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Similar to the situation in many other cultures of Asia, in Japan dance and music have always been closely related. If one looks at the history of Japanese music, many genres of music such as gagaku and noh accompany dance. Research in dance, however, has not kept pace with research in music, and it is only recently that studies of dance began to be recognised as an academic discipline. The learned society for dance research, buyō gakkai was founded only in 1976, while the society for research in Asiatic music was established in 1936 and the musicological society of Japan in 1952. Many universities offer degrees (B.A., M.A., and Ph.D.) in musicology and ethnomusicology, but only a few universities, such as Ochanomizu University,2 offer degrees in dance or the study of dance. The faculties of education of some universities3 offer dance classes as a part of physical education.
Ca2-αLaαNb3-βXβO10 nanosheets ((α, β=0-0.14), X= Rh(LaRh), Mn(LaMn), Fe(LaFe), Ni(LaNi)) were synthesized by exfoliation using the surfactant aided sonication method. These nanosheets demonstrated superior photocatalytic activities for water splitting into hydrogen at room temperature. SEM-EDX images and spectra confirmed the morphology and composition of the materials where doped metal precursors inserted into the heterogeneous structure aided the photocatalytic activity.
A cometary globule in IC1396 named ”comet tail 6” by Osterbrock (1957), has been observed at CO and 13CO (J = 1-0) lines with a high spatial resolution, 14″, with the 45-m radio telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The resolution corresponds to a linear size of 0.05 pc at the distance of 750 pc (Matthews 1979). Two possible pre-main sequence stars, LkHα 349 and LkHα 349/c (Cohen and Kuhi 1979), associated with small nebulosities nestle in the central part of the globule. We have obtained CO and 13CO spectra long NS and EW strips which cross each other at the position of LkHα 349 and have mapped a 1.5′x1.5′ area around the globule center at 13CO. Results from the observations are summarized as follows:
We investigate the relation between the emission properties of supernova shock breakout in the circumstellar matter (CSM) and the behavior of the shock. Using a Monte-Carlo method, we examine how the light curve and spectrum depends on the asphericity of the shock and bulk-Compton scattering, and compare the results with the observed properties of X-ray outburst (XRO) 080109/SN 2008D. We found that the rise and decay time of the X-ray light curve do not significantly depend on the degree of shock asphericity and the viewing angle in a steady and spherically symmetric CSM. The observed X-light curve and spectrum of XRO 080109 can be reproduced by considering the shock with a radial velocity of 60% of the speed of light, and the wind mass loss rate is about 5 × 10−4M⊙.
The range of polishing-induced subsurface damage remaining in a commercially available production grade 4H-SiC (0001) epi-ready substrate was evaluated by the observation from the (-1100) cleavage plane using two kinds of highly strain-sensitive characterization methods. Firstly, the analysis using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) with a submicron spatial resolution was conducted on the exposed cross sectional plane. Then, for the further quantitative evaluation excluding the influence of roughness or contamination of the cleavage plane, a synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction experiment was carried out. The range of the subsurface damage evaluated in those experiments was ensured by confirming none of additional strain inserted at the cleavage, as compared with the damage-free substrate prepared by high temperature thermal etching. As a result, the depth of the residual strained region below polishing-induced scratches at the surface was estimated to be in the range of a few microns, which is much deeper than the previously reported value of 100 nm by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It suggests a potential of EBSD for the conventional tool to characterize even a small amount of strain in SiC single crystal.
RXJ 13434+0001 is a rare example of radio-quiet type-2 quasars at high redshift. It was discovered through deep ROSAT observations and identified with a galaxy with a strong but narrow Lyα emission line at z = 2.35. In order to constrain the hard-X-ray properties we observed RXJ 13434+0001 with ASCA. The main purpose is to study the origin of the X-ray emission observed with ROSAT. If it is a scattered component from a strongly absorbed AGN, we could see it much brighter in the hard X-ray band.
Seyfert galaxies often have extended emission line regions around their nucleus. We started an observation program of optical tridimensional spectroscopy for circumnuclear regions of nearby Seyfert galaxies to investigate the ionization source of the gas of just vicinity(typically several hundred pc) of nucleus.
Aoki et al. (1996) found outflowing gas in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7319. The velocity of the outflow comes up to 500 km s−1 and its extent is 4 kpc. This outflow is one of the largest outflowing phenomenon that have ever been found in Seyfert galaxies. The radio emission found by van der Hulst & Rots (1981) aligns the outflowing gas. It suggests the radio emission has relation to the outflow. We have made higher resolution radio imaging of NGC 7319 with VLA to study in detail relation of radio emission to outflowing gas. These radio images have been compared to Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archival broad-band WFPC2 image. The systemic velocity 6740 km s−1 (Aoki et al. 1996) gives a distance of 90 Mpc for NGC 7319 assuming a Hubble constant H0=75 km s−1 Mpc−1. Thus 1″ corresponds to 450 pc.
A narrow-band imaging observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 was made in the Fabry-Perot mode of the Kyoto 3D Spectrograph attached to the 188cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. We observed at wavelengths of Hα, [S ii]λ6716, [S ii]λ6731 and adjacent continua of the respective lines with a “tunable filter”, i.e. a gap-scanning etalon with a spectral resolution of 20 Å.
Fine features of the dust distribution in the central region of NGC 4151 have been studied from high resolution images obtained by the Subaru Telescope. The two dust lanes lying along a circum-nuclear ellipse of 40“ ×20” have been recognized to consist of a number of fine filaments and knots. In the inner region, there has been found dust distributed in a bipolar cone region extending to 5” from the nucleus. This cone is exactly complementary to the well-known bipolar ionized gaseous region. A dense knot is seen at 2” SE from the nucleus, but no torus-like feature is recognized. The masses of neutral gas in the outer lanes and in the inner region are estimated as 106M⊙ and 105M⊙ respectively. These observational results are compared with results of numerical simulations of gas dynamics.
An automated method of general star counts has been developed for the purpose of deriving the distributions of extinction of large dark clouds. The result of the application to the Southern Coalsack is given.
Tridimensional spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 3C 120 was carried out with Spectronebulagraph (SNG). We constructed a data cube which is free from atmospheric variations during the scans. We then separated the blended lines by deconvolving the line profiles, to obtain pure narrow-line images and narrow-line intensity ratio diagram.
Spectronebulagraph, an automated observation system of tridimensional spectroscopy with a long slit spectrograph, is now in operation at the 188 cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. This system is based on the local area net work of personal computers which control the telescope, the autoguider, the Cassegrain spectrograph and its CCD camera. Effects of variable atmospheric transmission during scans of target objects are removed by performing a set of two orthogonal scans and the data processing.
A new spectrograph is now under development for the telescope. This instrument has multiple modes for tridimensional spectroscopy, i.e., the filter imagery mode, the imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer mode, a slit spectrograph mode for Spectronebulagraph, and the microlens array spectrograph (TIGER) mode. For the last mode, a dual preoptics to get simultaneously the sky background is introduced and achromatization of the microlenses is tried. This project is a part of development of a prototype instrument for the SUBARU telescope.
The Kyoto 3-D Spectrograph was commissioned successfully at the 188-cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory in the spring of 1996. This instrument has four distinct modes (Ohtani et al. 1994): (1) narrow-band imager, which is an ordinary focal-reducer camera; (2) Spectro-NebulaGraph (long-slit spectrograph; Kosugi et al. 1995); (3) imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, using either of two Fabry-Perot etalons from Queensgate Instruments (a tunable filter with R = 300 and another with R = 7000 for velocity-field observations. Broad-band (400–700 nm) coatings are deposited on both etalons. During observations, the etalon temperature is stabilized within 0.5°C); and (4) integral-field spectrograph of the TIGER-type (Bacon et al. 1995). In this mode, the spectra of 7 × 11 objects can be recorded simultaneously, along with 7 × 2 spectra of the sky 4′ away. The spatial resolution is 1″.3 and the field of view is 9″ × 14″.
The researches into extended emission line region (EELR) give us the valuable informations about the nucleus. A recent study of the EELR in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 by Yoshida and Ohtani (1993) have revealed that a strongly asymmetric radiation field in this typical Seyfert 1. They have suggested the anisotropy may be caused inside the BLR. It is important to examine if any other Seyfert 1 galaxy has an anisotropic nuclear radiation.
The famous Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 has EELR which extends ∼ 10” on either side of the nucleus. The morphology of the EELR is Z-shape. This nearby (D=38.9Mpc) galaxy is of type SBO for which the object is expected to be free from contamination by HII regions and dust clouds.
We developed a slit-scanning type 3D-spectroscopic system named as Spectronebulagraph (hereafter SNG; Kosugi et al. 1994) at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. A detailed description about SNG is presented by Ohtani et al. elsewhere in this colloquium. We present here the results of the 3D-spectroscopy of four nearby active galaxies by using SNG.
This nearby (at distance of 5.4 Mpc) Magellanic irregular galaxy has many H II regions in its main body suggesting violent star-formation activity. We performed tridimensional observations of NGC 4449 using SNG in order to obtain detailed kinematic structure and then to investigate the star-formation mechanism of NGC 4449. Hα intensity map, Hα velocity field are shown in figure 1. As is obvious in lower panel of figure 1, no global rotational motion was detected. Most impressive feature of the velocity field is kpc-scale mosaic structure of low velocity and high velocity components. Also, many filamentary components were newly found in 3D-datacube of the SNG observation.
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the elegant material because its uses in various fields. In this study, AgNPs have been prepared by using Peltophorum pterocarpum (PP) flower extract as reducing and capping agent and aqueous silver nitrate (aq.AgNO3) as silver precursor. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Ultra Violet - Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), which reveals the formation of nanosized particles. The UV-Vis spectrum shows an absorption peak around 430nm. HR-TEM images of AgNPs with clear morphology and well dispersed prepared AgNPs.