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To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
This study aimed to determine the predictors of disease progression after functional endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
A total of 281 adult chronic rhinosinusitis patients who underwent primary bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery between 2007 and 2017 and had at least 12 months of follow-up endoscopic evaluation were examined. Patients were divided into eosinophilic (n = 205) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups (n = 76). In order to determine adverse factors, post-operative endoscopic appearance scores were analysed in relation to the pre- and intra-operative findings using multiple regression analyses.
The post-operative course of eosinophilic cases deteriorated over time, like the early period for non-eosinophilic cases. Frontal sinus polyps recurred early in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Multivariate analyses indicated young adulthood, asthma, high computed tomography score and frontal sinus polyps as significant adverse predictors.
Early, appropriate estimation of sinonasal conditions appears to be crucial for successful surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis.
The Great Kanto Earthquake occurred on 1 September 1923 and inflicted serious damage on Yokohama City. About 90 percent of the factories in Yokohama City were burnt down or completely destroyed. However, these manufacturing industries appear to have swiftly recovered in the aftermath of the damage. This article investigates the role of creative destruction due to the Great Kanto Earthquake. Using firm-level data on capital (horsepower of motors) before and after the earthquake, we find substantial creative destruction, that is, upgrade of machine technology and/or survival of efficient firms. We find further collaborating evidence of this at the prefecture level.
We have recently reported that soluble dietary fibre, glucomannan, increased colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression without affecting the small-intestinal activity and that colonic ALP was correlated with gut mucins (index of intestinal barrier function). We speculated that dietary fermentable carbohydrates including oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP and gene expression as well as increase mucin secretion and microbial fermentation. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30 % lard with or without 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), raffinose (RAF) and lactulose (LAC), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOS; some digestible oligosaccharides) for 2 weeks. Colon ALP activity, the gene expression and gut luminal variables including mucins, organic acids and microbiota were measured. Colonic ALP was significantly elevated in the FOS, RAF and LAC groups, and a similar trend was observed in the GOS group. Colonic expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP-I), an ALP gene, was significantly elevated in the FOS, GOS and RAF groups and tended to be increased in the LAC group. Dietary FOS, GOS, RAF and LAC significantly elevated faecal mucins, caecal n-butyrate and faecal ratio of Bifidobacterium spp. Dietary IMOS had no effect on colonic ALP, mucins, organic acids and microbiota. Colon ALP was correlated with mucins, caecal n-butyrate and faecal Bifidobacterium spp. This study demonstrated that non-digestible and fermentable oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP activity and the expression of IAP-I, with increasing mucins and microbial fermentation, which might be important for protection of gut epithelial homoeostasis.
) and streamwise–spanwise (
) plane measurements are carried out by planar particle image velocimetry for turbulent channel flows over anisotropic porous media at the bulk Reynolds number
. Three kinds of anisotropic porous media are constructed to form the bottom wall of the channel. Their wall permeability tensor is designed to have a larger wall-normal diagonal component (wall-normal permeability) than the other components. Those porous media are constructed to have three mutually orthogonal principal axes and those principal axes are aligned with the Cartesian coordinate axes of the flow geometry. Correspondingly, the permeability tensor of each porous medium is diagonal. With the
plane data, it is found that the turbulence level well accords with the order of the streamwise diagonal component of the permeability tensor (streamwise permeability). This confirms that the turbulence strength depends on the streamwise permeability rather than the wall-normal permeability when the permeability tensor is diagonal and the wall-normal permeability is larger than the streamwise permeability. To generally characterize those phenomena including isotropic porous wall cases, modified permeability Reynolds numbers are discussed. From a quadrant analysis, it is found that the contribution from sweeps and ejections to the Reynolds shear stress near the porous media is influenced by the streamwise permeability. In the
plane data, although low- and high-speed streaks are also observed near the anisotropic porous walls, large-scale spanwise patterns appear at a larger Reynolds number. It is confirmed that they are due to the transverse waves induced by the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. By the two-point correlation analyses of the fluctuating velocities, the spacing of the streaks and the wavelengths of the Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) waves are discussed. It is then confirmed that the transition point from the quasi-streak structure to the roll-cell-like structure is characterized by the wall-normal distance including the zero-plane displacement of the log-law velocity which can be characterized by the streamwise permeability. It is also confirmed that the normalized wavelengths of the K–H waves over porous media are in a similar range to that of the turbulent mixing layers irrespective of the anisotropy of the porous media.
This study aimed to analyse findings of functional endoscopic sinus surgery to estimate the post-operative course of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
From 2007 to 2015, 291 adult patients with bilateral chronic rhinosinusitis, divided into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 210) and non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 81) groups, who underwent primary functional endoscopic sinus surgery were enrolled. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery findings, scored as operating score, were analysed in relation to pre-operative olfactory recognition threshold and sinonasal computed tomography imaging score, as well as post-operative endoscopic appearance.
Operating scores in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis were significantly worse than those in non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. The anterior ethmoid sinus and superior meatus were predominantly inflamed. Operating score significantly correlated with pre-operative olfaction recognition threshold, computed tomography score and pre-operative endoscopic appearance score. In eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis, higher operating scores were related to post-operative deterioration of endoscopic appearance score.
The operating score reflects the course following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients with more severe operative findings require longer post-operative treatment.
We study the interaction between the Be-star disk and the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries by three dimensional SPH simulations. We find that, the resonant, truncation of the Be disk works except for systems with extremely high orbital eccentricity or large misalignment angles between the Be disk and the orbital plane. Owing to the truncation, the mass-capture rate by the neutron star is sensitive both to the orbital eccentricity and to the angle of misalignment. It is single-peaked in coplanar systems and in systems with small misalignment angles, whereas it, becomes double-peaked in systems with large misalignment angles.
In 1979 Partoharsodjo (see Kitamura et. al., 1985) constructed a new photoelectric photometer with an RCA IP21 photomultiplier, so that it: 1) can be coupled easily with the Bamberg 37-cm. refractor at the Bosscha Observatory, and 2) can be used both for direct current and photon counting modes. Since its installation at the telescope in the early 80's, photometric work at Bosscha Observatory was resumed.
This study aimed to radiologically evaluate the influence of inflammatory changes in frontal recess cells on frontal sinusitis.
A total of 93 patients (186 sides) who underwent primary sinonasal surgery at Hyogo College of Medicine were enrolled in 2015 and 2016. Opacification of agger nasi, fronto-ethmoidal, ethmoid bulla, suprabullar and frontal bulla cells was determined by pre-operative computed tomography and its influence on frontal sinusitis was investigated.
In all, 42 per cent of 186 sides were affected by frontal sinusitis. Agger nasi, ethmoid bulla, fronto-ethmoidal, suprabullar and frontal bulla cells were identified in 99 per cent, 100 per cent, 38 per cent, 69 per cent, and 16 per cent of sides, respectively. The presence of frontal recess cells and frontal ostium size did not significantly influence frontal sinusitis development. However, opacification of agger nasi, type 1 fronto-ethmoidal and suprabullar cells significantly influenced frontal sinusitis development.
Frontal sinusitis is caused by inflammatory changes in frontal recess cells.
About one half of high-mass X-ray binaries host a Be star [an OB star with a viscous decretion (slowly outflowing) disk]. These Be/X-ray binaries exhibit two types of X-ray outbursts (Stella et al. 1986), normal X-ray outbursts (LX~1036−37 erg s−1) and occasional giant X-ray outbursts (LX > 1037 erg s−1). The origin of giant X-ray outbursts is unknown. On the other hand, a half of gamma-ray binaries have a Be star as the optical counterpart. One of these systems [LS I +61 303 (Porb = 26.5 d)] shows the superorbital (1,667 d) modulation in radio through X-ray bands. No consensus has been obtained for its origin. In this paper, we study a possibility that both phenomena are caused by a long-term, cyclic evolution of a highly misaligned Be disk under the influence of a compact object, by performing 3D hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the Be disk cyclically evolves in mildly eccentric, short-period systems. Each cycle consists of the following stages:
1)As the Be disk grows with time, the initially circular disk becomes eccentric by the Kozai-Lidov mechanism.
2)At some point, the disk is tidally torn off near the base and starts precession.
3)Due to precession, a gap opens between the disk base and mass ejection region, which allows the formation of a new disk in the stellar equatorial plane (see Figure 1).
4)The newly formed disk finally replaces the precessing old disk. Such a cyclic disk evolution has interesting implications for the long-term behavior of high energy emission in Be/X-ray and gamma-ray binaries.
We study accretion onto the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries, using a 3D SPH code and the data imported from a high resolution simulation by Okazaki et al. (2002) for a coplanar system with a short period (Porb = 24.3 d) and moderate eccentricity (e = 0.34). We find that a time-dependent accretion disk is formed around the neutron star in Be/X-ray binaries. The disk shrinks after the periastron passage of the Be star and restores its radius afterwards. Our simulations show that the truncated Be disk model for Be/X-ray binaries is consistent with the observed X-ray behavior.
Short period terms ranging from 0.3 to 6.0 yr. are resolved from 13.5 yr data of UT1 and polar motion on periodograms, considering the mutual interference effects caused by truncation of data. Beside principal terms known well, 26 month term is reconfirmed but any Chandlerian term is not found in UT1. Minor amplitude terms are found around 0.48, 0.86, 1.36, 1.58, 3, and 4 yr in UT1, and 1.12, 1.26, and 1.43 yr in polar motion.
Computations of the polar coordinates are carried out by the use of time data and of latitude data separately. The results from time data and those from latitude data are proved to have mutual differences in annual term in particular. That is, polar loci obtained from latitude results give almost circular forms, while those from time results give elliptic forms elongated rather seriously on the X-axis.
One-armed (i.e., m = 1) density waves are the only global waves in nearly Keplerian disks (Kato 1983). Their frequencies are much smaller than the angular frequency of disk rotation. Based on this theory, Okazaki (1991) proposed that the long-term V/R variations of Be stars are phenomena caused by the global m = 1 oscillations in the equatorial disks. Hummel and Hanuschik (1993) showed that line profiles of disks with m = 1 perturbation patterns are in agreement with the observed V/R variability.
Based on the viscous decretion disk model for Be Stars, we study the effect of the torque from the star on the Be star disk, using a 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamics code and turning on and off the mass ejection from the star. We find that, after the mass ejection is shut off, the innermost part of the disk begins to accrete and the accreting part gradually propagates outward. We also find that the Be disk in misaligned binaries precesses in a retrograde sense when no mass is supplied from the star. If the mass supply is resumed for such a disk, an inner disk is formed with its rotation axis misaligned with that of the outer disk. By the interaction between the inner and outer disks, the outer disk rapidly changes its direction to that of the inner disk.
We consider the structure and time dependent behavior of the outflow in disks of Be stars in Be/X-ray binaries, based on the viscous decretion disk scenario (Lee et al. 1991). In this scenario, the matter ejected from the star with the Keplerian velocity at the equatorial surface of the star drifts outward because of the effects of viscosity, and forms the disk.
We study the characteristics of global oscillation modes of masing disks in megamasers and the effect of the modes on the disk kinematics. We find that the eccentric mode is responsible for the observed sub-Keplerian velocity distribution of the maser source of NGC 1068, whereas in the masing disk of NGC 4258 the warping mode is dominant so that the angular rotation velocity remains near Keplerian.
Megamasers provide a powerful tool to probe the innermost few parsecs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In particular, for AGNs with large inclination angles, only maser sources enable to directly study the structure and dynamics of the region inside the supposed obscuring tori, which are considered to be optically thick from the infrared to the X-ray bands. For example, the VLBI observations of the water megamaser sources at the center of NGC 4258 have provided not only the compelling evidence for the presence of a central supermassive black hole but also the detailed information on the spatial and velocity distribution of the maser sources (Miyoshi et al. 1995; Nakai et al. 1995).