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New global history studies have provided theoretical models related to different paths of economic growth and consumer behaviour between East Asia (mainly China and Japan) and Europe during the period of the first industrialisation. However, more research challenging the Eurocentric views of the origins of globalisation is needed. In this article, I examine the exchanges of Chinese silks and porcelains and European wines and liquors for American silver through the Swedish Grill Company. This company had extensive business activities in Canton and Macao establishing strategic links and intermediation with other relevant companies from China, Manila, Seville and Marseille. On the global level, such exchanges played a crucial role for the accumulation of American silver in China during the Qing dynasty, and the outflows of Chinese goods to the Americas and Europe fostered market integration and globalisation that occurred earlier than 1820.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
This communication assesses the use of a portable near infrared (NIR) instrument to measure quantitative (fatty acid profile) properties and qualitative (‘Premium’ and ‘Non-premium’) categories of individual Iberian pork carcasses at the slaughterhouse. Acorn-fed Iberian pigs have more unsaturated fats than pigs fed conventional compound feed. Recent advances in miniaturisation have led to a number of handheld NIR devices being developed, allowing processing decisions to be made earlier, significantly reducing time and costs. The most common methods used for assessing quality and authenticity of Iberian hams are analysis of the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat using gas chromatography and DNA analysis. In this study, NIR calibrations for fatty acids and classification as premium or non-premium ham, based on carcass fat measured in situ, were developed using a portable NIR spectrometer. The accuracy of the quantitative equations was evaluated through the standard error of cross validation or standard error of prediction of 0.84 for palmitic acid (C16:0), 0.94 for stearic acid (C18:0), 1.47 for oleic acid (C18:1) and 0.58 for linoleic acid (C18:2). Qualitative calibrations provided acceptable results, with up to 98% of samples (n = 234) correctly classified with probabilities ⩾0.9. Results indicated a portable NIR instrument has the potential to be used to measure quality and authenticity of Iberian pork carcasses.
To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
This is a retrospective cohort study based on data from five nursing homes which aims to appraise how physical and cognitive characteristics of nursing home residents were associated with the use of restraints, and to provide information on their prevalence in Spain. The goal was to assess, in a visual way, the possible interactions between the nursing homes residents’ characteristics and their association with the use of restraints. Motivation, risk factors, characteristics of the residents analysed by validated rating systems that assess mobility, level of dependence, cognitive condition and nutritional status, and their association with the use of restraints, were described by means of linear and non-linear multivariate approaches in the form of self-organised maps. Findings showed that the prevalence of restraints was high when compared to other developed countries. The visual analysis reinforced the knowledge that a greater impairment was associated with the use of restraints and vice versa. However, the residents’ characteristics were not always associated with the use of restraints. Subjective factors seem to play a relevant role in decision-making, so it is important to assess risk factors continuously and determine the actual need for the use of restraints from an individual perspective by basing the criteria on specific objectives, and on consistent, reproducible and reliable methods. Initiatives to minimise these subjective factors should be promoted. Likewise, a clear definition of physical restraints should be offered at each centre. In addition, effective legislation that clearly states the need, alternatives and motivation for the use of restraints is needed.
We studied the variability of germination, dormancy and viability loss of Hirschfeldia incana seeds in relation to seed size. Seeds were stored at 35°C under humid [75% relative humidity (RH)] or dry (33% RH) conditions. Seed germination and electrolyte leakage were evaluated periodically. Small seeds had lower longevity at humid or dry storage conditions (5 or 407 days, respectively) than large or intermediate seeds (7–9 or 536–727 days, respectively). Moreover, H. incana shows variability in seed dormancy related to seed size within a population, with small seeds having lower dormancy (13%) than intermediate (50%) or large seeds (72%). Dormancy was partially released after a short storage at 35°C and humid conditions. Under dry storage conditions, endogenous dormancy cycles were observed for over a year, and longer times of storage had a dormancy-breaking effect through dry after-ripening. Results suggest a dual strategy producing non-dormant seeds with low longevity that will germinate immediately after dispersal, and seeds with greater longevity that will delay germination. Membrane permeability increased linearly with ageing at both humid and dry storage (R2 = 0.60). Small seeds showed greater conductivity than intermediate or large seeds (0.7, 0.4 or 0.3 mS g–1 dry weight, respectively, at the 80% germination). The conductivity test could be used to evaluate the quality of H. incana seeds and would allow us to identify dormant (non-germinating) seed lots as viable. However, the influence of storage conditions and variability within a seed population on seed longevity should be taken into account when evaluating seed quality.
Victimization experienced in childhood has been linked with health-risk behaviors (HRBs) in adulthood. The purpose of this cross-sectional survey was to provide data regarding the HRBs using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool Retrospective version (ICAST-R), Spanish version. This aimed to broaden existing knowledge by assessing both being victimized by adults and by peers in a Spanish general population of 348, aged 18–35. Age and timing of the reported victimization were also considered. Victimization: physical, psychological, sexual abuse by adults and/or peers showed a prevalence of 44.54%. Of these, 41.29% reported abuse by both. Children victimized by adults, regardless of type, were significantly associated to be psychologically abused by their peers (p < .001). Moreover, psychological maltreatment by adults was significantly associated with two peer victimizations: Physical and psychological (p < .001 in both). Regarding HRBs, peer victimized groups showed significantly higher levels of severity than non-victimized, with a higher proportion reporting attempted suicide (p < .05) and psychological or psychiatric treatment (p < .05). Participants victimized only by adults reported higher number of HRBs (p < .01), their victimization was associated to more severe abuse of drugs/alcohol (p ≤ .05), and suicide attempts (p < .05). Those victimized by adults and peers received treatment in higher proportion than non-victims (p < .001). Participants reporting victimization since before 5 years to age of 17, compared with non-victimized, showed more substance abuse (p < .05), attempted suicide (p < .01) and receipt of treatment (p < .05). These findings highlight the relevance of ICAST-R in studying HRBs.
We exploit the idea of proving properties of an abstract machine by using a corresponding semantic artefact better suited to their proof. The abstract machine is an improved version of Pierre Crégut’s full-reducing Krivine machine KN. The original version works with closed terms of the pure lambda calculus with de Bruijn indices. The improved version reduces in similar fashion but works on closures where terms may be open. The corresponding semantic artefact is a structural operational semantics of a calculus of closures whose reduction relation is purposely a reduction strategy. As shown in previous work, improved KN and the structural operational semantics ‘correspond’, i.e. both artefacts realise the same reduction strategy. In this paper, we prove in the calculus of closures that the reduction strategy simulates in lockstep (at every reduction step) the complete and standard normal-order strategy (i.e. leftmost reduction to normal form) of the pure lambda calculus. The simulation is witnessed by a substitution function from closures of the closure calculus to pure terms of the pure lambda calculus. Thus, KN also simulates normal-order in lockstep by the correspondence. This result is stronger than the known proof that KN is complete, for in the pure lambda calculus there are complete but non-standard strategies. The lockstep simulation proof consists of straightforward structural inductions, thanks to three properties of the closure calculus we call ‘index alignment’, ‘parameters-as-levels’ and ‘balanced derivations’. The first two come from KN. Thanks to these properties, a proof in a calculus of closures involving de Bruijn indices and de Bruijn levels is unproblematic. There is no lexical adjustment at binding lookup, on-the-fly alpha-conversion or recursive traversals of the term to deal with bound and free variables as in other calculi. This paper contributes to the framework for environment machines of Biernacka and Danvy a full-reducing open-terms closure calculus, its corresponding abstract machine, and a lockstep simulation proof via a substitution function.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
The tourist attraction of a cruise itinerary is composed of the on board experience plus the shore-based experience. Due to the positive dynamism of the cruise industry since the beginning of the twenty-first century, cruise lines are driven to innovate to create new experiences that help maintain high demand rates. From the point of view of creating new experiences on land, cruise lines move their vessels from one destination region to another to maximise the vessel's occupancy and to offer itineraries with a wider variety of shore-based attractions. These new itinerary designs lead to alterations in the seasonality patterns of the neighbouring regions. In this work, the 17 most important cruise ports located in the northeast quadrant of the Atlantic Ocean are analysed to find groups of ports with homogeneous seasonality patterns using clustering techniques. The analysis showed two different seasonality patterns. Consequently, some implications to improve the use of the ports of both clusters are included.
Among fish parasitic nematodes Rhabdochona is one of the most speciose genera, with c. 100 species. Twelve congeneric species occur in Mexican freshwater fishes, in a region located between the Nearctic and Neotropical biogeographical regions. Host association and biogeographical history have determined the high species richness of Rhabdochona in Mexico. One of these species, Rhabdochona mexicana, is highly specific to the characid genus Astyanax. Characids are a group of freshwater fish with Neotropical affinity. In this paper, we explore the genetic diversity of R. mexicana through samples obtained from populations of Astyanax spp. across river basins of Mexico and Guatemala. Sequences of one mitochondrial and two ribosomal genes were obtained from 38 individuals and analysed using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analysis. Phylogenetic analyses using cox1, and a concatenated alignment of 18S + 28S + cox1 recovered two genetic lineages. One of them corresponded with R. mexicana sensu stricto; this lineage included three reciprocally monophyletic subgroups; the other lineage was highly divergent and represented a putative candidate species. A detailed morphological study was conducted to corroborate the molecular findings. We describe a new species herein and discuss the implications of using molecular tools to increase our knowledge about the diversity of a speciose genus such as Rhabdochona.
Low density (LD) steels have shown particular characteristics in terms of mechanical properties and microstructure, since they have high strength, high ductility and density reduction up to 18%. On the other hand, the addition of microalloying elements such as Ti and B generate hardening by solid solution and precipitation, as well as grain refinement effect. LD steels generate nano-sized kappa phase precipitated from the austenite matrix, and these advanced steels can reach strength and elongation up to 780 MPa and 60%, respectively. The main objective of this research work is the metallographic, structural and mechanical characterization of a LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B in as-cast and -homogenized conditions. For this purpose a Fe-27Mn-7Al-1.2C (%wt) LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B was melted in a vacuum-induction furnace and cast in metallic mold. LD-Ti/B steel samples were homogenized at 1100 °C during 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 minutes followed by water quenching. Metallographic, structural and mechanical characterization was carried out by optical (LOM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness Vickers testing (HV10), respectively. In general, results showed a typical dendritic microstructure with average grain size of 1256 μm in the as-cast condition. On the other hand, the as-homogenized condition showed an austenitic equiaxial microstructure with average grain size from 164 to 940 μm. Austenite, ferrite and kappa phases were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, second-phase particles such as AlN, TiC and MnS were detected by LOM and SEM-EDS analysis. LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B exhibited the highest microhardness Vickers value (235 HV10) in the as-cast condition, whilst in the as-homogenized condition microhardness gradually decreases from 223 to 198 HV10 as holding time increases.
In this work, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) was analyzed by direct light with visible radiation (λ > 450 nm) of a dye solution in the presence of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) or silicon nanowires with copper nanoparticles (SiNWs-CuNPs). The SiNWs were synthesized by metal assisted etching from monocrystalline silicon wafers in aqueous HF / AgNO3 solution, and the CuNPs were deposited on the SiNWs via electroless. Discoloration with visible irradiation of aqueous methyl orange solution (C14H14N3NaOS) in the presence of SiNWs showed an efficiency of 71% after 120 min of illumination. The deposition of copper nanoparticles on the nanowires improves the efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction achieving 89% discoloration after 120 min exposure to visible light. The MO photocatalytic degradation with visible radiation in aqueous solution shows to be efficient in discoloration reaching up to 92% in a time of 150 min in the presence of SiNWs-CuNPs.
In this paper, we analyse the semilinear fourth-order problem ( − Δ)2u = g(u) in exterior domains of ℝN. Assuming the function g is nondecreasing and continuous in [0, + ∞) and positive in (0, + ∞), we show that positive classical supersolutions u of the problem which additionally verify − Δu > 0 exist if and only if N ≥ 5 and
for some δ > 0. When only radially symmetric solutions are taken into account, we also show that the monotonicity of g is not needed in this result. Finally, we consider the same problem posed in ℝN and show that if g is additionally convex and lies above a power greater than one at infinity, then all positive supersolutions u automatically verify − Δu > 0 in ℝN, and they do not exist when the previous condition fails.