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A key figure in the Arian dispute leading up to and following the Council of Nicaea, Eusebius of Caesarea (bishop c. 313-39) was not only implicated as a central player in the broader theological developments of the early fourth century but was also one of the most significant formulators of ancient literary representations of the council itself. His writings contain an eye-witness account of the council; a broader narrative of Constantine’s interactions with Christian bishops; letters of Constantine addressing issues of theological or practical debate; his own letters to his home congregation at Caesarea and to other bishops involved in the controversy; and his theological polemic against Marcellus of Ancyra, the promoter of a more radical anti-Arian position. These texts simultaneously assist and complicate modern attempts to construct the precise nature and dynamics of the controversy, the council, and its aftermath. They also provide a fascinating angle by which to discern important features of Eusebius’s fertile authorial work: he stands as a careful and creative formulator of a powerful historiographic, theological, and political vision that would make a signal impact upon later competing accounts of the Council of Nicaea.
To conduct a pilot study implementing combined genomic and epidemiologic surveillance for hospital-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) to predict transmission between patients and to estimate the local burden of MDRO transmission.
Pilot prospective multicenter surveillance study.
The study was conducted in 8 university hospitals (2,800 beds total) in Melbourne, Australia (population 4.8 million), including 4 acute-care, 1 specialist cancer care, and 3 subacute-care hospitals.
All clinical and screening isolates from hospital inpatients (April 24 to June 18, 2017) were collected for 6 MDROs: vanA VRE, MRSA, ESBL Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp), and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPa) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb). Isolates were analyzed and reported as routine by hospital laboratories, underwent whole-genome sequencing at the central laboratory, and were analyzed using open-source bioinformatic tools. MDRO burden and transmission were assessed using combined genomic and epidemiologic data.
In total, 408 isolates were collected from 358 patients; 47.5% were screening isolates. ESBL-Ec was most common (52.5%), then MRSA (21.6%), vanA VRE (15.7%), and ESBL-Kp (7.6%). Most MDROs (88.3%) were isolated from patients with recent healthcare exposure.
Combining genomics and epidemiology identified that at least 27.1% of MDROs were likely acquired in a hospital; most of these transmission events would not have been detected without genomics. The highest proportion of transmission occurred with vanA VRE (88.4% of patients).
Genomic and epidemiologic data from multiple institutions can feasibly be combined prospectively, providing substantial insights into the burden and distribution of MDROs, including in-hospital transmission. This analysis enables infection control teams to target interventions more effectively.
Psychotherapy research aims to investigate predictors and moderators of treatment outcome, but there are few consistent findings. This study aimed to investigate cytokines in patients undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders and whether the level of cytokines moderated the treatment outcome. Thirty-seven patients with comorbid and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders were investigated using multilevel modelling. Serum cytokine levels were measured three times: pretreatment, in the middle of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Anxiety and metacognitions were measured weekly throughout treatment by self-report. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change during therapy or were not related to the level of anxiety. Metacognitive beliefs predicted anxiety, but the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety was not moderated by cytokines. Limitations of the study include that the patients were not fasting at blood sampling, and we did not assess body mass index, which may affect cytokine levels. The lack of significance for cytokines as a predictor or moderator may be due to a lack of power for testing moderation hypotheses, a problem associated with many psychotherapy studies. Cytokines did not predict the outcome in the treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders in our sample. Furthermore, cytokines did not moderate the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety.
Adolescent diet, physical activity and nutritional status are generally known to be sub-optimal. This is an introduction to a special issue of papers devoted to exploring factors affecting diet and physical activity in adolescents, including food insecure and vulnerable groups.
Eight settings including urban, peri-urban and rural across sites from five different low- and middle-income countries.
Focus groups with adolescents and caregivers carried out by trained researchers.
Our results show that adolescents, even in poor settings, know about healthy diet and lifestyles. They want to have energy, feel happy, look good and live longer, but their desire for autonomy, a need to ‘belong’ in their peer group, plus vulnerability to marketing exploiting their aspirations, leads them to make unhealthy choices. They describe significant gender, culture and context-specific barriers. For example, urban adolescents had easy access to energy dense, unhealthy foods bought outside the home, whereas junk foods were only beginning to permeate rural sites. Among adolescents in Indian sites, pressure to excel in exams meant that academic studies were squeezing out physical activity time.
Interventions to improve adolescents’ diets and physical activity levels must therefore address structural and environmental issues and influences in their homes and schools, since it is clear that their food and activity choices are the product of an interacting complex of factors. In the next phase of work, the Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition consortium will employ groups of adolescents, caregivers and local stakeholders in each site to develop interventions to improve adolescent nutritional status.
To test the feasibility of targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel caring for high-risk nursing-home residents to prevent Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in short-stay residents.
Uncontrolled clinical trial.
This study was conducted in 2 community-based nursing homes in Maryland.
The study included 322 residents on mixed short- and long-stay units.
During a 2-month baseline period, all residents had nose and inguinal fold swabs taken to estimate S. aureus acquisition. The intervention was iteratively developed using a participatory human factors engineering approach. During a 2-month intervention period, healthcare personnel wore gowns and gloves for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, and S. aureus acquisition was measured again. Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess whether the acquisition represented resident-to-resident transmission.
Among short-stay residents, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus acquisition rate decreased from 11.9% during the baseline period to 3.6% during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08–0.92; P = .026). The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus acquisition rate went from 9.1% during the baseline period to 4.0% during the intervention period (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.12–1.42; P = .15). The S. aureus resident-to-resident transmission rate decreased from 5.9% during the baseline period to 0.8% during the intervention period.
Targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, regardless of their S. aureus colonization status, is feasible and potentially decreases S. aureus acquisition and transmission in short-stay community-based nursing-home residents.
This study seeks to analyse Eusebius’ Praeparatio Evangelica in terms of a fourfold taxonomy of modes textual violence: the relationship of the text’s composition to historical acts of violence, its narration of acts of violence, its adoption of violent language for otherwise not (necessarily) violent actions or practices, and its violence against the integrity of its opponents’ identities, thought, and writings. While the first two modes are more limited, the latter two modes of textual violence are exquisitely expressed – and yet simultaneously deeply complicated – by Eusebius’ apologetic work. De Certeau’s notion of a tactics of textual poaching, in particular, prompts a cautious reconsideration of how quotation of one’s opponents might (or might not) work as a mode of textual violence.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
The steep rise in the rate of psychiatric hospital detentions in England is poorly understood.
To identify explanations for the rise in detentions in England since 1983; to test their plausibility and support from evidence; to develop an explanatory model for the rise in detentions.
Hypotheses to explain the rise in detentions were identified from previous literature and stakeholder consultation. We explored associations between national indicators for potential explanatory variables and detention rates in an ecological study. Relevant research was scoped and the plausibility of each hypothesis was rated. Finally, a logic model was developed to illustrate likely contributory factors and pathways to the increase in detentions.
Seventeen hypotheses related to social, service, legal and data-quality factors. Hypotheses supported by available evidence were: changes in legal approaches to patients without decision-making capacity but not actively objecting to admission; demographic changes; increasing psychiatric morbidity. Reductions in the availability or quality of community mental health services and changes in police practice may have contributed to the rise in detentions. Hypothesised factors not supported by evidence were: changes in community crisis care, compulsory community treatment and prescribing practice. Evidence was ambiguous or lacking for other explanations, including the impact of austerity measures and reductions in National Health Service in-patient bed numbers.
Better data are needed about the characteristics and service contexts of those detained. Our logic model highlights likely contributory factors to the rise in detentions in England, priorities for future research and potential policy targets for reducing detentions.
The Open Access movement has gathered significant momentum over the last couple of years. This has been instigated largely by cOAlition S and those funders which support its aims. Is ‘Read and Publish’ the way forward? Will it work for all publishers? All authors? All subscribers? All readers? This article looks at the history of OA and updates a similar piece from 2013. A detailed glossary of terms is given at the end of the article.
Taxonomic identification of archaeofauna relies on techniques and anatomical traits that should be valid, reliable, and usable, but which are rarely tested. Identification protocols (techniques and anatomical traits), particularly those used to distinguish taxa of similar size and morphology, should be rigorously tested to ensure a solid interpretive foundation. Blind testing of a protocol for identifying stylohyoid bones of North American artiodactyls was performed by three analysts who independently employed the protocol to identify 77 anatomically complete specimens of known taxonomic identity, representing 54 individuals and 11 species. Identifications were identical in 89% of cases and in conflict in 3% of cases. The remainder involved differences in resolution; two analysts identified specimens to species, whereas the third identified specimens to more general taxonomic groups. Inter-analyst variability in identification was a result of differences in protocol application. Identifications were consistent with known taxon in 92%–96% of cases. Results indicate that the protocol is valid, reliable, and usable, and it can be applied to archaeological specimens with confidence. Testing of other identification criteria employed by zooarchaeologists is encouraged.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: 1. Understand the association between patient perceptions of care measured by the Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) Survey and glycemic control, appointment no-shows/cancellations and medication adherence in patients with type II diabetes. 2. Determine how these relationships differ by race for non-Hispanic White and Black patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 100 White and 100 Black Type II diabetic patients followed in Duke primary care clinics and prescribed antihyperglycemic medication. We will recruit through email and phone calls. Enrolled patients will complete the Interpersonal Processes of Care Short Form and Extent of Medication Adherence survey to measure patient perceptions of care (predictor) and medication adherence (secondary outcome). No show appointments and cancellations (secondary outcomes) and most recent hemoglobin A1c (primary outcome) will be collected from the Electronic Medical Record. We will also collect basic demographic information, insurance status, financial security, significant co-morbidities, and number and type (subcutaneous vs oral) of antihyperglycemic medications. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: -The study is powered to detect a 0.6% difference in HbA1c, our primary outcome, between high and low scorers on the Interpersonal Processes of Care subdomains. -We expect that higher patient scores in the positive domains of the IPC survey and lower DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study will provide information to develop and implement targeted interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in patients with Type II diabetes. We hope to gain information on potentially modifiable factors in patient-provider interactions that can be intervened upon to improve prevention and long-term outcomes in these populations.
Southeastern Appalachian Ohio has more than double the national average of diabetes and a critical shortage of healthcare providers. Paradoxically, there is limited research focused on primary care providers’ experiences treating people with diabetes in this region. This study explored providers’ perceived barriers to and facilitators for treating patients with diabetes in southeastern Appalachian Ohio.
We conducted in-depth interviews with healthcare providers who treat people with diabetes in rural southeastern Ohio. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed via content and thematic analyses using NVivo 12 software (QSR International, Chadstone, VIC, Australia).
Qualitative analysis revealed four themes: (1) patients’ diabetes fatalism and helplessness: providers recounted story after story of patients believing that their diabetes was inevitable and that they were helpless to prevent or delay diabetes complications. (2) Comorbid psychosocial issues: providers described high rates of depression, anxiety, incest, abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder among people with diabetes in this region. (3) Inter-connected social determinants interfering with diabetes care: providers identified major barriers including lack of access to providers, lack of access to transportation, food insecurity, housing insecurity, and financial insecurity. (4) Providers’ cultural understanding and recommendations: providers emphasized the importance of understanding of the values central to Appalachian culture and gave culturally attuned clinical suggestions for how to use these values when working with this population.
Evidence-based interventions tailored to Appalachian culture and training designed to increase the cultural competency and cultural humility of primary care providers may be effective approaches to reduce barriers to diabetes care in Appalachian Ohio.
The days, not so far back, in which Arabic philosophical works were skimmed essentially with a view of ‘uncovering’ lost gems of Greek philosophy are fortunately behind us. Today these works are studied on their own, as essential building blocks of the history of philosophy. None the less, medieval philosophic works in Arabic continue to allow significant new discoveries concerning the history of Greek philosophy. The same holds, naturally enough, of medieval Hebrew works written by Jewish scholars who lived under the Crescent and accessed Arabic sources.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
To advance the quality of mental healthcare in Europe by developing guidance on implementing quality assurance.
We performed a systematic literature search on quality assurance in mental healthcare and the 522 retrieved documents were evaluated by two independent reviewers (B.J. and J.Z.). Based on these evaluations, evidence tables were generated. As it was found that these did not cover all areas of mental healthcare, supplementary hand searches were performed for selected additional areas. Based on these findings, fifteen graded recommendations were developed and consented by the authors. Review by the EPA Guidance Committee and EPA Board led to two additional recommendations (on immigrant mental healthcare and parity of mental and physical healthcare funding).
Although quality assurance (measures to keep a certain degree of quality), quality control and monitoring (applying quality indicators to the current degree of quality), and quality management (coordinated measures and activities with regard to quality) are conceptually distinct, in practice they are frequently used as if identical and hardly separable. There is a dearth of controlled trials addressing ways to optimize quality assurance in mental healthcare. Altogether, seventeen recommendations were developed addressing a range of aspects of quality assurance in mental healthcare, which appear usable across Europe. These were divided into recommendations about structures, processes and outcomes. Each recommendation was assigned to a hierarchical level of analysis (macro-, meso- and micro-level).
There was a lack of evidence retrievable by a systematic literature search about quality assurance of mental healthcare. Therefore, only after further topics and search had been added it was possible to develop recommendations with mostly medium evidence levels.
Evidence-based graded recommendations for quality assurance in mental healthcare were developed which should next be implemented and evaluated for feasibility and validity in some European countries. Due to the small evidence base identified corresponding to the practical obscurity of the concept and methods, a European research initiative is called for by the stakeholders represented in this Guidance to improve the educational, methodological and empirical basis for a future broad implementation of measures for quality assurance in European mental healthcare.
The Health Utilities Index-Mark 2 (HUI2), a generic instrument for assessing health status, is an important effectiveness input for pharmacoeconomic modelling. It has not previously been used in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
To use HUI2 to assess health utility in patients aged 6–17 years with ADHD receiving the prodrug stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX).
SPD489-325 was a 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of LDX, with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROSMPH) as a reference treatment. Patients’ parents or guardians completed HUI2 questionnaires at baseline and weeks 4 and 7. Utilities were estimated for treatment responders and non-responders, with response defined as a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score of 1 or 2, or a ≥25% or ≥30% reduction in ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score.
Of 336 patients randomized, 317 were included in the full analysis set (LDX, n=104; OROS-MPH, n=107; placebo, n=106) and 196 completed the study. At endpoint, mean HUI2 utility scores across all treatment groups were higher for responders than non-responders when response was based on CGI-I score (responders: 0.896 [SD, 0.0990]; non-responders: 0.838 [0.1421]), on a ≥25% reduction in ADHD-RS-IV score from baseline (responders, 0.899 [0.0969]; non-responders, 0.809 [0.1474]), or on a ≥30% reduction in ADHD-RS-IV score from baseline (responders, 0.902 [0.0938]; non-responders 0.814 [0.1477]).
The HUI2 instrument is sensitive to treatment response in the child and adolescent ADHD patient population. Health utilities generated using HUI2 are therefore suitable for cost effectiveness evaluations of ADHD medications.
The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale–Parent Report (WFIRS-P) is an ADHD-specific instrument comprising 50 items, grouped into six domains. Parents score each item on a Likert scale (0–3 or not applicable).
To evaluate functional impairment using the WFIRS-P in two phase 3 studies (SPD489-325 and SPD489-326) of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) in children and adolescents with ADHD.
Patients’ parents or guardians completed WFIRS-P assessments at baseline, and weeks 4 and 7 of SPD489-325, a 7-week, randomized, placebo controlled trial incorporating a reference treatment (osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate; OROS-MPH). Statistical comparison of LDX versus OROS-MPH was not pre-specified. In SPD489-326, WFIRS-P assessments were performed in the ≥26-week open-label period and the subsequent 6-week randomized-withdrawal period.
In SPD489-325, statistically significant placebo-adjusted effects of LDX were observed in WFIRS-P total score (effect size, 0.924; p<0.001) and in Family, Learning and School, Social Activities and Risky Activities; OROS-MPH effects were significant in total score (effect size 0.772; p<0.001) and in all domains. In SPD489-326, scores were improved or stable in the open-label period. In the randomized-withdrawal period, total score and all domain scores were stable in the LDX group, but worsened in the placebo group. LDX was significantly more effective than placebo in Family, Learning and School, Risky Activities and in total score (effect size, 0.908; p<0.001).
Short-term treatment with LDX or OROS-MPH led to improved functional impairment scores. These benefits were maintained during long-term LDX treatment, and scores declined following treatment withdrawal.
Evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of investigational aripiprazole once-monthly (ARI-OM) for maintenance treatment in schizophrenia.
Patients requiring chronic treatment for schizophrenia, not on aripiprazole monotherapy, were cross-titrated from other antipsychotic(s) to aripiprazole in an oral conversion phase (Phase 1). All patients entered an oral aripiprazole stabilization phase (Phase 2). Patients meeting stability criteria entered an ARI-OM stabilization phase (Phase 3), with coadministration of oral aripiprazole for the first 2 weeks. Patients meeting stability criteria were randomized to ARI-OM or placebo once-monthly (placebo-OM) during a 52-week, double-blind maintenance phase (Phase 4). Primary endpoint was time-to-impending relapse. Safety and tolerability were also assessed.
710 patients entered Phase 2, 576 Phase 3 and 403 Phase 4 (ARI-OM=269, placebo-OM=134). The study was terminated early because efficacy was demonstrated by a pre-planned interim analysis. Time-to-impending relapse was significantly delayed with ARI-OM vs. placebo-OM (p< 0.0001, log-rank test). Discontinuations due to treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were: Phase 1, 3.8% (n=24/632); Phase 2, 3.0% (n=21/709); Phase 3, 4.9% (n=28/576); Phase 4, 7.1% (n=19/269). Most AEs were mild or moderate. Insomnia was the only AE >5% incidence in any phase. Headache, somnolence, and nausea had a peak first onset within the first 4 weeks of treatment. There were no unusual shifts in all phases in laboratory values, fasting metabolic parameters, weight, or objective scales of movement disorders.
ARI-OM significantly delayed time-to-impending relapse compared with placebo-OM and was well tolerated as maintenance treatment in schizophrenia1.