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In recent decades, concern about rabbit welfare and sustainability has increased. The housing system is a very important factor for animal welfare. However, information about how different available housing types for female rabbits affect their health status is scarce, but this is an important factor for their welfare. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the health status of female rabbits in five common housing systems: three different single-housing systems with distinct available surfaces and heights; a single-housing system with a platform; a collective system. Female rabbits in the collective and platform cages had greater cortisol concentrations in hair than those in the single-housing system with no platform. Haptoglobin concentrations and kit mortality rates during lactation were greater for the collective-cage female rabbits. The collective group had more culled females and more lesions than in the other groups. The main reasons for culling in all the groups were reproduction problems and presence of abscesses, and the collective group of females was the most affected. In conclusion, it appears that keeping females together in collective systems negatively affects their health status and welfare, while single-housing systems imply lower kit mortality rates during lactation and cortisol concentrations, and fewer lesions in female rabbits.
A weed survey was conducted on 134 Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) populations from Mississippi and Arkansas in 2017 to investigate the spread of resistance to protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors using fomesafen as a proxy. Fomesafen resistance was found in 42% of the A. palmeri populations. To investigate the resistance basis of different PPO inhibitors, we further characterized 10 representative populations by in planta bioassay in a controlled environment and molecular characterizations (DNA sequencing and Taqman gene expression assay). A total of 160 plants were sprayed with a labeled field rate (1x) of fomesafen or salfufenacil and screened for the presence of three known resistance endowing mutations in the mitochondrial PPX2 gene (ΔG210, R128G, G399A). To compare the potencies of fomesafen and saflufenacil, dose response studies were conducted on two highly resistant and one sensitive populations. The interaction of the two herbicides with the target protein harboring known PPX2 mutations was also analyzed. Our results showed that: 1) 90% of the fomesafen or saflufenacil resistant plants have at least one of the three known PPX2 mutations, with ΔG210 being the most prevalent; 2) saflufenacil is more potent than fomesafen, with 5-9 times lower resistance/susceptible (R/S) ratios; 3) fomesafen selects for more diverse mutations, and computational inhibitor/target modeling of fomesafen suggest a weaker binding affinity in addition to a smaller interaction volume and volume overlap with the substrate protoporphyrinogen IX than saflufenacil. As a result, saflufenacil shows reduced sensitivity to PPX2 target-site mutations. Results from current study can help pave the way for designing weed management strategies to delay resistance development and maintain the efficacy of PPO inhibitors.
There is growing evidence that L2 learners pick up new words while viewing video but little is known about the role of individual differences. This study explores incidental learning after viewing a French documentary containing 15 pseudowords and investigates whether learning is moderated by participants’ prior vocabulary knowledge and working memory. Sixty-three higher-intermediate learners of French participated in this study. Prior vocabulary knowledge was measured by means of a French meaning recognition test. Participants also took a forward digit-span (phonological short-term memory), a backward digit-span, and an operation-span task (complex working memory). After viewing the video, four surprise vocabulary tests on form and meaning were administered. Results revealed that learning gains occurred at the level of form and meaning recognition. Vocabulary knowledge was positively related to picking up new words from video. Complex working memory correlated with the recognition tests showing more incidental learning gains for learners with higher complex working memory.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been linked to academic underachievement, but previous studies had methodological limitations. We investigated the association between SAD and objective indicators of educational performance, controlling for a number of covariates and unmeasured confounders shared between siblings.
This population-based birth cohort study included 2 238 837 individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 1997, followed-up until 2013. Within the cohort, 15 755 individuals had a recorded ICD-10 diagnosis of SAD in the Swedish National Patient Register. Logistic regression models tested the association between SAD and educational performance. We also identified 6488 families with full siblings discordant for SAD.
Compared to unexposed individuals, individuals diagnosed with SAD were less likely to pass all subjects in the last year of compulsory education [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) ranging from 0.19 to 0.44] and less likely to be eligible for a vocational or academic programme in upper secondary education [aOR = 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30–0.33) and aOR = 0.52 (95% CI 0.50–0.55), respectively], finish upper secondary education [aOR = 0.19 (95% CI 0.19–0.20)], start a university degree [aOR = 0.47 (95% CI 0.45–0.49)], obtain a university degree [aOR = 0.35 (95% CI 0.33–0.37)], and finish postgraduate education [aOR = 0.58 (95% CI 0.43–0.80)]. Results were attenuated but remained statistically significant in adjusted sibling comparison models. When psychiatric comorbidities were taken into account, the results were largely unchanged.
Treatment-seeking individuals with SAD have substantially impaired academic performance throughout the formative years. Early detection and intervention are warranted to minimise the long-term socioeconomic impact of the disorder.
The present work is aimed to study a comparison among synthesized graphene films, deposited on copper substrates and commercial graphene films; both decorated with Eu2O3 particles, with the purpose of promoting photoluminescence. The decoration procedure was achieved using the radio frequency sputtering (R.F. Sputtering) technique for the deposition of Eu2O3 on synthesized or commercial graphene films. The SEM obtained images, show differences in morphology when commercial and synthesized graphene films are compared. Our results indicate that the type of surface is the main factor that accounts for the europium oxide spatial distribution that ultimately leads to luminescence enhancing. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, showed the trivalent oxidation state of europium and the atomic content of Europium for both; the commercial graphene film and synthesized one, where the first one presented the higher europium concentration. Analysis by Raman spectroscopy reveals that graphene films become disordered after the decoration is achieved. The main Raman bands of the commercial graphene films undergo a remarkable red shift, as a consequence of the presence of europium oxide It was observed that the interaction of Eu2O3 with the sp2 levels of graphene, improves the red photoluminescence of the samples grown on both, commercial and prepared graphene films.
The random encounter model, a method for estimating animal density using camera traps without the need for individual recognition, has been developed over the past decade. A key assumption of this model is that cameras are placed randomly in relation to animal movements, requiring that cameras are not set only at sites thought to have high animal traffic. The aim of this study was to define a correction factor that allows the random encounter model to be applied in photo-trapping surveys in which cameras are placed along tracks to maximize capture probability. Our hypothesis was that applying such a correction factor would compensate for the different rates at which lynxes use tracks and the surrounding area, and should thus improve the estimates obtained with the random encounter model. We tested this using data from a well-known Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus population. Firstly, we estimated Iberian lynx densities using a traditional camera-trapping design followed by spatially explicit capture–recapture analyses. We estimated the differential use rate for tracks vs the surrounding area using data from a lynx equipped with a GPS collar, and subsequently calculated the correction factor. As expected, the random encounter model overestimated densities by 378%. However, the application of the correction factor improved the estimate and reduced the error to 16%. Although there are limitations to the application of the correction factor, the corrected random encounter model shows potential for density estimation of species for which individual identification is not possible.
The incorporation of triturated tire particles as an aggregate in the concrete mixture is one of the ways to take advantage of this Waste Rubber (WR) in order to improve concrete properties, such as mechanical behavior. In this research we evaluated mechanical behavior of concrete specimens prepared with different amounts WR, which partially substituted the fine aggregate, under an indirect tensile test. In contrast with other’s researcher’s findings, our results show that the specimens with 5% WR present the highest value of indirect tensile strength (TP) of 4.36 MPa. Polynomial relationships between TP and compression strength (f´c), where Tp ranges from 0.1f´c to 0.2f´c. Specimens with the 0, 5 and 10% WR content show two types of failure: normal tension and tiple-cleft failure, described in the norm ASTM 1144-89. Nevertheless, specimens with 15 and 20% WR show a new failure not described in the norm, which is thought to be occurring due to the high amount of WR used.
Semantically ambiguous and emotional words occur frequently in language, and the different meanings of ambiguous words can sometimes have different emotional loads. For example, the Spanish word heroína (heroin/heroine) can refer to a drug or to a woman who performs a heroic act. Because both ambiguity and emotionality affect word processing, there is a need for normative databases that include data on the emotionality of the different meanings of such words. Thus far, no bases of this type are available in Spanish. With this in mind, the current study will present meaning-dependent affective (valence) ratings for 252 Spanish ambiguous words. The analyses performed show that (a) among ambiguous words, those words with meanings that have distinct affective valence are quite frequent, (b) ambiguous words rated as neutral in isolation can have meanings of opposite valence (i.e., negative-positive or positive-negative), and (c) the valence estimated for ambiguous words in isolation is better explained by the weighted average of the valence of their meanings by dominance. A database of this kind can be useful both for basic research (e.g., relationship between emotion and language and ambiguity processing) and for applied research (e.g., cognitive and emotional biases in emotional disorders and second language learning).
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a primary care-based group educational intervention about concepts of pain neuroscience for the management of migraine compared to the routine medical care delivered to patients with this condition.
The way pain is understood has been radically changed in recent decades, thanks to developments in the field of neuroscience. Thus, migraine may develop as a result of an exaggerated perception of threat that activates the pain neuromatrix, which might be modifiable, from a learning perspective, by adjusting the beliefs and behaviours that favour the onset of an attack.
A randomised controlled trial was carried out in five primary care health centres of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Spain). The follow-up period was 12 months. The main outcome measure was the reduction in days lost due to migraine-related disability according to the Migraine Disability Assessment Test (MIDAS) score. Secondary outcome measures included the intensity and frequency of the pain and the number of analgesic drugs taken in the previous three months. A positive response to treatment was considered when the MIDAS score decreased by at least 50% from baseline.
Days lost due to migraine-related disability decreased by at least 50% in 68.9% (n = 37) of patients in the intervention group and 34.6% of patients in the control group (n = 18) (P < 0.001). The intensity of the headache [odds ratio (OR) 9.116; P = 0.005] and the medication intake (OR 13.267; P < 0.001) were also significantly reduced with the intervention.
The provision of suitable information through a group educational intervention delivered in primary care appears to be effective in preventing migraine attacks. Moreover, the intervention could offer a new cost-effective management alternative that seems to reduce the need for pharmacological treatment in patients with migraine.
Nanoparticles and nanopores of iron oxide were synthesized by electrochemical anodization, in an electrolytic medium of ammonium fluoride (NH4F), deionized water and ethylene glycol. After anodization, the Fe foils were annealed at 450 °C for 2 hours. Different anodization times and two concentrations of NH4F (0.1 M and 1.2 M) were evaluated, under static conditions at room temperature. Scanning Electron Microscopy showed nanopores (0.1 M) and nanoparticles (1.2 M). Eight vibration modes characteristic of α-Fe2O3 were found with Raman spectroscopy technique. Relationship between the modes Eu(LO) and 2Eu(LO) was found, therefore, their association with the disorder in the crystalline structure can be determined and it was also found that 2Eu(LO) intensity mode at a concentration of 1.2 M is larger than 0.1 M nanostructures, the FWHM of the A1g mode at 227 cm-1 corresponding to the Fe3+ ions and the Eg at 293 cm-1 mode caused by the O2- ions was also analyzed and founded that the crystalline structure of hematite can be determined by the A1g mode at 227 cm-1.
Due to their excellent properties, aerogel has attracted the attention of the scientific community to use it in the biomedical area as a drug delivery system. This work reports on the synthesis and characterization of ZrO2 aerogels and cryogels obtained by the sol-gel method. The influence of different cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the type of drying on structural, morphological and texture properties of ZrO2 aerogels and cryogels was investigated. SEM images reveal that a porous interconnected three-dimensional network was formed into aerogels due to supercritical drying. Zirconia aerogel sample has a specific surface area (SBET) larger than zirconia cryogels. Therefore, our results indicate that zirconia aerogel is an adequate material for applications in drug delivery systems.
It is generally assumed that the digenean human liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, gained entry to South America during the 15th century upon arrival of Europeans and their livestock. Nonetheless in Patagonia, Argentina, digenean eggs similar to F. hepatica have been observed in deer coprolites dating back to 2300 years B.P. The main objective of our present study was to identify and characterize these eggs using an ancient DNA (aDNA) study. Eggs were isolated and used for aDNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of partial regions from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 mitochondrial genes. Also, phylogenetic trees were constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood. Our results confirm the presence of F. hepatica in South America from at least 2300 years B.P. This is the first report and the first aDNA study of this trematode in South America prior to the arrival of the European cattle in the 15th century. The present work contributes to the study of phylogenetic and palaeobiogeographical aspects of F. hepatica and its settlement across America.
In this work, the anodization of grade 2 titanium was performed using a HCl-based electrolyte in order to obtain Titania nanostructures. Different glycerol concentrations were added to the HCl electrolyte to study the effect it has on the shape and density of the nanostructures, additionally, anodization time and voltage was also varied. The anodized samples were observed by SEM microscopy and studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Raman spectroscopy and XRD showed the formation of the anatase phase of the TiO2. By SEM it was possible to observe several changes in the shape of the structures, by adding glycerol ball-like structures were visible, anodization time did not change the shape of the nanostructures. However, the voltage variation showed a clear control on the shape of the structures, forming nanotubes at higher voltages. It was concluded that a better control of the shape and density of the nanostructures is achieved by adding glycerol, however, in order to overcome the resistance that the electrolyte brings, higher voltages are required.
Regional electricity systems, or power pools, can reduce the cost of providing electricity and improve system reliability through co-ordinated use of energy resources. Realizing these benefits requires a strong political will to co-operate combined with careful market design supported by technical, economic and institutional analysis. In this chapter, we present some of the unique motivations for power pools in Africa, describe the current status of pooling arrangements on the continent, study in detail the regulation of transmission in the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) and identify some improvements to the present rules. Our approach combines mathematical modelling of the SAPP system using linear programming with analysis of regional institutions and their role in promoting efficient investments as well as efficient market behaviour. We have investigated several market-design questions, such as how to identify, implement and allocate costs for necessary regional transmission investments. Our regulatory proposals developed for the SAPP could be feasible options for other regional systems in Africa that face similar institutional and technical challenges in developing regional infrastructure.
Meaning-centered psychotherapy (MCP) is a structured psychotherapeutic intervention that aims to improve existential and spiritual well-being in patients with advanced cancer. To validate it, several efficacy studies with predominantly non-Hispanic white patients have been done. Puerto Ricans residing on the island are a largely overlooked segment of the US Latinx population. They have a strong national identity and are embedded in a collectivist culture which shares the Spanish language, cultural traditions, and an emphasis on familism, a cultural factor that values the role of the family in ensuring the well-being of its members.
The purpose of this study is to present a case study focused on a Puerto Rican advanced cancer patient who underwent MCP to assess the comprehension and acceptance of the MCP intervention.
We used a mixed-methods study design that included the taking of ethnographic notes, and pre- and post-test assessments of the scores the patient received on all the measures (using validated scales). The ethnographic notes were analyzed to determine the participant's comprehension and acceptance of the MCP intervention. Content analysis was performed on the ethnographic notes by three independent coders using a deductive coding approach. Pre- and post-interview assessments were conducted to explore changes in distress, spiritual well-being, and self-perceived quality of life.
A Latino patient with stage III cancer, low income, and low literacy skills showed low comprehension of the concepts of meaning, the finite, legacy, and moderate comprehension and acceptance of the concepts of the search for hope, purpose in life, connecting with life, courage, life's limitations, and sources of meaning. However, the patient showed high comprehension of death and dying (i.e., meaningful death). The patient showed low acceptance of death and dying concepts and high acceptance of the integration of family members into the therapy.
Significance of Results
Additional studies are needed to address cultural themes and to improve the comprehensibility and acceptance of the manual's content and the central MCP concepts. The findings suggest that MCP has the potential of being a feasible form of psychotherapy for Latinx patients suffering from distress, low spiritual well-being, and low self-perceived QOL.
Functional neurological disorder (FND) is a condition at the intersection of neurology and psychiatry. Individuals with FND exhibit corticolimbic abnormalities, yet little is known about the role of white matter tracts in the pathophysiology of FND. This study characterized between-group differences in microstructural integrity, and correlated fiber bundle integrity with symptom severity, physical disability, and illness duration.
A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study was performed in 32 patients with mixed FND compared to 36 healthy controls. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected along with patient-reported symptom severity, physical disability (Short Form Health Survey-36), and illness duration data. Weighted-degree and link-level graph theory and probabilistic tractography analyses characterized fractional anisotropy (FA) values across cortico-subcortical connections. Results were corrected for multiple comparisons.
Compared to controls, FND patients showed reduced FA in the stria terminalis/fornix, medial forebrain bundle, extreme capsule, uncinate fasciculus, cingulum bundle, corpus callosum, and striatal-postcentral gyrus projections. Except for the stria terminalis/fornix, these differences remained significant adjusting for depression and anxiety. In within-group analyses, physical disability inversely correlated with stria terminalis/fornix and medial forebrain bundle FA values; illness duration negatively correlated with stria terminalis/fornix white matter integrity. A FND symptom severity composite score did not correlate with FA in patients.
In this first DTI study of mixed FND, microstructural differences were observed in limbic and associative tracts implicated in salience, defensive behaviors, and emotion regulation. These findings advance our understanding of neurocircuit pathways in the pathophysiology of FND.