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Continents grow mainly through magmatism, relamination, accretionary prism development, sediment underplating, tectonic accretion of seamounts, oceanic plateaus and oceanic lithosphere, and collisions of island arcs at convergent margins. The modern Pacific–Rim subduction zone environments present a natural laboratory to examine the nature of these processes. The papers in this special issue focus on the: (1) modern and ancient accretionary margins of Japan; (2) arc–continent collision zone in the Taiwan orogenic belt; (3) accreting versus non-accreting convergent margins of the Americas; and (4) several examples of ancient convergent margins of East Asia. Subduction erosion and sediment underplating are important processes, affecting the melt evolution of arc magmas by giving them special crustal isotopic characteristics. Oblique arc–continent collisions cause strong deformation partitioning that results in orogen-parallel extension, crustal exhumation and wrench faulting in the hinterland, and thrust faulting–folding in the foreland. Trench-parallel widths of subducting slabs exert major control on slab geometries, the degree of coupling–decoupling between the lower and upper plates, and subduction velocity partitioning. An initially large width of the subducting Palaeo-Pacific Plate against East Asia caused flat subduction and resistance to slab rollback during the Triassic Period. These conditions resulted in shortening across SE China. Foundering and delamination of the flat slab during the Early Jurassic Epoch led to slab segmentation and reduced slab widths, followed by slab steepening and rollback. This pull-away tectonics induced lithospheric extension and magmatism in SE China during Late Jurassic – Cretaceous time. Melting of subducted carbonaceous sediments commonly produces networks of silicate veins in CLM that may subsequently undergo partial melting, producing ultrapotassic magmas.
The multiphase simulations are conducted with the kinetic-magnetohydrodynamics hybrid code MEGA to investigate the spatial and the velocity distributions of lost fast ions due to the Alfvén eigenmode (AE) bursts in the Large Helical Device plasmas. It is found that fast ions are lost along the divertor region with helical symmetry both before and during the AE burst except for the promptly lost particles. On the other hand, several peaks are present in the spatial distribution of lost fast ions along the divertor region. These peaks along the divertor region can be attributed to the deviation of the fast-ion orbits from the magnetic surfaces due to the grad-B and the curvature drifts. For comparison with the velocity distribution of lost fast ions measured by the fast-ion loss detector (FILD), the ‘numerical FILD’ which solves the Newton–Lorentz equation is constructed in the MEGA code. The velocity distribution of lost fast ions detected by the numerical FILD during AE burst is in good qualitative agreement with the experimental FILD measurements. During the AE burst, fast ions with high energy (100–180 keV) are detected by the numerical FILD, while co-going fast ions lost to the divertor region are the particles with energy lower than 50 keV.
Background: The genus Roseomonas, containing pink-pigmented glucose nonfermentative bacteria, has been associated with various primary and nosocomial human infections; however, to our knowledge, its nosocomial transmission has never been reported in the literature. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of Roseomonas mucosa bacteremia. Methods: Two cases of R. mucosa bacteremia in 2018 are described. Clinical and epidemiological investigations were undertaken. Environmental surfaces prone to water contamination in the patient wards were sampled and cultured. The sampled surfaces included sinks, faucets, toilets, sewage, showerheads, refrigerators, exhaust vents, and washing machines. The 2 clinical isolates and all environmental isolates that showed growth of pink colonies were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed and fingerprinting software was used to analyze the DNA restriction patterns and determine their similarity. Results: Two patients who developed R. mucosa bacteremia had received care from the same treatment team. The patients were on different wards but had overlapping hospital stays. In addition to the treatment team, no other shared exposure was identified. Moreover, 126 environmental surfaces were sampled, of which 7 samples grew pink colonies. The 9 isolates from the patients and the environmental samples were examined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, 7 isolates, including isolates from both patients, were identified as R. mucosa, and the other 2 isolates were identified as Roseomonas gilardii subsp. rosea (Fig. 1). With 80% similarity as a cutoff, PFGE analysis revealed that the R. mucosa isolates from 2 patients’ blood cultures and 3 environmental isolates (a washing machine in the ward, a sink in the shared washroom, and a sink in the patient room) belonged to the same clone (Fig. 2). Conclusions: The hospital water environment was contaminated with R. mucosa, and the same clone caused bacteremia in 2 separate patients, suggesting nosocomial transmission of R. mucosa possibly linked to contaminated water, environment, and/or patient care.
Mobility limitation and cognitive decline are related. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of three or more cardiovascular risk factors, is associated with decline in both mobility and cognition. However, the interrelationship among MetS, mobility, and cognition is unknown. This study investigated a proposed pathway where cognition moderates the relationship between MetS and Mobility.
Adults ages 45–90 years were recruited. MetS risk factors and mobility performance (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and gait speed) were evaluated. Cognition was assessed using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A factor analysis of neuropsychological test scores yielded three factors: executive function, explicit memory, and semantic/contextual memory. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the relationship among MetS, mobility, and cognition.
Of the 74 participants (average age 61 ± 9 years; 41% female; 69% White), 27 (36%) participants manifested MetS. Mean SPPB score was 10.9 ± 1.2 out of 12 and gait speed was 1.0 ± 0.2 m/s. There were no statistically significant differences in mobility by MetS status. However, increase in any one of the MetS risk factors was associated with decreased mobility performance after adjusting for age and gender (SPPB score: β (SE) -.17 (0.08), p < .05; gait speed: -.03 (.01), p < .01). Further adjusting for cognitive factors (SPPB score: explicit memory .31 (.14), p = .03; executive function 0.45 (0.13), p < .01; gait speed: explicit memory 0.04 (0.02), p = .03; executive function 0.06 (0.02), p < .01) moderated the relationships between number of metabolic risk factors and mobility.
The relationship between metabolic risk factors and mobility may be moderated by cognitive performance, specifically through executive function and explicit memory.
Recent research supports the importance of PUFA intake in children, particularly of EPA and DHA; however, few verified methods to assess whether PUFA intake is adequate are available.
We assessed the correlation between serum PUFA and lipid concentrations with seafood and PUFA intake measured using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children (BDHQ3y).
Single centre birth cohort in Japan.
A total of 152 36-month-old Japanese children.
Average dietary intake of daily seafood, EPA and DHA was 13·83 (sd 10·36) g, 49·4 (sd 43·5) mg and 98·3 (sd 64·6) mg, respectively. Significant weak-to-moderate correlations were observed between dietary intake and serum EPA (Spearman rho = 0·41, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·44, P < 0·001); DHA (Spearman rho = 0·40, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·42, P < 0·001) and AA (arachidonic acid) (Spearman rho = 0·33, P < 0·001; Pearson r = 0·32, P < 0·001), whereas no significant correlation was observed for dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) (Spearman rho = 0·06, P = 0·484; Pearson r = 0·07, P = 0·387). Correlations between seafood intake and serum EPA and DHA were also moderate (0·39–0·43). A negative correlation between serum TAGs and serum EPA, as well as positive correlations between serum cholesterol (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL) with serum EPA and DHA were observed, whereas no significant correlations between seafood intake and serum lipid profiles. Based on this model, we estimated 61–98 g/week of seafood intake is required to meet current EPA/DHA intake recommendations by the WHO (100–150 mg/d).
For children of 2–4 years of age, weekly intake of 61–98 g of seafood is required to meet WHO recommendations of EPA/DHA intake.
The neutral beam (NB) fast ion confinement in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied for several full field (
) magnetic configurations by a combination of neutron measurement and simulations. To investigate the NB fast ion confinement, we have performed a series of short-pulse NB injection experiments. The experiment results are analysed by the integrated code TASK3D-a. From this investigation, the effective particle diffusion coefficients of the tangential and perpendicular NBs are approximately
in the standard configuration. It is clarified that the NB fast ion confinement improves when the plasmas are shifted inward. Moreover, it is also found that the simulation, which considers the deuteron dilution effect due to the presence of impurity ions, can describe a neutron emission rate consistent with the measurement.
Although early identification and management services for dementia have become more widespread, their efficacy and the clinical characteristics of service have yet to be fully evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify these issues.
The subjects were 164 Japanese users of an early identification and management program for dementia, known as the Initial-phase Intensive Support Team (IPIST), between 2013 and 2015. Nonhierarchical cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups based on cognitive status and ability in activities of daily living (ADL) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). One-way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate differences among the groups derived by the cluster analysis. A paired t test was used to assess how the clinical status of the groups changed between baseline and follow-up.
Four groups were identified by cluster analysis, i.e. a mild group, a moderate group, a BPSD group with moderate cognitive impairment and severe BPSD, and a severe group with severe cognitive impairment and severe BPSD. Although there were no significant improvements in cognitive impairment or ADL in any group, significant improvements were found in BPSD in the BPSD and severe BPSD groups. Caregiver burden was significantly lessened in all groups. Clinical diagnosis and long-term care insurance service utilization rates were significantly improved overall.
The users of IPIST were classified into four subgroups based on their clinical characteristics. The IPIST program could improve the quality of life of people with dementia and their caregivers.
Differential sources of sedimentary organic compounds in a volcanic region were revealed by determining radiocarbon content (Δ14C) of organic compounds in surface sediments from Lake Kawaguchi, at the northern foot of Mount Fuji, central Japan. The Δ14C values of C16 fatty acid (−124‰) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (−133‰) were similar to the Δ14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface water (−117‰), suggesting that a significant portion of these compounds originated from modern primary producers with a reservoir age of ~1000 years. On the other hand, a large offset between the Δ14C values of Chl a (−133‰) and those of 132, 173-cyclopheophorbide-a-enol (−169‰) and pheophytin a (−179‰) suggested contributions from older pigments. In addition, the Δ14C of long-chain (C24, C26, and C28) fatty acids (−183 to −75‰) showed a large offset from that of a plant leaf remain (0‰) within sediments, demonstrating that the long-chain fatty acids were affected by substantial contributions from pre-aged terrestrial materials. Overall, the sedimentary organic compounds gave 14C ages older than the plant leaf fragment within sediments; however, the similarity between Δ14C of the C16 fatty acid and DIC implies potential for applying compound-specific radiocarbon analysis as a dating tool in volcanic lake environments.
Nanoparticles are often used for both metals and non-metals, in cosmetics, home appliances, electrical products, as well as paints and inks. Nanoparticles are commonly produced by the vapor phase method or the liquid phase method. However, it is still difficult to produce nanoparticles with complicated shapes, such as raspberry-shaped particles. In this study, we demonstrated that nano-raspberry particles can be made by coating the surface of the small- and the large-sized silica nanoparticle with a reactive, chemically adsorbed, monomolecular film and then by bonding the smaller nanoparticles to the surface of the larger nanoparticle. Furthermore, by preparing a fractal surface structure on a flat substrate surface, a super-water and oil repellent surface, which can potentially improve the application performance, was successfully produced.
Mammalian Pou5f1 encodes the POU family class V (POU-V) transcription factor which is essential for the pluripotency of embryonic cells and germ cells. In vertebrates, various POU-V family genes have been identified and classified into the POU5F1 family or its paralogous POU5F3 family. In this study, we cloned two cDNAs named CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3, which encode POU-V family proteins of the Japanese red bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. In the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by CpPou5f1, the typical MAGH sequence at the N-terminus and deletion of arginine at the fifth position of POU-homeodomain were recognized, but not in the sequence encoded by CpPou5f3. Phylogenetic analysis using Clustal Omega software indicated that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 are classified into the clade of the POU5F1 and POU5F3 families, respectively. In a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the marked gene expression of CpPou5f1 was observed during oogenesis and early development up to the tail-bud stage, whereas weak gene expression of CpPou5f3 was detected only in the early stages of oogenesis and gastrula. In adult organs, CpPou5f1 was expressed only in the ovary, while gene expression of CpPou5f3 was recognized in various organs. A regeneration experiment using larval forelimb revealed that transient gene expression of CpPou5f1 occurred at the time of wound healing, followed by gene activation of CpPou5f3 during the period of blastema formation. These results suggest that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 might play different roles in embryogenesis and limb regeneration.
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the most promising transparent conductive oxide materials for a front electrode in solar cells. In this work, we roughened substrate surface and sputtered AZO films, where the effect of roughness on various AZO properties was investigated. The haze values were largely enhanced, retaining other important properties such as conductivity and transparency. The optical band gap exhibits a clear blue shift because of the roughness. The possible cause of this shift may be variation in the Al content due to the different deposition and post-annealing mechanisms of AZO films on the roughened surface.
We have succeeded in synthesizing organics, ‘Quenched Nitrogen-included Carbonaceous Composite (QNCC)’, via plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, whose infrared spectral properties reproduce the characteristics of the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands observed around classical novae. Past studies have shown that the UIR bands observed around novae appear somewhat differently from those observed in other astrophysical environment and are predominantly characterized by the presence of a broad 8μm feature. The remarkable similarity between the infrared properties of QNCC and the UIR bands in novae indicates that QNCC should be considered as a strong candidate of the carriers of the UIR bands in novae. Finally, we have started a space exposure experiment of QNCC aiming to explore the evolutional link between the QNCC and the insoluble organic molecule (IOM) in carbonaceous condrite and, thus, to infer the origins of organics in our solar system.
The eastern Nankai accretionary prism toe was surveyed to evaluate the nature and deformation of its frontal thrust. According to the determined porosities and yield strengths, turbidites were successively buried down to depths of 250–300 m before accretion, and were then exposed at the prism toe by uplift along the Tenryu frontal thrust during 3.4–1.98 Ma. Consolidation tests provided reasonable estimates of burial depth and, when combined with exposed sediment dates, yield prism toe uplift rates of 0.74–2.27 m ka–1. The displacement along the frontal thrust is estimated to be 500–900 m and the slip rates are 1.47–4.55 m ka–1, corresponding to the highest class of active faults on land in Japan. During the surveys of the Tenryu frontal thrust zone, we discovered a new active fault scarp that was several tens of centimetres high, interpreted to be a protothrust located c. 100 m south of the frontal thrust. This scarp is associated with chemosynthetic biocommunities. The thrust might potentially be the result of displacement during the East Nankai (To-Nankai) earthquake (Mw 8.1) in 1944. These lines of evidence indicate that the Tenryu frontal thrust is still active and that displacement along the thrust might induce a tsunami during future Tokai or To-Nankai earthquakes.
Ligophorus satunensis n. sp. was collected from the bluetail mullet, Crenimugil buchanani (Bleeker, 1853), caught off Satun, Thailand, representing the first report of the Ligophorus species in Thailand. The new species is most similar to Ligophorus fenestrum Soo & Lim, 2012 in its fenestrated dorsal hamuli, a ventral bar with a long, bifurcated anteromedian protuberance (AMP) without lateral pieces, and a non-sclerotized vagina. However, it differs from the latter in its dorsal hamuli (up to two layers of fenestrations of the dorsal hamuli in L. satunensis n. sp. vs six layers in L. fenestrum), ventral hamuli (nonfenestrated vs fenestrated), penis (turning a full circle before reaching the genital pore vs turning less than half a circle), and its accessory piece (non-grooved basally and grooved distally vs simply grooved along its entire length). A single specimen, very similar to L. satunensis n. sp., obtained from the same host fish, which can be differentiated from the latter by a considerably shorter AMP of the ventral bar and a smaller and slender dorsal hamuli, is tentatively designated here as Ligophorus sp. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees constructed from the concatenated sequences of partial large-subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (28S) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions support that L. satunensis n. sp. is a new species closely related to L. fenestrum.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
The unidentified infrared (UIR) bands have been ubiquitously observed in various astrophysical environments and consist of a series of emission features arising from aromatic and/or aliphatic C-C and C-H bonds . Therefore, their carriers are thought to be related to interstellar organics. However, our knowledge on the true carriers of the UIR bands is still limited. Recently  has proposed Mixed Aromatic Aliphatic Organic Nanoparticles, which contains hetero atoms in addition to conventional hydrocarbon models, as a more realistic interpretation of the band carriers. The challenges toward identifying the carriers of the UIR bands are still ongoing. Past studies have shown that the UIR bands observed around classical novae, which characterized by the presence of broad feature around 8μm, are somewhat different from those observed in other astrophysical environment. Here we report the success of experimentally synthesizing the organics called Nitrogen-included Carbonaceous Compounds (NCC; ) whose infrared properties can reproduce the UIR bands observed in classical novae.