To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) is a troublesome broadleaf weed in grain production areas from South America. Herbicide resistance to multiple sites of action has been documented in this species, including protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitors. We investigated the physiological and molecular bases for PPO resistance in a E. heterophylla population (R-PPO) from Southern Brazil. Whole-plant dose response experiments revealed a cross resistance profile to three different chemical groups of PPO inhibitors. Based on dose response parameters, R-PPO was resistant to lactofen (47.7-fold), saflufenacil (8.6-fold), and pyraflufen-ethyl (3.5-fold). Twenty-four h after lactofen treatment (120 g ha-1) in POST, R-PPO accumulated 27 times less protoporphyrin than the susceptible population (S-PPO). In addition, R-PPO generated 5 and 4.5 times less hydrogen peroxide and superoxide than S-PPO, respectively. The chloroplast PPO (PPO1) sequences were identical between the two populations, whereas 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found for the mitochondrial PPO (PPO2). Based on protein homology modeling, the R128L (homologous to R98L in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) was the only one located near the catalytic site, also in a conserved region of PPO2. The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor malathion did not reverse resistance to lactofen in R-PPO, and both populations showed similar levels of PPO1 and PPO2 expression, suggesting that metabolic resistance and PPO overexpression are unlikely. This is the first report of a R128L mutation in PPO2 conferring cross resistance to PPO inhibitors in E. heterophylla.
To analyse the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising on the three major Brazilian free-to-air television (TV) channels.
Cross-sectional study. A protocol developed for the International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support was applied for data collection. A total of 432 h of TV programming was recorded from 06.00 to 24.00 hours, for eight non-consecutive and randomly selected days, in April 2018. All TV advertisements (ads) were analysed, and food-related ads were classified according to the NOVA classification system. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the number and type of ads, food categories and the distribution of ads throughout the day and time of the day.
The three most popular free-to-air channels on Brazilian TV.
The study did not involve human subjects.
In total, 14·2 % (n 1156 out of 7991) of ads were food related (858 were specific food items). Approximately 91 % of food items ads included ultra-processed food (UPF) products. The top three most promoted products were soft drinks, alcoholic beverages and fast-food meals. Alcoholic beverage ads were more frequently broadcast in the evening.
The high risk of exposure of the Brazilian population to UPF ads should be considered a public health concern given the impact of unhealthy food advertising on people’s food choices and health.
The Rio Grande do Sul Coastal Plain (southern Brazil) is composed of extensive marine and continental deposits related to at least four lagoon-barrier systems of Pleistocene−Holocene age. Part of these deposits is currently submerged and passing through erosion processes by waves. Vertebrate and invertebrate body and trace fossils are constantly exhumed from these deposits and redeposited on the modern beach face. Among them, a total of 253 fragments of crustacean burrows were collected for this study. Two ichnospecies of Ophiomorpha Lundgren, 1891 were recognized (O. nodosa Lundgren, 1891 and O. puerilis Gibert et al., 2006), but most of the materials can only be assigned to the ‘SOT’ group (Spongeliomorpha de Saporta, 1887, Ophiomorpha, and Thalassinoides Ehrenberg, 1944), mainly because of the lack of a pelleted lining. The absence of pellets and, as a consequence, the ichnotaxonomy of these specimens, is related to taphonomical processes (exhumation, reworking, and transportation) that acted during formation of the ex situ assemblage. The paleoenvironmental dynamics and a taphonomical model are presented to demonstrate how these processes affected the trace fossils since their construction, through exhumation until deposition. Neoichnological observations led us to infer larger producers in comparison to the extant ghost shrimp Sergio mirim (Rodrigues, 1971).
In 1958 started the study of the families of algebraic limit cycles in the class of planar quadratic polynomial differential systems. In the present we known one family of algebraic limit cycles of degree 2 and four families of algebraic limit cycles of degree 4, and that there are no limit cycles of degree 3. All the families of algebraic limit cycles of degree 2 and 4 are known, this is not the case for the families of degree higher than 4. We also know that there exist two families of algebraic limit cycles of degree 5 and one family of degree 6, but we do not know if these families are all the families of degree 5 and 6. Until today it is an open problem to know if there are algebraic limit cycles of degree higher than 6 inside the class of quadratic polynomial differential systems. Here we investigate the birth and death of all the known families of algebraic limit cycles of quadratic polynomial differential systems.
Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been surveyed for at least two decades on the southern Brazilian coast. However, little is known about their distribution and habitat use in lower latitudes of the South-western Atlantic Ocean. Aiming to study the movements and distribution of the species along the south-eastern Brazilian coast, we made a comparison of photo-identified individuals of the species catalogued in 21 cruises conducted between 2012 and 2015. Additionally, we performed stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen in skin samples (N = 35) to provide some insights of dolphin habitat use and trophic ecology through comparisons among individuals of distinct surveyed sectors (northern and southern) and sex. A total of 177 individuals were identified. Re-sightings (N = 24) occurred at intervals from 82 to 979 days at distances from 7 to 179 km. No individual was sighted in both sectors, suggesting spatial segregation. Isotopic comparisons showed no significant differences in carbon and nitrogen signatures between distinct sectors. However, ecological divergences were found when we divided the samples by gender. Wider isotopic niches were found for the northern bottlenose dolphins vs the southern ones, which could be related to temporal and spatial variation in the availability of resources, as well as possible differences in the home ranges of males and females in each region. This study represents a preliminary evaluation of ecological aspects of bottlenose dolphins along the Brazilian south-eastern coast, however, long-term studies on the feeding ecology and habitat use of this species are important to further improve our knowledge.
In this article, I take a close look at the objects collected over the last 200 years from the indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro, northwest of the Brazilian Amazon, that were part of the ethnographic collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of these objects allows us to explore the main characteristics of the ethnographic archive of the museum, as the Upper Rio Negro collections were connected to different topics associated with indigenous societies and histories in Brazil, including enslavement, forced displacement, religious conversion, and indigenous territorial, artifactual, and cultural knowledge. This article also highlights the professional commitment of Brazilian anthropology to amplifying indigenous voices over the course of the history of the discipline, and by doing so, it pays homage to the women and men whose work built the National Museum collections.
The work reported in this research communication investigated the occurrence of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis on dairy farms from seven Brazilian states. We hypothesized that M. bovis was present in bovine clinical mastitis milk in Brazil. A total of 561 milk samples were cultured on Hayflick agar and incubated in a microaerophilic atmosphere at 5% CO2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the detection of Mycoplasma spp. and Mycoplasma bovis in milk samples. Mycoplasma spp. were isolated in 2% of the milk samples, and Mycoplasma bovis was verified in 3% of the milk samples by PCR. The results showed that Mycoplasma bovis is involved in clinical mastitis in Brazilian dairy herds. We emphasize the need for further studies to investigate the infection by this agent in clinical mastitis cases, particularly in Brazil, due to the lack of knowledge about its prevalence.
Stressful events during the prenatal period have been related to hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as metabolic changes in adult life. Moreover, regular exercise may contribute to the improvement of the symptoms associated with stress and stress-related chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of exercise, before the gestation period, on the metabolic changes induced by prenatal stress in adult mice. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS) and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). When adults, the plasmatic biochemical analysis, oxidative stress, gene expression of metabolic-related receptors and sex differences were assessed in the offspring. Prenatal stress decreased neonatal and adult body weight when compared to the pregestational exercise group. Moreover, prenatal stress was associated with reduced body weight in adult males. PNS and EX + PNS females showed decreased hepatic catalase. Pregestational exercise prevented the stress-induced cholesterol increase in females but did not prevent the liver mRNA expression reduction on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) α and γ in PNS females. Conversely, PNS and EX + PNS males showed an increased PPARα mRNA expression. In conclusion, pregestational exercise prevented some effects of prenatal stress on metabolic markers in a sex-specific manner.
Recently, an experimental study developed an efficient way to obtain sulfur-doped γ-graphdiyne. This study has shown that this new material could have promising applications in lithium-ion batteries, but the complete understanding of how the sulfur atoms are incorporated into the graphdiyne network is still missing. In this work, we have investigated the sulfur doping process through molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations. Our results suggest that the doped induced distortions of the γ-graphdiyne pores prevent the incorporation of more than two sulfur atoms. The most common configuration is the incorporation of just one sulfur atom per the graphdiyne pore.
To evaluate dietary fibre intake in Brazilian adolescents and its association with nutritional status.
This was a cross-sectional study including data from the Brazilian multicentre Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Data analysed were geographic region, sex, age, nutritional status, sexual maturation stage, socioeconomic status, school type and level of physical activity. For nutritional status classification, BMI/age was used by sex. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h recall. Dietary fibre intake was expressed in g/d, and adequacy was determined using dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Complex sample design was considered in statistical analysis, and logistic regression was used to estimate OR for fibre intake and nutritional status.
Brazilian municipalities with more than 100 000 inhabitants.
A total of 71 740 adolescents aged 12–17 years were included.
The average total dietary fibre intake was 19·1 g/d (95 % CI 18·5, 19·7), and only 13·1 % (95 % CI 11·6, 14·7) of Brazilian adolescents reached the recommendations. The results of logistic regression analysis adjusted for geographic region, sex and type of school showed that overweight and obese adolescents were 1·6 and 1·8 times more likely, respectively, to have inadequate dietary fibre intake (P < 0·0001).
Brazilian adolescents had a significantly inadequate dietary fibre intake. This was particularly notable in adolescents with excess weight. Education policies on nutrition must be implemented, as dietary fibre plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and other chronic diseases.
The determination of livestock growth patterns is important for meat or milk production systems, and nonlinear models are used to summarize and interpret the information. The aim of this study was to more accurately estimate growth curve parameters in buffalo cows by evaluating and selecting nonlinear mixed models that employ different types of residuals and include or not contemporary groups (CG) as a covariate. Weight records from 720 animals obtained over a period of 60 months were used. The growth curves were fit using nonlinear mixed-effects models. The Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Logistic models were evaluated. Modelling residuals using four structures (constant, combined, exponential and proportional) and the inclusion or not of CG in the models were also evaluated. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used to select the model. In addition to estimating the parameters of the nonlinear growth models and their correlations, the instantaneous growth rate and inflection point were obtained. The Bertalanffy model with a combined residual structure and CG exhibited the lowest AIC and BIC values. Asymptotic weight (A) estimates ranged from 621.8 to 742.1 kg, and the maturity rate (k) ranged from 0.068 to 0.115 kg/month. The correlation between A and k ranged from −0.32 to −0.82 among the models evaluated. The selection criteria indicated that the Bertalanffy model was the most suitable for growth curve analysis in buffaloes.
Aposematism and crypticity are visual defensive strategies against predation; however, the relative effectiveness of these two strategies to reduce the risk of predation is not yet fully understood. We evaluated the risk of predation for caterpillars with cryptic and aposematic colouration as well as the probability of predation relative to the natural variation of contrast with the substrate. We expected that the two models would experience similar predation attempts and that the contrast with the substrate would be negatively related to the predation on aposematic mimic models and positively to the predation of cryptic models. Overall, 224 models were laid out along a transect and exposed to predation for five consecutive days during winter and autumn. Daily predation was 11.0% (winter) and 4.8% (autumn). Significant differences were not observed between predation rates on the two model types (50.6% aposematic). Most of the predated models had arthropod marks (86.4%) and only 13.6% had bird marks. The chance of predation was higher the greater the contrast between the aposematic mimic model and the substrate, although no relationship was observed for the cryptic model. Our results suggest that the two colour patterns do not differ in their defensive effectiveness and that micro-habitat selection might define the predation risk on aposematic mimic caterpillars in environments dominated by arthropod predators.
The use of antibiotics as performance enhancers in animal feeding is declining, so Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil (LGSEO) could be used as a potential substitute for the conventionally used growth promoters. The LGSEO contains components such as carvacrol and thymol, which kill and/or control pathogenic bacteria, increase population of beneficial organisms, act against oxidative processes and onto nutrient digestibility and absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and the effects of LGSEO as a growth promoter in the diet of Japanese quail by examining their productive performance, intestinal microbiology, blood biochemical parameters, hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and intestinal gene expression. A total of 252 two-day-old quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were assigned to 3 treatments in 7 replicates, using 12 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, basal diet + LGSEO at 400 mg/kg of diet and basal diet + chemical antimicrobial (bacitracin methylene disalicylate) at 500 mg/kg of diet. The experimental period was 34 days. The highest feed intake (P < 0.01) was found in the group receiving the conventional antimicrobial, whereas the best feed conversion (P < 0.01) was shown by the animals receiving LGSEO. Escherichia coli growth was restricted in the quail receiving the growth promoters. Salmonella spp. growth was controlled by the treatment containing the conventional antimicrobial. There was no difference between the treatments (P > 0.05) for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase enzymes in the blood or hepatic TBARS content. Birds receiving negative-control treatment exhibited a higher expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1), while those receiving the treatment with essential oil showed lower catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX7) expressions compared to the conventional antimicrobial and control groups, respectively. Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil is a powerful performance enhancer for Japanese quail by virtue of its abilities to improve their intestinal environment, balance the microbial population and reduce energy expenditure for oxidative processes.
Convincing evidence suggests diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well-studied. We, therefore, evaluated children’s consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n=8461; mean age, 11.1 years; SD 0.9) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort study. Using a 16-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption, and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4.0), medium (Q2+Q3, range 4.0–10.5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off >10.5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02–1.41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.14–1.53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children’s consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
In this work, filament based on ɛ-polycaprolactone (PCL) and containing the bioactive ceramics nanohydroxyapatite (nHap) and Laponite® (Lap) was prepared by the extrusion process. To obtain the material, a mass ratio of 89:10:1 (PCL:nHap:Lap) was used, and structural and morphological characterization was realized. In addition, cytotoxicity (using Allium cepa bulbs) and viability tests on L929 cells also were performed. The results showed that filament (diameter of 1.79 ± 0.17 mm) presented a good dispersion of nHap and Lap into polymeric matrices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified typical bands at 1720, 1091, and 1045 cm−1 addressed to PCL and nHAp, In addition, Lap was identified through dispersive energy system and X-ray diffraction analyses. All filaments did not exhibit cytotoxic effects.
To describe the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, complications and therapeutic response of patients treated with ECT in the Psychiatric Unit of the General Hospital from University of Campinas-Brazil (1993-2007).
All medical records of the patients who underwent ECT were reviewed and compiled for subsequent statistical analysis by SPSS program.
156 patients were studied. Ages ranged from 13 to 78 years-old, with a mean of 39.9±17.8 years-old [95% CI: 37.2-42.8 years]. There were 64 (41%) men and 92 (59%) women. The main diagnostic categories of the patients submitted to ECT were: schizophrenia (33.9%), depression without psychotic symptoms (30.8%), depression with psychotic symptoms (39.1%), bipolar disorder (18.6%) and schizoaffective disorder (3.2%). Complications occurred during the procedure in 98 cases (62.8%), immediately after the application in 85 cases (54.5%) and three days after the last session in 33 cases (21.2%).
The response to ECT was: good response in 132 (84.6%) patients, unchanged psychiatric symptoms in 14 (9%) patients and worsening in 3 (1.9%). The mean time of permanence inside the Psychiatric Unit was 57.5±38.2 days [95% CI: 51.4-63.2 days].
Complications during the procedure
Ineffective session after three applications
Complications immediately after the proce
Complications at least three days after t
The diagnostic categories for which ECT therapy corresponded to those described in the literature. Data suggest that the incidence of complications was moderate and the response to treatment was positive in most cases, reinforcing the importance of this therapeutic method for the treatment of patients with severe mental illness.