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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional changes occurring in isolated perfused mammary alveolar tissue in response to inoculation with S. agalactiae and to identify the most affected biological functions and pathways after 3 h. Four udders taken at slaughter from cows with healthy mammary gland were perfused ex situ with warmed and gassed Tyrode's solution. Mammary alveolar tissue samples were taken from the left fore and rear quarters (IQ-inoculated quarters) before inoculation (hour 0) and at 3 h post inoculation (hpi) and at the same times from control right fore and rear quarters (not inoculated: NIQ). A total of 1756 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IQ and NIQ at 3 hpi using edgeR package. Within this set of DEGs, 952 were up regulated and mainly involved with innate immune response and inflammatory response, e.g., CD14, CCL5, TLR2, IL-8, SAA3, as well as in transcriptional regulation such as FOS, STAT3 and NFKBIA. Genes down-regulated (804) included those involved with lipid synthesis e.g., APOC2, SCD, FABP3 and FABP4. The most affected pathways were chemokine signaling, Wnt signaling and complement and coagulation cascades, which likely reflects the early stage response of mammary tissue to S. agalactiae infection. No significant gene expression changes were detected by RNA-Seq in the others contrasts. Real time-PCR confirmed the increase in mRNA abundance of immune-related genes: TLR2, TLR4, IL-1β, and IL-10 at 3 hpi between IQ and NIQ. The expression profiles of Casp1 and Bax for any contrasts were unaffected whereas Bcl2 was increased in IQ, which suggests no induction of apoptosis during the first hours after infection. Results provided novel information regarding the early functional pathways and gene network that orchestrate innate immune responses to S. agalactiae infection. This knowledge could contribute to new strategies to enhance resistance to this disease, such as genomic selection.
Many economic losses occur in the poultry industry due to leg fragility. Knowing the genomic regions that influence traits associated with the growth and composition of the leg’s bone can help to improve the selection process leading to increased leg resistance to fracture. The present study aimed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mineral composition and morphometric traits of the tibia in 478 animals from an F2 broiler × layer cross. The measurement of weight, length and width of Tibia was carried out at 42 days of age. Ash, dry matter, levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn) and Calcium:Phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio were also recorded. The population was genotyped for 128 microsatellite markers and one single nucleotide polymorphism, covering 2630 cM of the chicken genome. A likelihood ratio test was performed to find QTLs. Additive and dominance effects of the QTLs were included in the model. In the chromosomes 2 (GGA2), 6 (GGA6), 8 (GGA8), 24 (GGA24) and 26 (GGA26) some suggestive QTLs (P<0.00276) were mapped for tibia weight (GGA2 and GGA26), ash percentage (GGA2 and GGA6), dry matter percentage (GGA2), Ca (GGA8 and GGA24) and Ca:P ratio (GGA8), many of which are close to genes already identified as good candidates for those traits. The suggestive QTL on GGA2 has a pleiotropic effect on ash percentage, dry matter and bone weight, whereas in the GGA8 there seems to be two QTLs, one for Ca and another for Ca:P ratio. Thus, this study identified at least five genomic regions, in different chromosomes, that can be targeted for further research to identify potential mutations influencing the development and composition of leg bones in Gallus gallus.
Intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, microbial protein synthesis, weight gain, yields of the main commercial cuts and carcass morphometric measurements were evaluated in lambs fed diets containing different levels of chitosan. Sixty Santa Inês crossbred sheep with an average body weight (BW) of 24 ± 2.2 kg were assigned to three treatments (diets containing 0, 136 or 272 mg chitosan/kg BW) in a completely randomized design. There was no effect of chitosan on dry matter (DM) intake. Ingested and retained N showed a quadratic response, with the highest values estimated at the chitosan levels of 142 and 152 mg/kg BW, respectively. Similar to N balance, microbial protein synthesis showed the same quadratic response, in which the level of 136 mg/kg BW resulted in higher synthesis when compared with the other levels. No effect of chitosan was detected on average daily gain, final weight, or carcass variables (hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, yield of commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass). Conformation, visceral fat content and fatness of carcasses were also not altered by the use of chitosan. Chitosan improves the digestibility of DM, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre, and increases N balance and microbial protein synthesis but does not change the production performance of feedlot lambs.
Polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) and IGF type-1 (IGF1) genes have been associated with the economic traits in farm animals, including BW of some sheep breeds. However, it remains unknown if these polymorphisms also affect carcass traits in sheep. Thus, we aimed to identify polymorphisms in the GH and IGF1 genes in Santa Ines sheep in order to describe their allelic and genotypic frequencies as well as to test the hypotheses that they are associated with the carcass traits. Fragments of 4550 bp (IGF1) and 1194 bp (GH) were sequenced in up to 191 lambs. In all, 18 polymorphisms were identified in the IGF1 and 21 in the GH gene. The IGF1 polymorphisms rs430457475, rs412470350, rs409110739 and rs400113576 showed an additive effect on the internal carcass length (−0.9265±0.4223), rump girth (−2.9285±1.1473), rib yield (−1.0003±0.4588) and neck weight (−0.0567±0.0278), respectively. In addition, the polymorphisms rs58957314 in the GH affected the rib weight (−0.4380±0.1272) and rib yield (−2.2680±0.6970), loin weight (−0.1893±0.0516) and loin yield (−0.9423±0.3259), palette weight (−0.2265±0.0779) and palette yield (−0.9424±0.4184), leg weight (−0.3960±0.1375), neck weight (−0.0851±0.0394) and carcass finishing score (−0.1700±0.0839). These results allow us to conclude that there are polymorphisms in the IGF1 and GH genes associated with carcass traits in Santa Ines sheep, which can provide important information for marker-assisted selection.
Madelung's disease is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of multiple, symmetric, non-capsulated fat masses in the face, neck and other areas of upper extremities. In some cases, severe clinical complications such as upper airway compression can occur.
A 56-year-old man affected by Madelung's disease complained of snoring and severe daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnoea. An attempt to treat sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure failed because of poor compliance. Functional expansion pharyngoplasty was carried out as an initial treatment. Marked improvement of neck movements and normalisation of somnographic parameters were observed at six months’ follow up.
Patients with Madelung's disease should be examined carefully for potential obstructive sleep apnoea. Although continuous positive airway pressure remains the treatment of choice, specific surgery can be used in those patients who cannot tolerate continuous positive airway pressure therapy.
We performed two different approaches (broth enrichment step prior to culture (BEC) and PCR (BEPCR)) for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae from nasopharyngeal specimens collected from 242 children aged <6 years attending one hospital (n = 140) and one childcare centre (n = 102) in a major urban area in Brazil. These specimens were collected immediately before the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) for routine use in Brazil. Results were compared with previous findings obtained with direct culture (DC) on a selective medium. Colonisation prevalence was 58·3% (n = 141), being higher among children attending the childcare centre (62·7% vs. 55%). The culture-based methods (DC and BEC) enabled the detection of S. pneumoniae in 119 (49·2%) and 115 (47·5%) children, respectively. The PCR-based method (BEPCR) was more sensitive and 137 (56·6%) carriers were identified. Twenty-six serogroups/serotypes were identified, predominantly 6B, 19F, 14, 6A, 15C and 23F. Multiple colonisation was observed in 13 (5·4%) children. The estimated serotypes coverage of available PCVs was 40·4% for the 10-valent (included in the Brazilian immunisation programme) and 55·8% for the 13-valent (only available in private clinics). The use of robust approaches to obtain a more realistic insight about the asymptomatic carrier status is of paramount importance to estimate and assess the impact of vaccine implementation. The combination between culture-based and molecular methods constitutes a suitable strategy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine on performance, protein deposition and respiratory chain gene expression in male broilers. A total of 252 Cobb 500 broilers were distributed, in a completely randomized design, into four treatments with seven replicates of nine birds per experimental unit. Experimental treatments consisted of diets based on corn and soybean meal, with four levels of digestible lysine: 1.016%, 1.099%, 1.182% and 1.265%. The increase in the level of digestible lysine in the diet provided higher weight gains, feed efficiency and body protein deposition. Birds fed the lowest level of dietary lysine (1.016%) showed a lower expression of genes such as NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1), cytochrome b (CYTB) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COX I), II (COX II) and III (COX III), displaying the worst performance and body protein deposition. This demonstrates the relationship existing between the expression of the evaluated genes and the performance responses. In conclusion, results indicate that broilers fed diets with higher levels of digestible lysine have increased messenger RNA expression of some genes coded in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ND1, CYTB, COX I, COX II and COX III). It may be stated that diets with proper levels of digestible lysine, within the ‘ideal protein’ concept, promote the expression of genes, which increases the mitochondrial energy, thereby fostering body protein deposition and the performance of broilers in the starter phase.
The aim of the present work was to investigate birefringence and morphology of the secretory-stage enamel organic extracellular matrix (EOECM), and structural and mechanical properties of mature enamel of upper incisors from adult rats that had been treated with pamidronate disodium (0.5 mg/kg/week for 56 days), using transmitted polarizing and bright-field light microscopies (TPLM and BFLM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microhardness testing. BFLM showed no morphological changes of the EOECM in pamidronate and control groups, but TPLM revealed a statistically significant reduction in optical retardation values of birefringence brightness of pamidronate-treated rats when compared with control animals (p<0.01). EDX analysis showed that pamidronate-induced statistically significant decrease in phosphorus’ quantity in outer mature enamel (p<0.01) and an increase in the calcium/phosphorus ratio in that structure (p<0.05). Pamidronate did not induce ultra-structural alterations in mature enamel as revealed by SEM and did not cause a reduction in its microhardness (p>0.05). The present study indicates that pamidronate can affect birefringence of the secretory-stage EOECM, which does not seem to be associated with significant changes in morphological and/or mechanical properties of mature enamel.
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been hypothesised to be protective for depression during pregnancy. However, there are few data and no consensus regarding this association. In this line, we aim to evaluate if the concentration of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, and their ratio, are associated with depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy.
A prospective cohort of 172 Brazilian women was followed at 5–13th, 20–26th and 30–36th weeks of gestation. The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at each pregnancy trimester. Depression was defined as an EPDS score ≥11. The concentrations of n-3 [α-linolenic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid; γ linolenic acid; eicosadienoic acid; eicosatrienoic acid; arachidonic acid; docosatetraenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid] were expressed as absolute (μg/ml) values. The total n-6/n-3 ratio was calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate and adjusted random intercept logistic model for each fatty acid (FA) considering the longitudinal nature of data. Covariates were selected as potential confounders based on their biological plausibility of having an association with the concentration of FA and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high in all pregnancy trimesters (1st = 33.7%; 2nd = 18.9%; 3rd = 17.4%). We did not find differences in means FA concentrations by depressive symptom classification, for each follow-up visit. The women presented a 5% decrease in the odds of having depressive symptoms for each one-week increase in the gestational age. As individual women progressed through pregnancy, higher concentrations of EPA (odds ratio (OR) = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86–0.99), DHA (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93–0.99), DPA (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77–0.99) and total n-3 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96–0.99) were associated with a lower odds of depressive symptoms, while higher total n-6/n-3 ratio were associated with greater odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.09–1.79). We detected a decrease in the probability of depressive symptoms as concentrations of total n-3 FA, α-linolenic acid, DPA, and DHA increased. We also observed a sharper decline for women with initial greater chance of depressive symptoms compared with those with lower chance of having these symptoms.
We found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in low-income Brazilian pregnant women and no significant associations between n-6 FA and depressive symptoms. Lower serum concentrations of DHA, EPA and DPA and a higher n-6/n-3 ratio at each pregnancy trimester were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy.
Human toxocarosis is a chronic tissue parasitosis most often caused by Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence can reach up to 50%, especially among children and adolescents. The anthelmintics used in the treatment have moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of quinones and their derivatives against T. canis larvae and the cytotoxicity of the larvicidal compounds. The compounds were evaluated at 1 mg mL−1 concentration in microculture plates containing third stage larvae in an Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 environment, incubated at 37 °C in 5% CO2 tension for 48 h. Five naphthoxiranes were selected for the cytotoxicity analysis. The cell viability evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice revealed that the naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) were less cytotoxic at a concentration of 0·05 mg mL−1. The efficacy of naphthoxiranes (1 and 3) was examined in murine toxocarosis also. The anthelmintic activity was examined by evaluating the number of larvae in the brain, carcass, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys and eyes. Compound (3) demonstrated anthelmintic activity similar to that of albendazole by decreasing the number of larvae in the organs of mice and thus could form the basis of the development of a new anthelmintic drug.
Life history traits of Patella candei were studied for the first time, including weight versus length relationship, growth, age structure, sexual maturity, recruitment pattern, mortality rates and yield and biomass-per-recruit of an exploited population in Madeira Island, north-eastern Atlantic using monthly length–frequency data from January to December 1999. The growth pattern of P. candei showed positive allometric nature of growth (b > 3, P < 0.05). The estimated growth parameters showed an asymptotic length (L∞) and growth coefficient (K) estimated at 80.81 mm and K at 0.32 year−1 with a growth performance index (φ′) calculated as 3.32 based on the collected data. This species is moderately long-lived reaching up to 9.36 years and achieving sexual maturity at 36.7 mm of shell length. The recruitment pattern was continuous, displaying a major peak event per year, occurring in January (25.12%). The estimated total mortality rate (Z) was 1.79 year−1 while natural mortality rate (M) was 0.55 year−1 and fishing mortality rate (F) was 1.24 year−1. The probability of capture shows that the length at first capture (Lc) was 42.7 mm, the exploitation rate (E) 0.693 and the maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) was 0.779 for the highest yield. The exploitation rate was less than the predicted Emax values, showing that the stock of P. candei was found to be under-exploited in the investigated area; however, its slow growth and long life make it extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation.
To review the experiences at Winnipeg Children's Hospital (WCH) during the 2009 influenza season, with an emphasis on nosocomial transmission and infection prevention and control responses.
A case series of patients admitted to WCH who had laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza between January 1 and July 31, 2009, with a comparison of patients with seasonal influenza and those with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza; a review of the impact of infection prevention and control modifications on nosocomial transmission.
Patients and Setting.
A total of 104 inpatients with influenza, 81 of whom had pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza, were reviewed at a large Canadian pediatric tertiary care center.
There were no differences in risk factors, presentation, or outcome between patients with seasonal influenza and those with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. There were 8 nosocomial cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. Excluding patients with nosocomial cases, mean length of hospital stay was significantly shortened to 3.7 days for individuals who had pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and who received empiric oseltamivir on admission to the hospital, compared with 12.0 days for patients for whom treatment was delayed (P = .02). Treatment with oseltamivir of all patients with suspected cases of influenza and prompt modifications to infection control practices, including playroom closures and enhanced education of visitors and staff, terminated nosocomial transmission.
Infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus resulted in a substantial number of hospitalizations of pediatric patients in Manitoba, including those with nosocomial cases, thereby stressing the capacity of WCH. Immediate therapy with oseltamivir on admission to the hospital resulted in a significantly reduced length of hospitalization. This, coupled with intensified infection prevention and control practices, halted nosocomial transmission. These strategies should be considered in future pandemic influenza or other respiratory viral outbreaks.
The elastic and plastic deformation of micron size anisotropic polycrystals of Ni3Al and Cu3Au intermetallic alloys have been studied under non-hydrostatic conditions by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX) in a diamond-anvil cell. Compression was achieved by confining the samples in a viscous fluid or directly between the diamond anvils. Deviatoric forces are introduced in the samples as a result of the increasing viscosity with pressure and the eventual glassification of the pressurizing medium or by the contact forces of the diamond anvils. Line shifts and line profiles were used to analyze elastic and plastic strains. Plastic deformation is due to the onset of non-hydrostatic stresses and the introduction of stacking faults and dislocations. A volume incompressibility due to plastic deformation and the saturation of the stacking fault probability is followed by an elastic compression of a fully plastically deformed state. The compression of this state is isotropic and independent of the presence and type of the pressurizing medium. From the measured strains at different crystallographic orientations, the uniaxial stress and the stacking fault probability as a function of the confining pressure are derived and their role in the equation of state is examined. Using finite elasticity, the equation of state is derived in the presence of uniaxial stresses causing stacking faults, defects and dislocations.
The domestic dog's involvement with different members of the Trypanosomatidae family has been the focus of several studies due to this animal's close proximity to man. Recently this animal has been infected by a new Trypanosoma species (T. caninum), described in Rio de Janeiro and 19 similar isolates were later obtained. The objective of this study was to identify these isolates. All samples were isolated from intact skin cultures and analysed morphologically, by biochemical isoenzyme electrophoresis assays and by several molecular PCR assays. Additionally, anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies were assessed using the indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT) in all animals. The methodologies employed to identify the isolates, including partial nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA gene, indicated patterns identical to T. caninum and patterns different from the other species, including T. cruzi and T. rangeli samples. A phylogenetic tree constructed with the partial 18S ribosomal sequence shows that T. caninum is clustered with T. pestanai. Ten (52·6%) animals presented anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies with titres varying from 1:40 to 1:320. Thus, the hypothesis that this protozoan has disseminated among the dogs in Rio de Janeiro must be considered. The importance of a correct diagnosis in those animals and the possible consequences in the areas where visceral leishmaniasis is found are discussed here.
An ATP diphosphohydrolase (EC 126.96.36.199) activity was identified in a Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes preparation (Lb). Ultrastructural cytochemical microscopy showed this protein on the parasite surface and also stained a possible similar protein at the mitochondrial membrane. Isolation of an active ATP diphosphohydrolase isoform from Lb was obtained by cross-immunoreactivity with polyclonal anti-potato apyrase antibodies. These antibodies, immobilized on Protein A-Sepharose, immunoprecipitated a polypeptide of approximately 48 kDa and, in lower amount, a polypeptide of approximately 43 kDa, and depleted 83% ATPase and 87% of the ADPase activities from detergent-homogenized Lb. Potato apyrase was recognized in Western blots by IgG antibody from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients, suggesting that the parasite and vegetable proteins share antigenic conserved epitopes. Significant IgG seropositivity in serum samples diluted 1:50 from ACL patients (n=20) for Lb (65%) and potato apyrase (90%) was observed by ELISA technique. Significant IgG antibody reactivity was also observed against synthetic peptides belonging to a conserved domain from L. braziliensis NDPase (80% seropositivity) and its potato apyrase counterpart (50% seropositivity), in accordance with the existence of shared antigenic epitopes and demonstrating that in leishmaniasis infection the domain r82-103 from L. braziliensis NDPase is a target for the human immune response.
A collection of 18 landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from northern Portugal was evaluated for both phaseolin pattern and a set of qualitative and quantitative traits. The phaseolin Contender and Tendergreen types were the most commonly occurring, with Boyaca and Huevo de Huanchaco present, but rare. The colour of the flower standard and wing, and seed shape, colour and size were all highly variable. On the basis of morphological traits, the landraces and testers clustered into two main groups. No relationship was found between phaseolin profile and any of the quantitative traits measured. Based on phaseolin patterns, the origin of Portuguese common bean populations was probably the Andean region of South America.