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Findings from animal studies indicate that the early gut bacteriome is a potential mechanism linking maternal prenatal stress with health trajectories in offspring. However, clinical studies are scarce and the associations of maternal psychological profiles with the early infant faecal bacteriome are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the associations of prenatal stressors and distress with early infant faecal bacterial profiles in a South African birth cohort study.
Associations between prenatal symptoms of depression, distress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and faecal bacterial profiles were evaluated in meconium and subsequent stool specimens from 84 mothers and 101 infants at birth, and longitudinally from a subset of 69 and 36 infants at 4–12 and 20–28 weeks of age, respectively, in a South African birth cohort study.
Infants born to mothers that were exposed to high levels of IPV had significantly higher proportions of Citrobacter and three unclassified genera, all of which belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae detected at birth. Proportions of these Enterobacteriaceae remained significantly increased over time (birth to 20–28 weeks of life) in infants born to mothers with high levels of IPV exposure compared to infants from mothers with no/low IPV exposure. Infants born to mothers exposed to IPV also had higher proportions of the genus Weissella at 4–12 weeks compared to infants from mothers with no/low IPV exposure. Faecal specimens from mothers exposed to IPV had higher proportions of the family Lactobacillaceae and lower proportions of Peptostreptococcaceae at birth. Maternal psychological distress was associated with decreased proportions of the family Veillonellaceae in infants at 20–28 weeks and a slower decline in Gammaproteobacteria over time. No changes in beta diversity were apparent for maternal or infant faecal bacterial profiles in relation to any of the prenatal measures for psychological adversities.
Maternal lifetime IPV and antenatal psychological distress are associated with altered bacterial profiles in infant and maternal faecal bacteria. These findings may provide insights in the involvement of the gut bacteria linking maternal psychological adversity and the maturing infant brain.
Campylobacter fetus was isolated from five recent cases of human vibriosis, of which two were adults and three were children. One adult presented with pericarditis and the other with recurrent pyrexia. Campylobacter fetus subsp. intestinalis which resembled cattle strains serologically, was isolated under CO2 or anaerobic conditions from blood cultures of these patients. Two of the three children had kwashiorkor and the third was only 8 days old. Isolates identified as Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni were cultured from blood of these patients, two of whom had diarrhoea. Three patients succumbed, despite adequate antibiotic therapy. The epidemiology of the disease is discussed and it is suggested that infection may have been from the patients' own flora.
A 29-year-old man presented with sudden onset of severe pain in his throat, difficulty breathing and a hoarse voice, following an episode of vomiting.
Initial laboratory tests were normal. The patient underwent fibre-optic nasendoscopy, which demonstrated a haematoma in the piriform fossa. Lateral neck radiography and subsequent computed tomography scanning confirmed a 2 cm, loculated, gas-containing collection at the level of the vallecula in the right posterolateral wall, extending to the false vocal folds and communicating between the right parapharyngeal space and the right carotid sheath. Water-soluble contrast swallow confirmed the diagnosis.
Contained oesophageal perforation.
Conservative treatment was adopted involving nil orally, intravenous antibiotics and nasogastric feeding. The patient made an uneventful recovery.
To determine the nutritional status and household resources of preschool children.
A cross-sectional survey.
Two informal settlement areas, Joe Slovo (JS) and JB Mafora (JBM) in Mangaung, near Bloemfontein, South Africa.
Preschool children (<72 months) of a randomly selected sample of households in JS (experimental) (n = 162) and JBM (control) (n = 186) were included. Standard methods were used to obtain household and care-giver particulars, weight and height measurements, blood and stool samples, and 24-hour dietary recalls.
Breast-feeding and dietary intake in the two areas were nearly similar; breast-feeding was continued for 12 months and longer. Although the children's total protein intake was sufficient, their energy intake was low. A low median intake of micronutrients prevailed, including iron, zinc, calcium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine and vitamins C, B6, A and D. The prevalence of being underweight (JS = 19.8%; JBM = 18.8%), stunted (JS = 29%; JBM = 21.5%) and wasted (JS = 6.5%; JBM = 3.7%) were fairly similar in both areas, as well as the prevalence of marginal vitamin A deficiency, anaemia, iron deficiency and parasite infestations. No significant associations could be found between household and nutritional status indicators, probably due to the small number of well-nourished children and the generally poor household situation of the participants.
The generally poor nutritional status and environmental conditions emphasize the urgency of intervention for these children.
This study of reduplication in Afrikaans provides a unified and principled analysis of an unusual and highly complex word formation process, shedding new light on the scope and content of various fundamental lexicalist principles of word formation. Surprisingly, Rudolf Botha concludes that the principles involved in Afrikaans reduplication are not unique to Afrikaans, as has often been thought, and are used by many other languages. Moreover, the interpretation of Afrikaans reduplications depends on principles of conceptual structure that are restricted neither to Afrikaans nor to the interpretation of reduplications, thus supporting recent work on cognition and meaning undertaken by Ray Jackendoff and other scholars. In analysing the data, Professor Botha has also provided a concrete illustration of how the Galilean style of linguistic inquiry can fruitfully be applied in the study of word formation and meaning. The study thus represents an important theoretical and methodological advance which will be of as much interest for its method of inquiry and argumentation as for the fresh insights it provides for scholars and researchers in the fields of morphology, word formation and semantics.
As was noted in Chapter 1 above, Afrikaans reduplications are held in conventional analyses to be highly complex from the semantic point of view. That is, they are held to express a large set of often diverse “meanings” even though they are all built on a single formal pattern. Accordingly the process of Afrikaans reduplication is likewise taken to be a phenomenon of great semantic complexity. The present analysis, however, will claim that this semantic complexity is apparent rather than real and that all Afrikaans reduplications undergo one and the same semantic interpretation rule, namely (1).
(1) Interpret [∝i∝i] as [A INCREASED]
(where A represents the sense or meaning of ∝ and INCREASED represents an abstract semantic unit)
With the specifics of the interpretation rule (1) I will deal below. All that needs to be noted at this point is that rule (1), formulated in the spirit of the Galilean style, is strongly unifying in that it applies to all reduplications. And it is quite simple as well. The central question to be answered is how so simple a rule is able to account for the diversity in and specificity of the meanings conventionally attributed to Afrikaans reduplications. It is to this question that the present chapter will address itself.
The general thesis that will be argued is that both the diversity of the meanings associated with Afrikaans reduplications and the specificity of these meanings are a function of the interaction between the interpretation rule (1) and semantic and or general conceptual devices that are independent of it.
This study is ultimately concerned with the way in which morphological form, semantic interpretation, and conceptual structure interlink in the domain of word formation. It pursues this concern by analyzing Afrikaans reduplication in the Galilean style. To proceed in this way requires the ultimate concern to be broken down into three concerns of a more immediate and specific sort: a grammatical, a general linguistic, and a metascientific one.
The grammatical or language-specific concern of this study is with the form and meaning of Afrikaans reduplications. Reduplication in Afrikaans has conventionally been taken to be a process that forms expressions such as those underscored in (1)(a)–(k).
(a) Die kinders drink bottels–bottels limonade. the children drink bottles bottles lemonade “The children drink bottles and bottles of lemonade.”
(b) Hulle speel weer bal – bal. they play again ball ball “They are playing their ball game again.”
(c) Die pad was ent – ent sleg. the road was stretch stretch bad “The road was bad in some (scattered) stretches.”
(d) Sy kruk – kruk stadig oor die woelige straat. she crutch crutch slowly across the busy street “She moves slowly on her crutches across the busy street.”
(e) Die dokter vat – vat aan die swelsel. the doctor touch touch on the swelling “The doctor tentatively feels the swelling a couple of times.”
(f) Die leeu loop brul–brul weg. the lion walk roar roar away “Roaring repeatedly, the lion walks away.”
(g) Hulle eet dik – dik snye brood, they eat thick thick slices bread “They eat thumping thick slices of bread.”
This chapter provides further clarification of the manner in which the proposed theories of the formation and interpretation of Afrikaans reduplications are linked. The formation rule (2) of $2.1 copies all nouns (including cardinals), verbs, adjectives and adverbs, subject to the general constraints presented in Chapter 2 above. To each reduplication formed by this rule, the interpretation rule (1) of 3.1 assigns the semantic unit [INCREASED A]. This semantic unit is developed further by the conceptualization rules proposed in Chapter 3 above.
Note that the formation rule and the interpretation rule jointly generate a large number of reduplications that are unacceptable to native speakers. A significant subset of these unacceptable reduplications, being conceptually ill-formed, are filtered out by the conceptualization rules. That is, a subset of the reduplications generated jointly by the formation and interpretation rules are formally well-formed, but are unacceptable because the concepts corresponding to them are characterized as ill-formed by the conceptualization rules. The projected referents of such reduplications cannot be conceptualized in a coherent manner on these rules.
A few examples may serve to illustrate the filtering function of the conceptualization rules.
(a) *Hy woon in Parys–Parys. he live in Paris Paris “*He is living in a number of Parises.”
(b) *Sorg–sorg is hier nodig. care care is here required “*Scattered care is required here.”
(c) *Hy woon–woon in Parys. he live live in Paris “*He continually lives in Paris.”
The metascientific concern of this study has been to provide an illustration of the heuristic power of the Galilean style. Specifically, this concern has been with showing that this mode of inquiry may be profitably used to pursue depth of insight in less well researched areas, such as morphology and semantics, too. Given the characterization of this style presented in Chapter 1, the proposed analyses of the formation and interpretation of Afrikaans reduplications are clearly Galilean in nature. These analyses are Galilean in essentially two, complementary, respects: in their pursuit of theoretical unification, and in their treatment of data or “facts” that appear to pose a threat to unifying principles.
Consider first the manner in which the analyses illustrate the Galilean pursuit of depth of understanding through theoretical unification. Both the analysis of the formation and that of the interpretation of Afrikaans reduplications yielded strongly unifying theories. The theory of formation derives its unifying power from the single formation rule formulated as (2) in Chapter 2 and the various general constraints to which this rule was made subject. As regards the formation rule, it says in effect that all Afrikaans reduplications are formed in the same way, regardless of the lexical category to which these reduplications and their bases belong. To postulate only one formation rule for all Afrikaans reduplications is to say that from the point of view of their formation, these forms manifest a unitary phenomenon. As noted above, the general constraints placed on this rule constitute the second source of unifying power of the theory of formation.
To account for the formal properties of Afrikaans reduplications the theory to be developed below has to express the following generalization:
Afrikaans reduplications are words formed by the copying of words.
This generalization may be expressed by means of two hypotheses: the rule stated informally in (2)(a) – or less informally in (2)(b) – and the status specification in (3).
(a) Copy ∝
(b) ∝i → [∝i∝i]
(2) is a word formation rule
It will be argued below that, if the formation rule (2) is applied in conjunction with other, independently motivated rules of Afrikaans grammar and if, moreover, it is made subject to certain independently motivated general linguistic conditions, only a minimum of additional language-specific assumptions are needed to account for the formal properties of Afrikaans reduplications. Moreover, if word formation rules (or WFRs) are formally distinct from other formation rules, then (3) need not be stipulated as a separate claim in the grammar of Afrikaans.
The justification for the theory of the formation of Afrikaans reduplications to be presented in subsequent paragraphs has two basic components, each complementary to the other. On the one hand this theory has a highly desirable conceptual property: it provides insight into what appears to be a be wilderingly complex phenomenon by reducing its apparent complexity to a minimal number of hypotheses that are both simple and general. In achieving this reduction, the theory gains considerably in unifying power. On the other hand the theory has highly desirable empirical credentials: it implies correct consequences.
Interdiffusion and reaction in the GaAs/AuGe/Ni and GaAs/Ni/AuGe/Ni thin film systems have been investigated, using Auger Electron Spectroscopy depth profiling and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. The roles of the individual metal layers were determined by studying the GaAs/AuGe, GaAs/Ni and GaAs/Ni/AuGe subsystems. It was found that the interfacial layer in the GaAs/Ni/AuGe/Ni contact scheme prevents Ge from diffusing away from the interface. In this way more efficient doping of the GaAe is possible. Current-Voltage measurements indicate that this layer structure forms a good ohmic contact to GaAs.