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Insect parasitic nematodes have acquired mechanisms to evade their host immune response for successful parasitism. Despite the importance of understanding of the evolution of evasion mechanisms from host immunity, insect immune response against non-parasitic nematodes has not been well studied. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a non-insect parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was not encapsulated by haemocytes in the larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. To understand how nematodes influence insect haemocytes to escape encapsulation, we examined the effect of C. elegans on haemocytes in the haemocoel of G. mellonella larvae. Injection of nematodes resulted in the decrease of haemocyte density while mortality and spreading ability of haemocytes, the haematopoietic organs were not affected. In vitro co-incubation of haemocytes with nematodes resulted in a decrease of haemocyte density and we observed feeding on haemocytes by nematodes. Injection of C. elegans feeding-delay mutants into insects did not cause the decrease of haemocyte density. The decrease of haemocyte density was due to the nematode's ingestion of haemocytes. Furthermore, an entomopathogenic nematode and other bacterial feeding nematodes also showed similar feeding behaviour. The nematode's ability to feed on haemocytes may have played an important role in the evolution of nematode parasitism in bacterial-feeding nematodes.
Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are one of the critical complications in Fontan patients. However, there are no well-established non-invasive and quantitative techniques for evaluating liver abnormalities in Fontan patients. Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging with MRI is a non-invasive and quantitative method to evaluate capillary network perfusion and molecular diffusion. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging in evaluating liver abnormalities in Fontan children.
Materials and Methods:
Five consecutive Fontan patients and four age-matched healthy volunteers were included. Fontan patients were 12.8 ± 1.5 years old at the time of MRI scan. Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging parameters (D, D*, and f values) within the right hepatic lobe were compared. Laboratory test, ultrasonography, and cardiac MRI were also conducted in the Fontan patients. Results of cardiac catheterization conducted within one year of the intravoxel incoherent motion imaging were also examined.
In Fontan patients, laboratory test and liver ultrasonography showed almost normal liver condition. Cardiac catheter and MRI showed good Fontan circulation. Cardiac index was 2.61 ± 0.23 L/min/m2. Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging parameters D, D*, and f values were lower in Fontan patients compared with controls (D: 1.1 ± 0.0 versus 1.3 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2/second (p = 0.04), D*: 30.8 ± 24.8 versus 113.2 ± 25.6 × 10−3 mm2/second (p < 0.01), and f: 13.2 ± 3.1 versus 22.4 ± 2.4% (p < 0.01), respectively).
Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging is feasible for evaluating liver abnormalities in children with Fontan circulation.
Gestational nutrition is widely recognized to affect an offspring’s future risk of lifestyle-related diseases, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. As folic acid (FA) is a nutrient essential for modulating DNA methylation, we sought to determine how maternal FA intake during early pregnancy might influence tumor sensitivity in an offspring. Dams were maintained on a FA-depleted (FA(−)) or normal (2 mg FA/kg; FA(+)) diet from 2 to 3 days before mating to 7 days post-conception, and their offspring were challenged with chemical tumorigenesis using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a)anthracene and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for skin and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide for tongue. In both squamous tissues, tumorigenesis was more progressive in the offspring from FA(−) than FA(+) dams. Notably, in the skin of FA(−) offspring, the expression and activity of cylindromatosis (Cyld) were decreased due to the altered DNA methylation status in its promoter region, which contributed to increased tumorigenesis coupled with inflammation in the FA(−) offspring. Thus, we conclude that maternal FA insufficiency during early pregnancy is able to promote neoplasm progression in the offspring through modulating DNA methylation, such as Cyld. Moreover, we propose, for the first time, “innate” utero nutrition as the third cause of tumorigenesis besides the known causes—hereditary predisposition and acquired environmental factors.
This paper describes several important methods for the blind source separation of audio signals in an integrated manner. Two historically developed routes are featured. One started from independent component analysis and evolved to independent vector analysis (IVA) by extending the notion of independence from a scalar to a vector. In the other route, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has been extended to multichannel NMF (MNMF). As a convergence point of these two routes, independent low-rank matrix analysis has been proposed, which integrates IVA and MNMF in a clever way. All the objective functions in these methods are efficiently optimized by majorization-minimization algorithms with appropriately designed auxiliary functions. Experimental results for a simple two-source two-microphone case are given to illustrate the characteristics of these five methods.
The residual stress induced by grinding or some thermal treatment has a large effect on the strength of ceramics. The X-ray technique can be used to nondestructively measure the residual stress in small areas on the surface of polycrystalline materials. The X-ray stress measurement is based on. the continuum mechanics for macroscopically isotropic polycrystalline materials. In this method, the stress value is calculated selectively from strains of a particular diffraction plane in the grains which are favorably oriented for the diffraction. In general, however, the elastic constants of a single crystal depend on the plane of the lattice, since a single crystal is anisotropic, The behavior of the deformation of individual crystals in the aggregate of polycrystalline materials under applied stress has not yet been solved successfully. Therefore, the stress constant and elastic constants for a particular diffracting plane should be determined experimentally in order to determine the residual stress accurately by X-ray diffraction.
The goal of this study was to assess the psychosocial consequences among nurses affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake in order to identify their coping strategies and explore possible countermeasures against complex disasters.
In 2012, we conducted a qualitative study and screened participants for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Thirty-eight nurses participated in this study. The result showed a relatively high proportion of probable PTSD (39%). Thirty-two conceptual codes emerged from the data and were grouped into 8 categories: “initial acute stress,” “acute stress turning chronic,” “chronic physical and mental fatigue,” “occupational stress,” “fear of the impact of radiation on children’s health,” “occupational satisfaction,” “positive influences of the disaster experiences,” and “impact of mutual care through interpersonal cognition.”
The study reveals that mutual care may have a positive impact in assisting recovery and enhancing the psychological well-being of nurses. We suggest that disaster management should take into consideration the conflict between professional and family responsibilities. In the light of the chronic impact of the nuclear crisis, enhanced support for interpersonal relationships and human resources, as well as appropriate safety precautions, is urgently needed to help affected nurses. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:519-526)
Immunity to microbial infections is well understood; however, information regarding the immunity to parasitic multicellular organisms remains lacking. To understand innate host cellular immunity to nematodes, we compared the cellular response of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella) larvae against the non-parasitic, bacterial-feeding nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. When intact first-instar or dauer larvae of C. elegans were injected into a G. mellonella larva, most of the nematodes were alive and not confined by the surrounding reaction by insect haemocytes (encapsulation), similarly as the pathogenic nematode, whereas most of the heat-killed nematodes of both species were severely encapsulated by 24 h after inoculation. Other non-parasitic nematodes were also not encapsulated. Surprisingly, C. elegans injected into the insect haemocoel grew and propagated in the live insect, resulting in death of the host insect. Our results suggest that C. elegans has some basic mechanisms to evade immunity of G. mellonenlla and grow in the haemocoel.
Current evidence suggests that the aetiology of congenital gastrointestinal (GI) tract atresia is multifactorial, and not based solely on genetic factors. However, there are no established modifiable risk factors for congenital GI tract atresia. We used data from a Japanese nationwide birth cohort study launched in 2011, and examined whether fish consumption in early pregnancy was associated with congenital GI tract atresia. We analysed data of 89 495 women (mean age at delivery=31·2 years) who delivered singleton live births without chromosomal anomalies. Based on the results of the FFQ, we estimated the daily intake of fish and n-3 PUFA consumption in early pregnancy. We defined a composite outcome (oesophageal atresia, duodenal atresia, jejunoileal atresia and/or anorectal malformation) as congenital GI tract atresia. In this population, median fish intake was 31·9 g/d, and seventy-four cases of congenital GI tract atresia were identified. Fish consumption in early pregnancy was inversely associated with the composite outcome (multivariable-adjusted OR for the high v. low consumption category=0·5, 95 % CI 0·3, 1·0). For all the specific types of atresia, decreased OR were observed in the high consumption category, although not statistically significant. Reduced atresia occurrence was observed even beyond the US Food and Drug Administration’s recommended consumption of no more than 340 g/week. Also, n-3 PUFA-rich fish and n-3 PUFA consumptions tended to be inversely associated with atresia. Fish consumption in early pregnancy may be a preventive factor for congenital GI tract atresia.
The striking under-representation of women in Japan has been partly attributed to gender stereotypes and prejudice toward female leadership among voters. We examine whether and to what extent candidates get rewarded or punished when they deviate from the behavioral expectations associated with their gender roles and images. Our conjoint experiment results in Japan demonstrate that not only are female candidates disadvantaged compared to their male counterparts, but also that they could lose support when they diverge from gender-based behavioral expectations. Our findings suggest that female candidates face a difficult dilemma in that they must weigh the cost of losing support for failing to conform to gender-based expectations, against the general loss of support they would incur for conforming to these expectations.
A male neonate with d-transposition of the great arteries was diagnosed with the concomitant anomaly of left circumflex aortic arch and right-sided ductus arteriosus, which formed a vascular ring. Initial postnatal echocardiography had demonstrated an obscured aortic isthmus mimicking coarctation of the aorta, which could be a diagnostic clue to circumflex aortic arch.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in functional connectivity, white matter integrity, and cognitive abilities due to sports-related concussion (SRC) in adolescents using a prospective longitudinal design. Methods: We assessed male high school football players (ages 14–18) with (n=16) and without (n=12) SRC using complementary resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) along with cognitive performance using the Immediate Post-Concussive Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). We assessed both changes at the acute phase (<7 days post-SRC) and at 21 days later, as well as, differences between athletes with SRC and age- and team-matched control athletes. Results: The results revealed rs-fMRI hyperconnectivity within posterior brain regions (e.g., precuneus and cerebellum), and hypoconnectivity in more anterior areas (e.g., inferior and middle frontal gyri) when comparing SRC group to control group acutely. Performance on the ImPACT (visual/verbal memory composites) was correlated with resting state network connectivity at both time points. DTI results revealed altered diffusion in the SRC group along a segment of the corticospinal tract and the superior longitudinal fasciculus in the acute phase of SRC. No differences between the SRC group and control group were seen at follow-up imaging. Conclusions: Acute effects of SRC are associated with both hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity, with disruption of white matter integrity. In addition, acute memory performance was most sensitive to these changes. After 21 days, adolescents with SRC returned to baseline performance, although chronic hyperconnectivity of these regions could place these adolescents at greater risk for secondary neuropathological changes, necessitating future follow-up. (JINS, 2018, 24, 781–792)
New evidence from the rockshelter site of Aru Manara, on the island of Morotai, in the northern Moluccas, East Indonesia, suggests an earlier than previously assumed date for extensive interactions between this area of Southeast Asia and the wider Pacific. Shared mortuary customs and associated ceramic grave goods, along with other practices such as megalithic traditions, appear to start in the Late Neolithic, but become more widespread and consolidated in the Early Metal Age. Excavations at Aru Manara show that the northern Moluccas may have figured prominently in the newly established network of interaction evidenced at this time, making it an important location in the spread and dispersal of people and culture throughout Island Southeast Asia and into Oceania.