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In this ground-breaking work, Bridget Orr shows that popular eighteenth-century theatre was about much more than fashion, manners and party politics. Using the theatre as a means of circulating and publicizing radical Enlightenment ideas, many plays made passionate arguments for religious and cultural toleration, and voiced protests against imperial invasion and forced conversion of indigenous peoples by colonial Europeans. Irish and labouring-class dramatists wrote plays, often set in the countryside, attacking social and political hierarchy in Britain itself. Another crucial but as yet unexplored aspect of early eighteenth-century theatre is its connection to freemasonry. Freemasons were pervasive as actors, managers, prompters, scene-painters, dancers and musicians, with their own lodges, benefit performances and particular audiences. In addition to promoting the Enlightened agenda of toleration and cosmopolitanism, freemason dramatists invented the new genre of domestic tragedy, a genre that criticized the effects of commercial and colonial capitalism.
Frozen raw breaded chicken products (FRBCP) have been identified as a risk factor for Salmonella infection in Canada. In 2017, Canada implemented whole genome sequencing (WGS) for clinical and non-clinical Salmonella isolates, which increased understanding of the relatedness of Salmonella isolates, resulting in an increased number of Salmonella outbreak investigations. A total of 18 outbreaks and 584 laboratory-confirmed cases have been associated with FRBCP or chicken since 2017. The introduction of WGS provided the evidence needed to support a new requirement to control the risk of Salmonella in FRBCP produced for retail sale.
This chapter argues that Arthur Murphy’s tragic dramaturgy is more radical than has been recognised, notably in its treatment of the classic Enlightenment concerns with religious toleration and the ‘savage’ or indigenous critique of colonial invasion. Murphy’s serious plays are Drydenic in spatial reach, stretching from East Asia (The Orphan of China ) to Peru (Alzuma [1757/1773]) via Syria (Zenobia ) and Greece (The Grecian Daughter ). Murphy’s imperial dramaturgy swerves from his predecessor’s, however, in focusing on female protagonists and reiterating indigenous or non-European literary historical accounts of colonial conquest and resistance. Contextualising Murphy’s tragic writing via his Irish and Catholic origins (partially subsumed by his later metropolitan British and Anglican affiliations), this chapter explores Alzuma’s reiteration of Voltaire’s and Hill’s Alzire/Alzuma, themselves redactions of Garcilaso de la Vega’s Royal Commentaries of Peru. Noting how Murphy’s profound attachment to his devoutly Catholic mother informs his critique of forced conversion, Orr shows how his dramatisation of the black legend topos is linked to other Irish Patriot uses of this trope, by radical politician Charles Lucas and by well-known Patriot author Henry Brooke, in the latter’s Montezuma [undated].
In 2013, a task force was developed to discuss the future of the Canadian pediatric neurology workforce. The consensus was that there was no indication to reduce the number of training positions, but that the issue required continued surveillance. The current study provides a 5-year update on Canadian pediatric neurology workforce data.
Names, practice types, number of weekly outpatient clinics, and dates of certification of all physicians currently practicing pediatric neurology in Canada were obtained. International data were used to compute comparisons between countries. National data sets were used to provide information about the number of residency positions available and the number of Canadian graduates per year. Models for future projections were developed based on published projected population data and trends from the past decade.
The number of pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada has increased 165% since 1994. During this period, wait times have not significantly shortened. There are regional discrepancies in access to child neurologists. The Canadian pediatric neurology workforce available to see outpatient consultations is proportionally less than that of USA. After accounting for retirements and emigrations, the number of child neurologists being added to the workforce each year is 4.9. This will result in an expected 10-year increase in Canadian pediatric neurologists from 151 to 200.
Despite an increase in the number of Canadian child neurologists over the last two decades, we do not predict that there will be problems with underemployment over the next decade.
This article examines the brutal massacre of up to six hundred Spanish and Italian papal troops on the order of the English Lord Deputy Arthur Grey, 14th Baron de Wilton (1536–1593), at Dún An Óir (Forto del Oro), Smerwick, County Kerry, on 10 November 1580. The article investigates the relationship between the religious and juridical rationales for the massacre, shedding new light on the broader relationship between the early modern law of nations, Protestantism, and what Brendan Bradshaw has characterized as “catastrophic violence” in the Elizabethan military conquest of Ireland. While Vincent Carey has emphasized the virulently anti-Catholic character of Grey's rationales for the massacre, my argument instead emphasizes the role of the received laws of nations and of war in justifying Grey's actions both to Queen Elizabeth I (1533–1603) and to the English public, from the period immediately following the massacre until the writing of Edmund Spenser's pro-Grey apologetic, A View of the Present State of Ireland (ca. 1596). On this view, the papal troops at Smerwick were considered brigands, pirates, or, in Marcus Tullius Cicero's words, “communis hostis omnium”—a common enemy to all—and enjoyed no standing as lawful enemies under the law of nations. In the sixteenth century, the established law of nations was hardly a seamless web but manifested significant cleavages and fissures allowing for the construction of localized spheres of legal exception in which the ordinary rules of warfare did not apply, thus providing a convenient juridical rationale for atrocity.
Background: This study sought to examine the association between early life stressors and adolescent headache and the potential mediating influence of internalizing psychopathology. Methods: This study used data from 2,313 respondents of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, followed prospectively from age 0-1 years at baseline (1994/1995) until age 14-15 years (2008/2009). The relationships between four measures of early life family level stressors, and outcomes of incident health professional diagnosed migraine and self-reported, unclassified frequent headache (>1 per week) were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Mediation analyses of the indirect effect of internalizing psychopathology (i.e., depression and anxiety symptoms) were examined using a regression-based path analytical framework. Results: There were 81 adolescents with incident migraine and 231 with frequent headache. There were no direct associations between early life family level factors and adolescent headache (p > .05). Internalizing psychopathology mediated relationships between family dysfunction (indirect effect [IE] 0.0181, 95% bias-corrected confidence interval [CIBC] 0.0001-0.0570), punitive parenting (IE 0.0241, 95% CIBC 0.0015-0.0633), parental depressive symptomatology (IE 0.0416, 95% CIBC 0.0017-0.0861), and incident migraine, but not frequent headache. Conclusions: Findings provide support for the influence of early life family level factors on prospective risk of developing migraine through internalizing psychopathology.
Background: Stroke is a rare neurological disease in children, with an annual incidence of 2 - 13/100,000 children per year. Pediatric stroke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality lasting many decades. Diagnosis of pediatric stroke is challenging and often delayed, limiting options for acute intervention, and the pharmacological and mechanical recanalization strategies that have revolutionized adult stroke remain undefined in children. Clinicians are left to draw conclusions from other retrospective cohort studies or case reports and extrapolate adult guidelines to the pediatric population. The TIPS trial eligibility criteria are often used in clinical practice, despite not being validated for this purpose. We present here the case of a healthy 14 year old male who was treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for a presumed arterial ischemic stroke without large vessel occlusion on neuroimaging. Methods: Retrospective chart review Results: Not applicable Conclusions: Following the administration of IV tPA, the patient made a full recovery. While we do not recommend the routine use of IV tPA for treatment of presumed large vessel or small vessel in children, we suggest that the decision to proceed with IV tPA be considered on a case-by-case basis.
Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) is a common impediment to ecological restoration, because its seedbank remains viable after repeated treatment with herbicides. Soil solarization has been used in ecological restoration to control seedbanks of invasive plants. Here we test the efficacy of soil solarization to reduce B. tectorum cover and establish native plants at a site in B. tectorum’s core invasive range with a long history of disturbance and infestation. Solarization raised soil temperatures by as much as 13 C and reduced B. tectorum densities by approximately 20-fold. In 30 plots solarized for 0 to 101 d, B. tectorum emerged in inverse abundance to treatment duration. Broadleaf weeds were less abundant than B. tectorum before treatment, and diminished under solarization, but their response to solarization was weaker than B. tectorum’s, and they emerged in greater numbers than B. tectorum 2 to 3 yr after treatment. When seeded after solarization, a native perennial bunchgrass, squirreltail [Elymus elymoides (Raf.) Swezey], did not differ in abundance between solarized and control plots. Solarization may facilitate B. tectorum control on a small scale without jeopardizing the establishment of native plants, but only if treatment durations are long and subsequent management of broadleaf weeds and remnant B. tectorum is planned.
‘Science’ from scientia, knowledge (Latin, then Old French in the eleventh century), originally comprised imaginative, inductive and observational understanding of what could be known, and made knowable. In travel writing studies, science has been more narrowly demarcated: it equates with empirical, expert and imperial European knowledge-gathering missions that were undertaken from the early eighteenth century (Raby 1996; Driver 2000). Scientific travelling and its forms of factual writing – travelogues, field notebooks and journals, official government reports from overseas – therefore focus on the investigative exploration, discovery and ‘bioprospecting’ of (non-European) New Worlds (Jardine et al. 1996; Schiebinger 2004). In consequence the model for the scientific traveller is the European explorer of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, such as James Cook, Alexander von Humboldt and Charles Darwin (Williams 2013).
Science has however always been imparted throughout history by the users of transport and trade routes, and through resource and knowledge collection from territories of the unfamiliar. It has also been purveyed in multiple forms and recording traditions. The prehistoric cave paintings uncovered in 1994 at Pont d'Arc (‘La Grotte Chauvet-Pont d'Arc’ 2015) testify to sophisticated human understandings of the natural, and supernatural, worlds of the Palaeolithic period, and to advanced technical skills in recording its significance. In more recent millennia, peoples in the world's tundra, desserts and equatorial rainforests have deployed rock art, textiles and narration in song-line, dance and ritual ornamentation of the human body to pass on similar knowledge (scientia) about the forms, maps and phenomena of the outer reaches of known worlds. Other templates for speculative and observational science therefore include astrological monuments, astronomies, epics, (medieval) bestiaries, mappa mundi and portulans. Indeed, in its hybrid mix of real and imagined travel knowledge, postmodern science fiction about new intergalactic worlds only rediscovers the many roots, and routes, of ‘real-imaginary’ Western travel writing traditions, not only Swift's satire Gulliver's Travels (1726) or Voltaire's Micromégas (1752) (Kerslake 2007), but also On the Nature of Things by Lucretius (c.55–c.99 BC), The Geography and Almagest (Astronomy) of Ptolemy of Alexandria (c.90–c.168 AD), the Natural History of Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) and Verne's Voyage au centre de la terre (1864).
X-ray fluorescence induced by charged particles has been employed in trace element analysis of both animal and human blood, tissue and bone samples. Preparation techniques included microtome slicing and wet digestion in nitric acid, internal chemical standards being used in the latter case.
Most of the specimens arose from a study of interactions between the toxic elements lead and zinc in growing foals; this was motivated by reports of sickness and death in foals raised near lead-zinc smelters. The cause of toxicity in animals from environmental pollution is often attributed to Single factors, whereas in reality interactions among many factors, including a variety of toxic and nutrient trace elements, should be considered.
A variety of spectra are presented and elemental concentrations derived. Agreement between the X-ray data and atomic absorption spectrophotometry is encouraging. The results demonstrate the potential of particle-excited X-ray fluorescenee as a broad-range analytical technique for the study of trace element interactions.
This essay introduces Inhabiting Cultures, a special issue of the Journal of American Studies. The guest editors, idea collective John Q, examine the relationship between method and academic writing by riding a train as a public editorial act and a way of practicing empathy in public scholarship. Contributors to this issue produce the very kinds of culture they critique. John Q tracks these activities as the careful handling of particular kinds of cultural production with a critical and ethical aim.
In 2019, US-based African American artist Dread Scott will present his new performative work, Slave Rebellion Reenactment, just outside the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. It will be a re-performance of the German Coast uprising of 1811, one of the largest rebellions of enslaved people in US history. It is the most recent installment in a slowly growing historical body of knowledge about this little-known history. The story is about a radical idea of freedom that Scott seeks to enliven through recruiting the performers. The potential for organizing and future networks is at the heart of this effort. This text is based upon Joey Orr's interview with Dread Scott on Thursday 12 May 2016, at the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago.
The development of grazing management strategies to optimise nutrient intake from grazed herbage requires an understanding of the factors influencing the dietary preference of grazing domestic ruminants. Although there has been considerable progress in understanding the factors influencing the dietary preference of grazing sheep, there has been comparatively little research with lactating dairy cows (Rutter et al., 1997). The aim of the experiment reported here was to study the dietary preference of lactating dairy cows grazing grass and clover.
Grazed herbage is the cheapest feed available for dairy cows but total intake of nutrients from grazed pasture alone is generally insufficient to allow high yielding dairy cows to reach their production potential. Cows have their main daily meal following afternoon milking in the period up to sunset (e.g. Rook et al., 1994 ). In addition, both the DM content and water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentration of grass increase over the day (e.g. Orr et al., 1997) due to the loss of moisture and the accumulation of the products of photosynthesis. Based on this evidence, this study tested the hypothesis that dairy cows receiving strip-grazing allocations following the afternoon rather than the morning milking would show higher intake rates and consequently higher milk yields.
Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows (median calving date 10 February 1997) were each supplemented with 4 kg concentrates day-1 and strip-grazed a perennial ryegrass pasture in four groups of 5 cows.
We study abelian varieties and K3 surfaces with complex multiplication defined over number fields of fixed degree. We show that these varieties fall into finitely many isomorphism classes over an algebraic closure of the field of rational numbers. As an application we confirm finiteness conjectures of Shafarevich and Coleman in the CM case. In addition we prove the uniform boundedness of the Galois invariant subgroup of the geometric Brauer group for forms of a smooth projective variety satisfying the integral Mumford–Tate conjecture. When applied to K3 surfaces, this affirms a conjecture of Várilly-Alvarado in the CM case.