276 residents had an ACMS documented. Using the revised McGeer criteria with a possible ACMS definition, we identified 296 residents and 21 additional infections. The use of a possible ACMS definition should be considered for retrospective nursing home infection surveillance.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
There seems to be geographical differences in decisions about breast conserving surgery (BCS) in breast cancer patients. This study was to evaluate patients’ attitude to BCS and to assess the factors affecting cancer practice in West China.
A structured questionnaire was distributed to 184 patients, eliciting information about the patients’ characteristics, occupation, education, family life, recognition of illness, knowledge about BCS, the main means of gaining surgery information, selecting surgery approaches, preferences to breast reservation.
In all, 163 patients completed the questionnaire. The results indicated that only 7.4% of patients received BCS and 23% of the remaining patients desired to have BCS and the affecting factors were significantly associated with their family life, recognition of illness and the main means of gaining surgery information (P < 0.05). No associations were between BCS selecting and the other variables studied. The most frequent reasons for selecting BCS were keeping the female shape and improving quality of life (71%), the second most were postoperative recovery, minimal influence of physical function (47%) and patients’ knowledge about BCS (42%). The most frequent reasons for not selecting BCS were uncertainty about BCS results and worry about recurrence (81%), the second most was the elderly age unnecessary for BCS (40%).
The findings indicate that breast cancer patients in West China do not take BCS as the first choice as the best treatment method. It is warranted that further study of more patients, attitude of patients’ partners and physicians to BCS.
The present study was designed to detect three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on 22q11 that was thought as being of particularly importance for genetic research into schizophrenia. We recruited a total of 176 Chinese family trios of Han descent, consisting of mothers, fathers and affected offspring with schizophrenia for the genetic analysis. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) showed that of three SNPs, rs10314 in the 3′-untranslated region of the CLDN5 locus was associated with schizophrenia (χ2 = 4.75, P = 0.029). The other two SNPs, rs1548359 present in the CDC45L locus centromeric of rs10314 and rs739371 in the 5′-flanking region of the CLDN5 locus, did not show such an association. The global chi-square (χ2) test showed that the 3-SNP haplotype system was not associated with schizophrenia although the 1-df test for individual haplotypes showed that the rs1548359(C)-rs10314(G)-rs739371(C) haplotype was excessively non-transmitted (χ2 = 5.32, P = 0.02). Because the claudin proteins are a major component for barrier-forming tight junctions that could play a crucial role in response to changing natural, physiological and pathological conditions, the CLDN5 association with schizophrenia may be an important clue leading to look into a meeting point of genetic and environmental factors.
Acupuncture, as complementary medicine, has been used since many years ago in china and many researches have proved its effect separately or combined with other treatment methods.
To compare therapeutic effects of Acupuncture plus estazolam and Cognitive - Behavioral Therapies plus estazolam on insomnia.
To determine the efficacy of acupuncture as complementary medicine in treating insomnia.
64 insomnia patients were randomly divided into an acupuncture group and a behavioral group, 30 cases in acupuncture group and 18 cases in behavioral group completed research. The acupuncture group was treated by administration oral estazolam before sleeping each day and needling, three times a week, the behavioral group received Stimulus control as Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy plus oral estazolam before sleeping each day. Treatment course was 3 weeks. The insomnia severity index (ISI) scores before and after treatment were observed in the both groups.
The total effective rate was 86.7% in the acupuncture group and 50% in the behavioral group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The cured rate of 30% in the acupuncture group was significantly higher than 16.7% in the behavioral group (both P < 0.05).
The therapeutic effect of Acupuncture as a complementary medicine on insomnia is better than stimulus therapy as a Cognitive - Behavioral Therapy.
Brexpiprazole is a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine agent that binds with high affinity to multiple serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine receptors. In particular, Brexpiprazole is a partial agonist at dopamine D2/D3 and 5-HT1A receptors and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and norepinephrine alpha1B receptors.
We assessed the efficacy and safety of brexpiprazole versus placebo as adjunctive therapy to anti-depressant therapy (ADT) in subjects with MDD who demonstrated inadequate response to ADT.
This trial had 3 phases: a screening phase (7-28 days); a prospective phase (Phase A): 8-week, single-blind placebo plus an investigator-determined, open-label ADT; a randomized phase (Phase B): 6-week, double-blind, adjunctive brexpiprazole (2 mg/day) vs. placebo in patients with an inadequate response to ADT.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from the end of Phase A (Week 8) to the end of Phase B (Week 14) in MADRS Total Score. The key secondary endpoint was the change in mean SDS score. Other secondary endpoints were mean change in CGI-S, IDS-R, HAMD and HAMA.
Of 379 randomized patients, completion rates at Week 14 were high (92.9%). Statistically significant improvements in mean MADRS Total score were observed for subjects receiving adjunctive brexpiprazole 2mg/day compared with placebo (p=0.0001) at endpoint. In addition, on all secondary endpoints Brexpiprazole showed a statistically significant advantage over placebo.
Commonly reported adverse events in the brexpiprazole group (>5% and more than twice placebo) were weight gain (8.0%), akathisia (7.4%).
Brexpiprazole was effective and well tolerated as adjunctive treatment for MDD patients with an inadequate response to ADT.
Brexpiprazole is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator that is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors at similar potency, and an antagonist at 5-HT2A and noradrenaline alpha1B/2C receptors.
To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole in patients with acute schizophrenia in a meta-analysis of three phase 3 studies with brexpiprazole.
The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total score.
Data from the 3 clinical studies in patients with acute schizophrenia were combined and analyzed using individual patient data meta-analysis. In two similarly designed studies (NCT01396421; NCT01393613), patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized to fixed-doses of brexpiprazole 2 mg/day, 4 mg/day or placebo (a low-dose treatment group was included in each study [0.25 mg and 1.0 mg]; not included in the meta-analysis). In the third study (NCT01810380), patients were randomized to flexible dosing of brexpiprazole (2 to 4 mg/day), placebo, or an active reference (quetiapine extended release). Changes from baseline for brexpiprazole vs. placebo were analyzed using an MMRM approach.
Brexpiprazole 2–4 mg (n = 868) was superior to placebo (n = 517) in change from baseline in PANSS total score (−20.1 vs. −14.3; estimated treatment difference to placebo: −5.8 [95% CI: −8.0; −3.6]; P < 0.001). The proportions of patients reporting TEAEs were similar between the brexpiprazole and placebo treatment groups (57.9% vs. 57.5%). No unexpected safety concerns were observed.
This meta-analysis supports evidence from three individual trials that brexpiprazole is efficacious and safe in treating patients with acute schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by unusual shifts in mood and energy and affects 1 to 3% of the general population. Lithium (Li) can prevent patients from depression and mania, as well as reduce the risk of suicide. Unfortunately, a high rate of patients do not respond positively to Li treatment. In line with various studies, Li treatment is also associated with potentially severe adverse reactions, including renal dysfunctions. Specifically, it has been reported that Li may induce reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in long-term treated BD patients.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the contribution of genetic variants in Li-induced reduction of the estimated GFR (eGFR) in bipolar patients, under long term Li therapy.
We screened the literature to identify genes previously shown to be associated with kidney function or Li mechanism of action and genotyped tag SNPs covering these genes.
The sample comprised 70 Sardinian bipolar patients genotyped for 46 SNPs, located in 33 genes, with Invader assay and Sanger sequencing.
Our results showed that a SNP (rs378448) located in Acid Sensing Ion Channel Neurona-1 (ACCN1) gene, significantly interacted with years of Li treatment in reducing eGFR (F = 4.166, P = 0.046).
Our preliminary findings suggest that ACCN1 (ASIC2) gene could be involved in modulating the susceptibility of BD patients to develop renal dysfunctions induced by chronic Li treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is a planned large radio interferometer designed to operate over a wide range of frequencies, and with an order of magnitude greater sensitivity and survey speed than any current radio telescope. The SKA will address many important topics in astronomy, ranging from planet formation to distant galaxies. However, in this work, we consider the perspective of the SKA as a facility for studying physics. We review four areas in which the SKA is expected to make major contributions to our understanding of fundamental physics: cosmic dawn and reionisation; gravity and gravitational radiation; cosmology and dark energy; and dark matter and astroparticle physics. These discussions demonstrate that the SKA will be a spectacular physics machine, which will provide many new breakthroughs and novel insights on matter, energy, and spacetime.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases. China has a high burden of TB and accounted for almost 13% of the world's cases of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB. Spinal TB is one reason for the resurgence of TB in China. Few large case studies of MDR spinal TB in China have been conducted. The aim of this research was to observe the epidemiological characteristics of inpatients with MDR spinal TB in six provinces and cities of China from 1999–2015. This is a multicentre retrospective observational study. Patients' information was collected from the control disease centre and infectious disease database of hospitals in six provinces and cities in China. A total of 3137 patients with spinal TB and 272 patients with MDR spinal TB were analysed. The result showed that MDR spinal TB remains a public health concern and commonly affects patients 15–30 years of age (34.19%). The most common lesions involved the thoracolumbar spine (35.66%). Local pain was the most common symptom (98.53%). Logistic analysis showed that for spinal TB patients, reside in rural district (OR 1.79), advanced in years (OR 1.92) and high education degree (OR 2.22) were independent risk factors for the development of MDR spinal TB. Women were associated with a lower risk of MDR spinal TB (OR 0.48). The most common first-line and second-line resistant drug was isoniazid (68.75%) and levofloxacin (29.04%), respectively. The use of molecular diagnosis resulted in noteworthy clinical advances, including earlier initiation of MDR spinal TB treatment, improved infection control and better clinical outcome. Chemotherapy and surgery can yield satisfactory outcomes with timely diagnosis and long-term treatment. These results enable a better understanding of the MDR spinal TB in China among the general public.