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The wings of butterflies are relatively heavier than those of other insects, and the inertial force and torque due to the wing mass are likely to have a significant effect on agility and manoeuvrability in the flapping flight of butterflies. In the present study, the effect of wing mass on the free flight of butterflies is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method. We use a butterfly-like model consisting of two square wings with mass connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate the free flights of the model by changing the ratio of the wing mass to the total mass of the model and also changing the mass distributions of the wings. As a result, we find that the aerodynamic vertical and horizontal forces decrease as the wing-mass ratio increases, since for a large wing-mass ratio the body has large vertical and horizontal oscillations in each stroke and consequently the speeds of the wing tip and the leading edge relatively decrease. In addition, we find that the wing-mass ratio has a dominant effect on the rotational motion of the model, and a large wing-mass ratio reduces aerodynamic force and intensifies the time variation of the pitching angle. From the results of our free flight simulations, we clarify the critical wing-mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight and find that the critical wing-mass ratio is a function of the non-dimensional total mass and almost independent of the wing length. Then, we evaluate the effect of the wing-mass distribution on the critical wing-mass ratio. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model.
A Japanese female infant with trisomy 18 was diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome variant. She was administered oral prostaglandin E1 every 6 hours through a feeding tube as an alternative drug for lipo-prostaglandin E1. Oral prostaglandin E1 was effective for maintenance of the ductus arteriosus and may serve as a palliative treatment approach.
Glasses were prepared in systems based on two stoichiometric sulfides that were selected from Ga2S3, GeS2, and Sb2S3, with the incorporation of excess sulfur and CsCl. We investigated the fundamental properties, including glass transition, density, and optical absorption, and their variations with the incorporation of excess sulfur and CsCl into the pseudo two-component sulfide glasses. The incorporation of CsCl into the GeS2–Sb2S3 glasses shifted the absorption edge at the short-wavelength side to the long-wavelength direction, particularly for glasses with more amount of GeS2 than SbS3/2. In both cases of CsCl incorporation into the Ga2S3–GeS2 glass and Ga2S3–Sb2S3 glass systems, the absorption edges shifted to the short-wavelength direction regardless of the compositions. Ag photodoping behaviors were investigated for the bulk sulfide glasses with excess sulfur and CsCl. The results are discussed based on the diffusion of silver in the glass network that is modified by the incorporation.
MXenes are a novel class of two dimensional materials, discovered by Barsoum and Gogotsi [M. Naguib, J. Come, B. Dyatkin, V. Presser, P. Taberna, P. Simon, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, Electrochemistry Communications 16, 61-64 (2012); B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, Nature Reviews Materials vol. 2, 16098 (2017)]. Their large specific surface area and the tunability of their physicochemical properties as a function of the transition metal and surface terminal group make them a unique design platform for various applications, a primary example of which is pseudocapacitive energy storage. However, there is still incomplete understanding of how the transition metal chemistry and stoichiometry, and the surface termination affect charge storage mechanisms in MXene. In this study, we have performed systematic first-principles calculations for bulk MXene and found that the atomic charge of the metal cations, which is related to their valence, decreases across the d-electron metal series. Electronic-structure indicators of performance are examined to understand the energy storage behavior, whereby charges are stored between the terminal groups and adsorbing cations. Importantly, we found that the differential Bader charges show good agreement with theoretical capacitances and are useful in predicting charge storage trends in MXene-based pseudocapacitors. Furthermore, we have performed first-principles and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations for the slab systems, finding that the solvent plays a critical role in enhancing the pseudocapacitive response.
Effects of microstructure constituents of α2-Ti3Al/γ-TiAl lamellae, β-Ti grains and γ grains, with various volume fractions on room-temperature ductility of γ-TiAl based alloys have been studied. The ductility of the alloys containing β phase of about 20% in volume increases to more than 1% as the volume fraction of γ phase increases to 80%. However, γ single phase alloys show very limited ductility of less than 0.2%. The present results, thus, confirmed the significant contribution of β phase to enhancement of the room-temperature ductility in multi-component TiAl alloys.
We demonstrated that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grew from Ir catalysts by an alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition (ACCVD) method using a gas source-type CVD system. At an ethanol pressure of 1×10−1 Pa at 800°C, vertically aligned SWCNTs (VA-SWCNTs) were grown on SiO2/Si substrates. As the growth time became longer, the VA-SWCNT became thicker, and it reached almost 5 μm for a growth time of 180 min. The Raman spectroscopy results showed that the diameters of the grown SWCNTs were mainly distributed below 1.1 nm, indicating that the SWCNTs grown from Ir catalysts had small diameters compared with those from other metal catalysts.
Previous studies have associated dietary patterns with diabetes risk in Western countries, but such studies among the Japanese population are scarce. The present study aimed to investigate dietary patterns associated with abnormal glucose tolerance determined by elevated glycated Hb (HbA1c) levels.
The 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) database was used for the cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were analysed by factor analysis of twenty-five food items from the dietary intake survey and household-based semi-weighed dietary records. OR and 95 % CI for elevated HbA1c levels (≥6·5 %) according to dietary patterns were estimated using logistic regression models.
The study population comprised 9550 Japanese aged ≥40 years registered in the nationwide NHNS.
Three dietary patterns were identified: (i) high-bread and low-rice; (ii) high-meat and low-fish; and (iii) vegetable. The high-bread and low-rice pattern, characterised by high frequent consumption of bread, milk and dairy products, and fruits, and low rice intake, was associated with marginally decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels (Ptrend=0·047). The vegetable pattern, characterised by vegetables, mushrooms, soyabeans and soybean products, was significantly inversely associated with elevated HbA1c levels (4th v. 1st quartile: multivariable OR=0·68; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·95; Ptrend=0·007).
Our findings suggest that the vegetable pattern is associated with decreased prevalence of elevated HbA1c levels among Japanese.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Since 1971, Naloxone has been the only FDA approved opioid antagonist indicated for use after opioid overdose. New formulations of Naloxone have been introduced into the market, including an injectable, auto-injector, and nasal spray. However, Naloxone is short-acting and as such often requires multiple doses and may induce severe withdrawal symptoms. This study examines the regulatory framework to understand the evolution of products indicated to treat opioid overdose and the landscape of therapies in development. Furthermore, this study examines how the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other government agencies have approached the opioid crisis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A PubMed search of “naloxone AND opioid overdose” with the filter “humans” was conducted to understand Naloxone’s regulatory framework. The term “naloxone” was searched on the Drugs@FDA: Approved Drug Products database. Additionally, “nalmefene” was searched on ClinicalTrials.gov. To examine the opioid antagonist market landscape, a PubMed search of “opioid antagonist AND opioid overdose” with the filters “humans” and “clinical trial,” and a ClinicalTrials.gov search of “opioid antagonist and opioid overdose,” were conducted. Government agency reports were reviewed and cataloged. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary findings suggest a lack of innovation in the development of novel opioid antagonists. Most literature review findings focused on already-marketed Naloxone products, including the original injectable approved in 1971, the 2014 Evzio Auto-Injector, and the 2015 Narcan Nasal Spray (Figure 1). For example, there were 14 results yielded from the FDA approvals database, but none of these results represented a new opioid antagonist molecule. A longer-acting opioid antagonist, Nalmefene injectable, was approved in 1995 but has since been removed from the market due to low sales. Our initial ClinicalTrials.gov search using condition “opioid overdose” and other terms “opioid antagonist”,revealed no new studies being conducted on alternative opioid antagonist treatments for opioid overdose. Findings only focused on the distribution, co-dispensing, intervention, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of Naloxone (Figure 2). However, a Google search yielded one new trial with an opioid antagonist by Opiant Pharmaceuticals, almost fifty years after FDA’s approval of Naloxone. A ClinicalTrials.gov search was then performed using the search term “nalmefene” to find whether Opiant Pharmaceuticals’ trial was in the ClinicalTrials.gov database. However, the Opiant trial is phase I, and as such does not require reporting on ClinicalTrials.gov. In 2017, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched an initiative for longer-acting opioid antagonist formulations. In 2018, Opiant Pharmaceuticals announced positive phase I results for intranasal Nalmefene. The potential return of Nalmefene in intranasal form may play a significant role in reducing overdoses, especially in cases where a longer-acting opioid antagonist is necessary. Opiant Pharmaceuticals’ trial commenced after the NIH announced their initiative; furthermore, the NIH’s National Institute on Drug Abuse granted the company $7.4 million to further the investigation of this drug. We will continue to research drugs that have previously been studied for the indication of treating opioid overdose in the United States and abroad and catalog them. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The abuse and misuse of opioids in the United States has caused an epidemic accounting for over 115 opioid-overdose deaths each day, devastating our nation, both socially and economically. The United States spends $78.5 billion annually to combat the misuse of these drugs. Due to the severity of the opioid crisis, efforts to better understand approved therapies and investigational products in development to treat opioid overdose will be of significance moving forward. This research can inform agencies who are developing strategies to reduce opioid overdoses and pharmaceutical product developers about the current opioid antagonist landscape.
On 27 June 2017, in the Stichting Mothers of Srebrenica case, The Hague Court of Appeal applied the effective control test in determining attribution and found that the Netherlands was responsible for the failure of the Dutch battalion (Dutchbat) acting as a part of the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR) to protect civilians from the Srebrenica massacre in 1995. This judgment is of considerable significance because the court renounced the preventive approach to the effective control test, to which the Dutch courts had repeatedly declared their adherence, and reverted to the traditional (presumptive) approach. The preventive interpretation was originally proposed with a view to justifying much broader attribution to troop-contributing nations (TCNs). However, quite interestingly, the Court of Appeal reached the conclusion that the Dutchbat’s conduct was attributable to the Netherlands without recourse to the preventive approach. The present study argues that the legal framework for the attribution of UN peacekeepers’ conduct has developed in such a manner that the fair allocation of responsibility and the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping operations are in equilibrium. In that sense, the effective control test should be located at the interface between the law of international responsibility and the law of international organizations. It is illustrated that not only does the preventive interpretation fail to strike a fair balance between the institutional considerations and the need to provide remedies for victims of peacekeepers’ misconduct, but also the presumptive approach may lead to effective remedies while having due regard for the institutional considerations.
The main aim of this paper is to show that a cyclic cover of ℙn branched along a very general divisor of degree d is not stably rational, provided that n ≥ 3 and d ≥ n + 1. This generalizes the result of Colliot-Thélène and Pirutka. Generalizations for cyclic covers over complete intersections and applications to suitable Fano manifolds are also discussed.
In this study we analyzed whether the in vivo storage of oocytes (time after ovulation until fertilization) affects the survival and the ploidy status of the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae. Fish were induced to spawn and, after ovulation, a small aliquot was stripped and immediately fertilized (positive control group). Subsequently, aliquots (~150 oocytes) were stripped and fertilized at various time points of 60, 120, 180 or 240 min. Developmental stages, abnormalities, survival and the ploidy status of the hatched larvae were examined. As expected, in the control group, 100% of the larvae were diploid. Conversely, triploid individuals were observed just at the 60 min treatment time point (0.6%). In vivo storage of oocytes also influenced the survival rates (P < 0.05); the 180 and 240 min samples, respectively, presented lower survival rates at gastrula (50.10±6.26% and 40.92±5.32%), and somite (17.80±5.14% and 4.41±2.76%) stages and lower hatching rates (12.01±4.04% and 4.41±2.76%). A higher percentage (99.27±0.40%) of normal larvae and only a few abnormal larvae (0.73±0.40%) were observed in the control group (P = 0.0000). This observation did not differ from that observed at the 60 min treatment point (P = 0.9976). A significant increase in the percentage of abnormalities was observed in the other treatments, and, after 240 min, the highest percentage of abnormal larvae was seen (P=0.0024; 83.33±16.67%). In conclusion, we showed that oocyte ageing had a significant effect on survival and may affect the ploidy status in A. atiparanae.
Methods for the control of molecular deposition and orientation are critical for the development of organic electronic devices. Here, we show the fabrication of ribbons of the optical material polydiacetylene (PDA) using a controlled evaporative self-assembly method. The ability to form these ribbons is highly dependent on both the side groups on the PDA as well as the solvent used in the preparation. Arrays of ribbons of one type of PDA, poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne], with widths on the order of 1–2 µm and lengths of 100s of micrometers, could be successfully obtained with good orientation.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We reviewed the epidemiology of TB and ESRD, investigations of TB exposures in US dialysis facilities, and published guidelines to inform screening and treatment practices among US ESRD patients. Compared to TB in the general population, ESRD patients have 6–25-fold higher TB incidence rates, and mortality during treatment is 2–3-fold higher. Most TB cases among ESRD patients (~90%) occur among non–US-born persons, and an analysis of genotyping data suggests that 80% of all cases result from latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Published TB contact investigations in dialysis facilities have reported cases among ESRD patients and healthcare workers. However, transmission of TB is rare: there were no reports of secondary cases of TB because of exposure to an index-case patient and there were few TB infections, which was demonstrated by low occurrence of newly positive tuberculin skin tests (12%–16%) and conversions (8%–17%) among contacts. Targeted TB education, screening, and treatment for ESRD patients at highest risk for TB exposure (eg, non–US-born persons), using interferon-gamma release assays and short course LTBI regimens (ie, isoniazid-rifapentine weekly for 12 weeks or rifampin daily for 4 months) may be an effective overall strategy for reducing TB burden in ESRD patients.
Behavioural activation is an efficient treatment for depression and can improve intrinsic motivation. Previous studies have revealed that the frontostriatal circuit is involved in intrinsic motivation; however, there are no data on how behavioural activation affects the frontostriatal circuit.
We aimed to investigate behavioural activation-related changes in the frontostriatal circuit.
Fifty-nine individuals with subthreshold depression were randomly assigned to either the intervention or non-intervention group. The intervention group received five weekly behavioural activation sessions. The participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning on two separate occasions while performing a stopwatch task based on intrinsic motivation. We investigated changes in neural activity and functional connectivity after behavioural activation.
After behavioural activation, the intervention group had increased activation and connectivity in the frontostriatal region compared with the non-intervention group. The increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus was correlated with an improvement of subjective sensitivity to environmental rewards.
Behavioural activation-related changes to the frontostriatal circuit advance our understanding of psychotherapy-induced improvements in the neural basis of intrinsic motivation.
Brycon orbignyanus is an important large teleost that is currently on the list of endangered species, therefore studies on its reproductive biology and embryology are fundamental to help species conservation and recovery. The objective of this research was to characterize the events that occur during extrusion, fertilization and embryonic development of the species. The samples were collected at predetermined times, fixed and processed for light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The greenish oocytes were spherical, had translucent chorion and a mean diameter of 1.3±0.11 mm. The eggs had well defined animal and vegetative poles approximately 18 min post-fertilization. Stages from 2 to 128 blastomeres occurred between 20 min and 3 h post-fertilization (hPF), when the morula was characterized. The blastula stage was observed between 2 and 3 hPF, and the gastrula between 3 and 7 hPF, when the embryonic shield emerged and the cellular migration with the consequent formation of epiblast and hypoblast. At 8 hPF, the formation of the neural tube, above the notochord and the encephalic region, was observed, delimiting the forebrain, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon regions. From 11 hPF onward, the optic vesicle was formed close to the forebrain and the embryo tail was well developed. The optic vesicle was observed from 12 hPF onward, and the tail showed an intense movement that culminated with the rupture of the chorion and consequent hatching of the larva at 13 hPF and 27°C.
Herein, we present the first case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus. A fetal echocardiography showed narrowing in the ductus arteriosus, and colour Doppler flow mapping could not identify blood flow through the ductus. Neonatal echocardiography revealed a left ventricular dilated cardiomyopathy, and the cardiomyopathy had fully resolved at 6 months of age.