To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter focuses on the struggle to deal with hate speech on the Internet, including concrete examples and an examination of the basic measures that Japan needs to adopt to deal address with this problem. The chapter concludes that there is a significant difference between discriminatory expressions attacking socially vulnerable minorities and expressions attacking the government and the socially strong majority, which have become the focus for debate on regulation. However, while discriminatory expressions are unpleasant, they remain mere expressions and should be treated as such. It should not be overlooked that discriminatory expressions often take on a political character because they are often focused on emphasizing equality. Regulation under the law should be based on both freedom of expression and the goal of eliminating discrimination itself, and in relation to the latter a blend of education and awareness-raising activities are called for, along with resolution by law that aims to inspire voluntary initiatives (self-regulation) among providers.
Background: The genus Roseomonas, containing pink-pigmented glucose nonfermentative bacteria, has been associated with various primary and nosocomial human infections; however, to our knowledge, its nosocomial transmission has never been reported in the literature. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of Roseomonas mucosa bacteremia. Methods: Two cases of R. mucosa bacteremia in 2018 are described. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were undertaken. Environmental surfaces prone to water contamination in the patient wards were sampled and cultured. The sampled surfaces included sinks, faucets, toilets, sewage, showerheads, refrigerators, exhaust vents, and washing machines. The 2 clinical isolates and all environmental isolates that showed growth of pink colonies were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed and fingerprinting software was used to analyze the DNA restriction patterns and determine their similarity. Results: Two patients who developed R. mucosa bacteremia had received care from the same treatment team. The patients were on different wards but had overlapping hospital stays. In addition to the treatment team, no other shared exposure was identified. Moreover, 126 environmental surfaces were sampled, of which 7 samples grew pink colonies. The 9 isolates from the patients and the environmental samples were examined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 7 isolates, including isolates from both patients, were identified as R. mucosa, and the other 2 isolates were identified as Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea (Fig. 1). With 80% similarity as a cutoff, PFGE analysis revealed that the R. mucosa isolates from 2 patients’ blood cultures and 3 environmental isolates (a washing machine in the ward, a sink in the shared washroom, and a sink in the patient room) belonged to the same clone (Fig. 2). Conclusions: The hospital water environment was contaminated with R. mucosa, and the same clone caused bacteremia in 2 separate patients, suggesting nosocomial transmission of R. mucosa possibly linked to contaminated water, environment, and/or patient care.
Public health checkups are conducted on 3-year-old children in Japan. However, it is often difficult to detect or provide ongoing support to children with developmental disorders without MR. Therefore we have conducted health checkups on 5 year olds.
The objectives are to describe the results and follow-up of health checkups in 5-year-old children and examine the utility of such checkups.
The aims are to make clear the utility of health checkups in 5-year-old children for screening for developmental disorders.
The subjects were 303 children of 5-year-old that lived in Kanie-cho and participated in health checkups. in the checkups, a child psychiatrist examined the children, and made a provisional diagnosis of a developmental disorder.
Eighty-two children were provisionally diagnosed as having developmental disorders. the follow-up allowed final diagnosis of developmental disorders (suspect diagnosis included) to be made in 39 children (12.9%), and pinpointed 19 children with ADHD, 9 children with PDD, 9 children with mild MR, and 2 children with motor skills disorder.
All children with PDD had already been informed about the possible occurrence of developmental disorders at 3 years of age. However, most of ADHD, mild MR, and motor function disorder were diagnosed in these children during the checkups at the age of 5 years.
The health checkup in 5-year-old children is useful not only as a tool to detect developmental disorders that are difficult to diagnose at the age of 3 years but also as an approach in patients lost to follow-up.
Children with Learning Disorders (LD) are susceptible to decreased self-esteem and willingness because of their difficulty learning, which can lead to exacerbation of the learning difficulty in a vicious cycle. Appropriate learning supports may help not only in terms of learning, but also psychologically.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effect of learning supports for children with LD.
The aims are to make clear that psychological changes occur for children by the learning supports.
We conducted 10 learning support sessions for 12 children (age 8–11 years) diagnosed as LD. Afterward, we gave a questionnaire on motivation and self-efficacy in learning to the children and their parents, and a questionnaire on positive participation in class to the children's teachers.
The children's responses showed increased intrinsic motivation with high autonomy, and decreased extrinsic motivation with low autonomy and self-efficacy after supports. the parents’ responses indicated increased self-efficacy and decreased motivation overall after supports, while the teachers’ responses indicated increased positive class participation after supports.
Parents and teachers see that willingness for learning improve through learning supports, but the children themselves feel decreased efficacy. At the same time, the children came to have more autonomous intrinsic motivation for learning. Both of motivation and willigness increased through learning supports, but conversely the children came to notice their own weaknesses (true abilities), which is thought to have led to decreased self-efficacy. with continuing support improvement of true efficacy may be expected.
MoS2(1-x)Te2x, the alloy of MoS2 and MoTe2 was fabricated with just co-sputtering and the combination of co-sputtering with following thermal treatment in chalcogen ambient. Phase separation, where MoTe2 was segregated rather than S and Te being uniformly distributed, was observed for some samples. From the physical structure evaluation using XRD, it was shown that the samples that was sulfurized after unintentional oxidation during shelf time exhibited no phase separation. It was suggested that oxidation of Mo or amorphous nature of the film at the chalcogenization stage may prevent the phase separation. In addition, some samples were stored in desiccator for stability evaluation. It was revealed that the samples undergo oxidation to different extent depending on the carrier gas used in tellurization. Finally, the bandgap and band structure was evaluated for samples with different Te concentration. The bandgap showed bowing behavior for different Te concentration with the bowing parameter b = -1.21 eV. Combined with the bandgap evaluation, the valence analysis with XPS showed that the band structure shifted according to the Te concentration. The shift in bandgap allows flexible band alignment which is expected to expand the materials applicability.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is expected to be applied for devices in various fields owing to its unique characteristics. Establishing a high-productivity manufacturing method which yields high quality films is an important and unresolved issue for the practical applications of MoS2. Among different techniques conducted by researchers all over the world, our approach is cold-wall metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, and we previously reported the deposition of MoS2 with i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3, a novel Mo precursor [S. Ishihara, et al., MRS Advances 3, 379-384 (2018).]. In this study, with the aim of further improving the quality of the MoS2 film using this new Mo precursor, various film formation conditions were controlled and the influence on the film quality was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used as evaluation techniques of the samples. As a result, mm-scale uniform film was formed with the deposition time less than 30 min. at temperature as low as 400 °C to 500 °C. It was revealed that maintaining low Mo/S supply ratio (SRMo/S) is crucial in fabricating high quality films.
We present the physical properties of Lyα emitters (LAEs) in a “DLA-concentrated regions” where there are 3 or more DLA within (50 Mpc)3 cubic box. We observed LAEs in a DLA-concentrated region at z = 2.3, the J1230+34 field, with Subaru/Suprime-Cam. In the 50 Mpc scale, we found no deferences in properties of LAEs such as Lyα luminosity function in the DLA-concentrated region compared to other fields at similar redshift. On the other hand, we found a ∼10 Mpc scale LAE overdensity around a strong DLA with NHI = 1021.08 cm−2.
Uncertainty is caused not only by environmental changes, but also by social interference resulting from competition over food resources. Actually, foraging effort is socially facilitated, which, however, does not require incentive control by the dopamine system; Zajonc's “drive” theory is thus questionable. Instead, social adjustments may be pre-embedded in the limbic network responsible for decisions of appropriate effort-cost investment.
Advances in health care due to the development and introduction of new drugs and medical devices have brought considerable benefits to people and patients in terms of upgraded quality of life and extended years of survival. However, some are concerned that the very advancement of health care would increase further the inflation of national healthcare costs. In response to these concerns, Japan's Central Social Insurance Medical Council (“Chuikyo”) began in 2012 to examine how cost-effectiveness evaluation might be applied to the national health insurance system, and has been working toward establishing a system for its usage.
Cost-effectiveness evaluation was adopted on a trial basis in fiscal year (FY) 2016, targeting seven drugs and six medical devices. Analyses and re-analyses were performed by manufacturers and a public expert organization, respectively. Based on these analyses, a cost-effectiveness evaluation expert organization conducted an overall assessment (“appraisal”). Results of the evaluation were used to adjust the prices of the target items.
Following the trial adoption of cost-effectiveness evaluation, price adjustments were performed for three items in April 2018. Meanwhile, a decision was also made to examine seven items for which technical requirements were identified due to differences in the understanding of analysis methods between involved parties.
The Chuikyo will examine how to meet the newly identified technical requirements and discuss specific details with regard to establishing a system that incorporates cost-effectiveness evaluation. The Chuikyo plans to reach a conclusion by the end of FY 2018.
Dwarf galaxies provide us many important clues to understanding of galaxy formation. By using the current version of our own semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, in which cosmic structure forms and evolves based on the cold dark matter model of cosmology, we analyze dwarf galaxies. We find that the model well reproduces many properties such as magnitudes, sizes, and velocity dispersions of, especially, dwarf elliptical galaxies. We also find that the dynamical response of the gravitational potential well of dwarf galaxies to the supernova-induced gas removal plays a very important role to obtain large sizes and small velocity dispersions as observed.
Metal organic precursor has a sufficiently high vapor pressure at low temperature, contributing high-speed low-temperature MOCVD-MoS2 film formation. We fabricated monolayer MoS2 by 1 step cold-wall MOCVD using di-isopropyl-diazadiene-molybdenum tricarbonyl [i-Pr2DADMo(CO)3] and di-tertiary-butyl disulfide [(t-C4H9)2S2]. These precursors are able to be vaporized using bubbling system and deposited at low temperature. From the XPS investigations, Mo-S bonding peaks were observed and S:Mo ratio was calculated as 2:1, suggesting formation of MoS2. Moreover, molybdenum carbides and nitrogen impurities were not observed which was confirmed by XPS and EDX. From the results of Raman spectroscopy, AFM height distribution, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, it was determined that the film thickness is 0.64 nm which is corresponding to monolayer MoS2, the lateral grain size is approximately 100 nm, and the bandgap energy is 1.8 eV.
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
MoS2(1−x)Te2x thin films were fabricated by high-temperature co-sputtering deposition and post-deposition tellurization annealing using novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te for the first time. As a result, high crystal quality MoS2(1−x)Te2x (6.5 nm) were successfully fabricated with the Te concentration x ranging from 0.48 to 0.61 and band gap value from 0.80 to 0.87 eV. From the obtained band gap values of MoS2(1−x)Te2x, the bowing parameter b was determined to be 1.06 eV. When exploited in device use, if the required band gap value is known, the required composition can be calculated with the bowing parameter. We have also shown the compatibility of co-sputtering to alloy fabrication since the composition ratio can be easily controlled just by adjusting the radio frequency (RF) sputter power on different targets. The fabrication method can be applied to different transition metal dichalcogenide materials as well.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
We suggest and give some evidence that as an HII region expands and the O stars evolve into B giants, remains of the molecular clouds first appear as bright-rimmed clouds, then as cometary globules and finally as small clouds which are visible by the reflected light from the B giants. We propose to call the last of these ‘reflection clouds’ and all three categories collectively ‘remnant clouds’. A list is presented of about 80 objects of these remnant clouds in the Ori OB 1 association. In the Belt region there is a beautiful spatial sequence from bright-rimmed clouds through cometary globules to reflection clouds. We suspect that retarded star formation in remnant clouds can explain the presence of so-called dispersed T Tau stars in the peripheries of OB associations.
Altogether 26 new Herbig-Haro (HH) objects have been discovered by slit spectroscopy and narrow-band CCD imagery. Several of them are very remarkable in various aspects. We have also found a total of over 1000 HH candidates in L1641, L1630 and NGC 2264 on deep Schmidt plates. Fibre spectroscopy is currently underway, confirming already some 70 HH objects. Implications of this large number are briefly discussed.