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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Clinical Enterobacteriacae isolates with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥4 mg/L from a United States hospital were screened for the mcr-1 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Four colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates contained mcr-1. Two isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST-632). All subjects had prior international travel and antimicrobial exposure.
India has the second largest number of people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) globally. Epidemiological evidence indicates that consumption of white rice is positively associated with T2D risk, while intake of brown rice is inversely associated. Thus, we explored the effect of substituting brown rice for white rice on T2D risk factors among adults in urban South India. A total of 166 overweight (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) adults aged 25–65 years were enrolled in a randomised cross-over trial in Chennai, India. Interventions were a parboiled brown rice or white rice regimen providing two ad libitum meals/d, 6 d/week for 3 months with a 2-week washout period. Primary outcomes were blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated Hb (HbA1c), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and lipids. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was a secondary outcome. We did not observe significant between-group differences for primary outcomes among all participants. However, a significant reduction in HbA1c was observed in the brown rice group among participants with the metabolic syndrome (−0·18 (se 0·08) %) relative to those without the metabolic syndrome (0·05 (se 0·05) %) (P-for-heterogeneity = 0·02). Improvements in HbA1c, total and LDL-cholesterol were observed in the brown rice group among participants with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared with those with a BMI < 25 kg/m2 (P-for-heterogeneity < 0·05). We observed a smaller increase in hs-CRP in the brown (0·03 (sd 2·12) mg/l) compared with white rice group (0·63 (sd 2·35) mg/l) (P = 0·04). In conclusion, substituting brown rice for white rice showed a potential benefit on HbA1c among participants with the metabolic syndrome and an elevated BMI. A small benefit on inflammation was also observed.
To examine the association between parenting styles and overall child dietary quality within households that are low-income and food-insecure.
Child dietary intake was measured via a 24 h dietary recall. Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Parenting styles were measured and scored using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Linear regressions were used to test main and interaction associations between HEI-2005 scores and parenting styles.
Non-probability sample of low-income and food-insecure households in South Carolina, USA.
Parent–child dyads (n 171). Parents were ≥18 years old and children were 9–15 years old.
We found a significant interaction between authoritative and authoritarian parenting style scores. For those with a mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 3·36, P < 0.05). For those with an authoritarian score that was 1 sd above the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 8.42, P < 0.01). For those with an authoritarian score that was −1 sd below the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a lower HEI-2005 score; however, this was not significant (b = −1·69, P > 0·05). Permissive parenting style scores were negatively associated with child dietary quality (b = −2·79, P < 0·05).
Parenting styles should be considered an important variable that is associated with overall dietary quality in children living within low-income and food-insecure households.
Starting in 2016, we initiated a pilot tele-antibiotic stewardship program at 2 rural Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs). Antibiotic days of therapy decreased significantly (P < .05) in the acute and long-term care units at both intervention sites, suggesting that tele-stewardship can effectively support antibiotic stewardship practices in rural VAMCs.
Laser–solid interactions are highly suited as a potential source of high energy X-rays for nondestructive imaging. A bright, energetic X-ray pulse can be driven from a small source, making it ideal for high resolution X-ray radiography. By limiting the lateral dimensions of the target we are able to confine the region over which X-rays are produced, enabling imaging with enhanced resolution and contrast. Using constrained targets we demonstrate experimentally a
X-ray source, improving the image quality compared to unconstrained foil targets. Modelling demonstrates that a larger sheath field envelope around the perimeter of the constrained targets increases the proportion of electron current that recirculates through the target, driving a brighter source of X-rays.
High-energy lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries still suffer from poor rate capability and short cycle life caused by the polysulfides shuttle and insulating nature of S (and the discharge product, Li2S). Selenium disulfide (SeS2), with a theoretical specific capacity of 1342 mAh g−1, is a promising cathode material as it has better conductivity compared to sulfur. The electrochemical reaction kinetics of CNFs-S/SeS2 composites (denoted as CNFs/S1-xSex, where x ≤ 0.1) are expected to be remarkably improved because of the better conductivity of SeS2 compared to sulfur. Here, a high-performance composite cathode material of CNFs/S1-xSex for novel Li-S batteries is reported. The CNFs/S1-xSex composites combine the higher conductivity and higher density of SeS2 with high specific capacity of sulfur. The CNFs/S1-xSex electrode shows good initial discharge capacity of ∼1050 mAh g−1 at 0.05 C rate with high mass loading of materials (∼6-7 mg cm−2 of composites) and > 97% initial coulombic efficiency. The CNFs/S1-xSex electrode shows more than 600 mAh g-1 specific capacity after 50 charge-discharge cycles at 0.5C rate, much higher compared to the CNFs/S cathodes.
In recent decades the number of historical studies on African women has grown dramatically. Studies have revealed how colonialism has affected women's economic lives, household organisation, bodies and health. Attention has been paid to women's role in resistance to colonialism and liberation, education, and nation-building after independence. Scholars have also examined women's role in conflict and civil war. Yet despite the pioneering contribution of two early edited volumes, Women in Africa and Women and Slavery in Africa, much remains to be done regarding African women's history before the formal imposition of colonial rule in the late nineteenth century. Women's participation in agriculture and production, religious beliefs and practices, as well as in political and social institutions before the twentieth century has received little attention.
This book focuses upon the coastal regions of West and West Central Africa between the late seventeenth and late nineteenth centuries. In this period the region constituted what Mary Louis Pratt has termed a ‘contact zone’ – an intercultural space in which, as Wyatt MacGaffey has shown, communication between Africans and non-Africans was characterised by a ‘working misunderstanding’ and by ‘dialogues of the deaf ’. This applied to gender as much as to other dimensions of social life. Building upon earlier research, we here analyse how women in Africa used the opportunities offered by the Atlantic commerce and relationships with European men to negotiate their social and economic positions. Interactions between African women and European men led to the emergence of a ‘mixed’ population, that tended to be socially identified as different, and labelled as mulatto or métis, terms that acquired pejorative connotations over time and are explored in subsequent chapters.
Four developments of primarily external origin – the emergence of the transatlantic slave trade, its gradual abolition, the expansion of what contemporaries called legitimate commerce and finally the partition of African societies among European powers – each in its turn provoked major turmoil. This book explores how African women experienced these changes, how gender roles were thereby socially constructed and transformed, the constraints that were imposed on women and the strategies they employed to overcome them.
Most towns on Africa's Atlantic coast had a sizeable majority of women. In Cacheu on the Upper Guinea Coast, for example, there lived 514 women and 386 men in 1731. In nearby Ziguinchor there were 602 women and 475 men, while 775 women and 345 men lived in Geba.