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In this paper, we examine some of the physics behind Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) flying machines, and some of the emerging technologies that are driving the recent upsurge of new VTOL projects. The paper attempts to put these into context by examining some of the projects that have been publicised over the past couple of years, particularly those that transition from hovering into wing-borne flight. Although much progress has been made, there still needs to be significant breakthroughs in technologies, particularly battery technology, before the dream of fast, quiet and environmentally friendly inter-city VTOL aircraft can be realised.
Dicamba-resistant (DR) kochia is an increasing concern for growers in the US Great Plains, including Kansas. Greenhouse and field experiments (Garden City and Tribune, KS, in the 2014 to 2015 growing season) were conducted to characterize the dicamba resistance levels in two recently evolved DR kochia accessions collected from fallow fields (wheat–sorghum–fallow rotation) near Hays, KS, and to determine the effectiveness of various PRE herbicide tank mixtures applied in fall or spring prior to the fallow year. Dicamba dose–response studies indicated that the KS-110 and KS-113 accessions had 5- to 8-fold resistance to dicamba, respectively, relative to a dicamba-susceptible (DS) accession. In separate field studies, atrazine-based PRE herbicide tank mixtures, dicamba + pendimethalin + sulfentrazone, and metribuzin + sulfentrazone when applied in the spring had excellent kochia control (85% to 95%) for 3 to 4 mo at the Garden City and Tribune sites. In contrast, kochia control with those PRE herbicide tank mixtures when applied in the fall did not exceed 79% at the later evaluation dates. In conclusion, the tested kochia accessions from western Kansas had evolved moderate to high levels of resistance to dicamba. Growers should utilize these effective PRE herbicide tank mixtures (multiple sites of action) in early spring to manage kochia seed bank during the summer fallow phase of this 3-yr crop rotation (wheat–corn/sorghum–fallow) in the Central Great Plains.
Current methods of control recruitment for case-control studies can be slow (a particular issue for outbreak investigations), resource-intensive and subject to a range of biases. Commercial market panels are a potential source of rapidly recruited controls. Our study evaluated food exposure data from these panel controls, compared with an established reference dataset. Market panel data were collected from two companies using retrospective internet-based surveys; these were compared with reference data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare exposure to each of the 71 food items between the market panel and NDNS participants. We compared 2103 panel controls with 2696 reference participants. Adjusted for socio-demographic factors, exposure to 90% of foods was statistically different between both panels and the reference data. However, these differences were likely to be of limited practical importance for 89% of Panel A foods and 79% of Panel B foods. Market panel food exposures were comparable with reference data for common food exposures but more likely to be different for uncommon exposures. This approach should be considered for outbreak investigation, in conjunction with other considerations such as population at risk, timeliness of response and study resources.
To test the hypothesis that long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) or asymptomatic carriage of toxigenic strains are an important source of transmission in the LTCF and in the hospital during acute-care admissions.
A 6-month cohort study with identification of transmission events was conducted based on tracking of patient movement combined with restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).
Veterans Affairs hospital and affiliated LTCF.
The study included 29 LTCF residents identified as asymptomatic carriers of toxigenic C. difficile based on every other week perirectal screening and 37 healthcare facility-associated CDI cases (ie, diagnosis >3 days after admission or within 4 weeks of discharge to the community), including 26 hospital-associated and 11 LTCF-associated cases.
Of the 37 CDI cases, 7 (18·9%) were linked to LTCF residents with LTCF-associated CDI or asymptomatic carriage, including 3 of 26 hospital-associated CDI cases (11·5%) and 4 of 11 LTCF-associated cases (36·4%). Of the 7 transmissions linked to LTCF residents, 5 (71·4%) were linked to asymptomatic carriers versus 2 (28·6%) to CDI cases, and all involved transmission of epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strains. No incident hospital-associated CDI cases were linked to other hospital-associated CDI cases.
Our findings suggest that LTCF residents with asymptomatic carriage of C. difficile or CDI contribute to transmission both in the LTCF and in the affiliated hospital during acute-care admissions. Greater emphasis on infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs is needed, and these efforts should focus on LTCF residents during hospital admissions.
To what extent is there spatial and temporal patterning in the spread of our genus around the planet, and what environmental and behavioural factors specify this patterning? The prevailing model of Pleistocene dispersals of Homo holds that this process was essentially terrestrial, with oceans and seas inhibiting and directing the movement of hominins out of Africa (e.g. Mellars 2006; Dennell & Petraglia 2012; Gamble 2013), although some scholars propose short-range maritime hops at both the Strait of Gibraltar and Bab-el-Mandeb (Lambeck et al.2011; Rolland 2013). The relatively recent discovery of stone tools with apparently Lower and Middle Palaeolithic characteristics on islands in the eastern Mediterranean and in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) has, however, been used by some scholars to challenge this terrestrial model.
Despite overwhelming evidence demonstrating a persisting gap in life expectancy between those with psychotic illness and the general population, there has been no widespread implementation of interventions to improve the physical wellbeing of people with psychotic illness. This article explores opportunities to ‘Bridge the Gap’ in life expectancy. We describe an Australian evidence-based intervention that has substantially improved the physical health of young people recently commenced on antipsychotic medication. Further epidemiological research, accompanied by cultural change within mental health services, is an essential precursor to the implementation of effective and sustainable lifestyle interventions. There are other relatively neglected areas of physical wellbeing for people with psychotic illness, such as screening and diagnosis of malignancies, which need more research and clinical attention. While there has been progress with intervention development and evaluation, translation of evidence-based short-term intervention studies into feasible and sustainable system-wide changes within routine mental health service settings remains a challenge. Developing an implementation framework to support such change is an urgent priority so as to bridge the persisting premature mortality in people living with psychotic illness.
Placebo responses raise significant challenges for the design of clinical trials. We report changes in agitation outcomes in the placebo arm of a recent trial of citalopram for agitation in Alzheimer's disease (CitAD).
In the CitAD study, all participants and caregivers received a psychosocial intervention and 92 were assigned to placebo for nine weeks. Outcomes included Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A), modified AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) Agitation/Aggression domain (NPI A/A) and Total (NPI-Total) and ADLs. Continuous outcomes were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling and dichotomous outcomes with logistic regression.
Agitation outcomes improved over nine weeks: NBRS-A mean (SD) decreased from 7.8 (3.0) at baseline to 5.4 (3.2), CMAI from 28.7 (6.7) to 26.7 (7.4), NPI A/A from 8.0 (2.4) to 4.9 (3.8), and NPI-Total from 37.3 (17.7) to 28.4 (22.1). The proportion of CGI-C agitation responders ranged from 21 to 29% and was significantly different from zero. MMSE improved from 14.4 (6.9) to 15.7 (7.2) and ADLs similarly improved. Most of the improvement was observed by three weeks and was sustained through nine weeks. The major predictor of improvement in each agitation measure was a higher baseline score in that measure.
We observed significant placebo response which may be due to regression to the mean, response to a psychosocial intervention, natural course of symptoms, or nonspecific benefits of participation in a trial.
Marcus Aurelius (AD 121–180) was the renowned emperor of Imperial Rome from AD 161 until his death. However, his civic virtues and military victories will scarcely be mentioned in this chapter since Marcus Aurelius’ place in psychology comes from his only book, now known as the Meditations. The perspective on psychology described in the Meditations has long been influential in Western civilization and appears to be having a major resurgence at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The essence of Marcus Aurelius’ Stoic perspective on psychology is that if people adopt a few basic principles of living, they will have everything they need for coping with life’s travails with serenity, virtue, and a degree of happiness.
Much as Plato inspired philosophical movements in the ancient world called “Platonism” and later “Neoplatonism,” Marcus Aurelius became a leading figure in a philosophical movement called “Stoicism,” which had had a centuries-long history prior to his lifetime. By his time, the goals of “late Stoicism” had been narrowed down to a philosophy of life that laid out the rules for virtue and happiness (Hays’ Introduction in Aurelius, circa AD 170/2003, pp. xx–xxxv). Two other late Stoic writers still celebrated today are Seneca (circa AD 64/1969) and Epictetus (see Seddon, 2005). With the aid of Marcus Aurelius’ powerful and moving writing, late Stoicism was much more than just an academic philosophy; it became the philosophy of some of Rome’s great leaders, including some of its emperors. Late Stoicism:
… became the true religion of the educated classes [in Rome]. It furnished the principles of virtue, coloured the noblest literature of the time, and guided all the developments of moral enthusiasm.
This book is a re-introduction to psychology. It focuses on great scholarly thinkers, beginning with Plato, Marcus Aurelius and St Augustine, who gave the field its foundational ideas long before better known 'founders', such as Galton, Fechner, Wundt and Watson, appeared on the scene. Psychology can only achieve its full breadth and potential when we fully appreciate its scholarly legacy. Bruce Alexander and Curtis Shelton also argue that the fundamental contradictions built into psychology's history have never been resolved, and that a truly pragmatic approach, as defined by William James, can produce a 'layered' psychology that will enable psychologists to face the fearsome challenges of the twenty-first century. A History of Psychology in Western Civilization claims that contemporary psychology has overemphasized the methods of physical science and that psychology will need a broader scientific orientation alongside a scholarly focus in order to fully engage the future.
The rationalist perspective on psychology is based on the belief that the most important aspect of human nature is the capacity for reason that sets human beings apart from other animals. Rationalist psychologists must be at least partly right in this belief. No extraterrestrial visitor could study our corner of the universe without finding amazing evidence of human reason and intelligence everywhere, even though it might appear a strangely self-destructive force at times.
The rationalist perspective on psychology is more than just a flattering self-description of the human species. It unfolds to a complete description of human nature that can address just about any question that a present day psychologist might raise, from the source of happiness to the nature of intelligence, to the cause of mental illness and alcoholism, to the origin of values, to the best methods for conducting research. In the broader, philosophical sense of the word, rationalism continues unfolding across the borders of psychology in every direction – to politics, education, science, mathematics, religion, and the ultimate nature of reality. Although the rationalist perspective does not dominate today’s psychology, it was powerfully influential in the psychological thinking of at least two eras – the classical Greco-Roman era and the Enlightenment of early modern Europe – and it remains influential today.
Two hundred years after Marcus Aurelius’ death, Christianity was no longer the religion of a persecuted minority. Roman Catholicism had become the official state religion of Rome and was rapidly replacing Stoicism as the dominant personal philosophy of Romans of all classes, from slaves to the very wealthy (Brown, 2012). Christianity changed the way that the ancient world thought about the fundamentals of life and has had an enormous impact on Western philosophy and psychology ever since.
As in previous chapters, the psychological perspective that was built into Christianity will be discussed as an outgrowth of the historical period in which it became widely accepted and in the words of a scholar who wrote one of its most enduring formulations. The historical period is the last decades of the collapsing Western Roman Empire. The scholar is Aurelius Augustinus (AD 354–430), a popular orator and teacher, later an influential bishop in North Africa, and now known as one of the great fathers of the Roman Catholic Church, St. Augustine of Hippo.
St. Augustine was born in Thagaste in the Roman North African colony of Numidia in AD 354. (Thagaste is now Souk Ahras, a city in northern Algeria.) St. Augustine was one of the privileged people of his era. His father was a Roman citizen and official, who was well enough connected to arrange a classical education for his son. Augustine was never enslaved, tortured, or caught up in war until the very last days of his life. Nonetheless, his life story is a saga of continuous dislocation and grief. The mission of the rulers of Numidia, puppets of the distant Roman state, was to exploit the local population in order to maximize grain shipments to Rome. In an age where people fought to the death over matters of religion, his mother and father were so fundamentally at odds in religious belief that he had to take sides, repudiating his father.
The idea that psychology and medicine are closely intertwined is anything but new. It can be traced back to the Greek physician Hippocrates and his colleagues around 400 BC. In the Middle Ages, the Persian physician and philosopher Avicenna completed the Canon of Medicine, which described several psychological disorders and elaborated the relationship of the four humors of ancient medicine to emotional, mental, moral, and behavioral aspects of life. The Canon of Medicine was a standard medical text in medieval Europe after the twelfth century and remained in use in a few universities until the seventeenth century, along with texts by Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen (Lutz, 2002, p. 60).
In the nineteenth century, European physicians, including Pierre Janet, Jean-Martin Charcot, and Josef Breuer, began modernizing the medical perspective on psychology. However, it was an Austrian doctor named Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) who succeeded in bringing it to the attention of the world. In the decades before World War I, Freud hitched his audacious ideas about unconscious sexuality and aggression to the rising stars of the modernizing medical perspective on psychology and of scientific medicine in general. This new constellation proved so dazzling that it captured the imaginations of psychologists, physicians, and the general public.
This book is meant to re-introduce scholarly psychology to an unscholarly age. We do not hope to replace today’s professional psychology with its scholarly counterpart, but to re-imagine today’s vast psychological undertaking with its scholarly component fully engaged and its professional component critically examined and improved.
The impetus for taking on this ambitious task comes from the disappointment that we have seen in many professional psychologists about their own work. Although professional psychology has expanded in every conceivable direction in the last century, it has not lived up to the great expectations of its founders and advocates. It serves many functions in the twenty-first century, but it does not serve them well enough. Critical analysis of professional psychology has come from every direction. A broad spectrum of critical ideas will be reviewed in this chapter.
However, this final chapter is ultimately about envisioning a better course for psychology in the future. The first step toward this goal is showing that scholarly psychology has great potential for dealing with today’s psychological problems, even though it has been largely passed over by a contemporary world that is in love with science and technology. The second is showing that scholarly psychology also has built-in limitations and hazards that make it insufficient to carry psychology into the future by itself. The third step is showing that professional psychology, in spite of its own hazards and limitations, has some strengths that remain essential for the future. The fourth is showing that it is not only possible, but now necessary to re-imagine psychology for the future. The necessity arises from the cascading environmental, military, and moral crises that face the world, all of which arise from the actions of human beings.