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Nanoparticles are often used for both metals and non-metals, in cosmetics, home appliances, electrical products, as well as paints and inks. Nanoparticles are commonly produced by the vapor phase method or the liquid phase method. However, it is still difficult to produce nanoparticles with complicated shapes, such as raspberry-shaped particles. In this study, we demonstrated that nano-raspberry particles can be made by coating the surface of the small- and the large-sized silica nanoparticle with a reactive, chemically adsorbed, monomolecular film and then by bonding the smaller nanoparticles to the surface of the larger nanoparticle. Furthermore, by preparing a fractal surface structure on a flat substrate surface, a super-water and oil repellent surface, which can potentially improve the application performance, was successfully produced.
Although early identification and management services for dementia have become more widespread, their efficacy and the clinical characteristics of service have yet to be fully evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify these issues.
The subjects were 164 Japanese users of an early identification and management program for dementia, known as the Initial-phase Intensive Support Team (IPIST), between 2013 and 2015. Nonhierarchical cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups based on cognitive status and ability in activities of daily living (ADL) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). One-way analysis of variance was performed to evaluate differences among the groups derived by the cluster analysis. A paired t test was used to assess how the clinical status of the groups changed between baseline and follow-up.
Four groups were identified by cluster analysis, i.e. a mild group, a moderate group, a BPSD group with moderate cognitive impairment and severe BPSD, and a severe group with severe cognitive impairment and severe BPSD. Although there were no significant improvements in cognitive impairment or ADL in any group, significant improvements were found in BPSD in the BPSD and severe BPSD groups. Caregiver burden was significantly lessened in all groups. Clinical diagnosis and long-term care insurance service utilization rates were significantly improved overall.
The users of IPIST were classified into four subgroups based on their clinical characteristics. The IPIST program could improve the quality of life of people with dementia and their caregivers.
Differential sources of sedimentary organic compounds in a volcanic region were revealed by determining radiocarbon content (Δ14C) of organic compounds in surface sediments from Lake Kawaguchi, at the northern foot of Mount Fuji, central Japan. The Δ14C values of C16 fatty acid (−124‰) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) (−133‰) were similar to the Δ14C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface water (−117‰), suggesting that a significant portion of these compounds originated from modern primary producers with a reservoir age of ~1000 years. On the other hand, a large offset between the Δ14C values of Chl a (−133‰) and those of 132, 173-cyclopheophorbide-a-enol (−169‰) and pheophytin a (−179‰) suggested contributions from older pigments. In addition, the Δ14C of long-chain (C24, C26, and C28) fatty acids (−183 to −75‰) showed a large offset from that of a plant leaf remain (0‰) within sediments, demonstrating that the long-chain fatty acids were affected by substantial contributions from pre-aged terrestrial materials. Overall, the sedimentary organic compounds gave 14C ages older than the plant leaf fragment within sediments; however, the similarity between Δ14C of the C16 fatty acid and DIC implies potential for applying compound-specific radiocarbon analysis as a dating tool in volcanic lake environments.
Mammalian Pou5f1 encodes the POU family class V (POU-V) transcription factor which is essential for the pluripotency of embryonic cells and germ cells. In vertebrates, various POU-V family genes have been identified and classified into the POU5F1 family or its paralogous POU5F3 family. In this study, we cloned two cDNAs named CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3, which encode POU-V family proteins of the Japanese red bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. In the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by CpPou5f1, the typical MAGH sequence at the N-terminus and deletion of arginine at the fifth position of POU-homeodomain were recognized, but not in the sequence encoded by CpPou5f3. Phylogenetic analysis using Clustal Omega software indicated that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 are classified into the clade of the POU5F1 and POU5F3 families, respectively. In a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the marked gene expression of CpPou5f1 was observed during oogenesis and early development up to the tail-bud stage, whereas weak gene expression of CpPou5f3 was detected only in the early stages of oogenesis and gastrula. In adult organs, CpPou5f1 was expressed only in the ovary, while gene expression of CpPou5f3 was recognized in various organs. A regeneration experiment using larval forelimb revealed that transient gene expression of CpPou5f1 occurred at the time of wound healing, followed by gene activation of CpPou5f3 during the period of blastema formation. These results suggest that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 might play different roles in embryogenesis and limb regeneration.
Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the most promising transparent conductive oxide materials for a front electrode in solar cells. In this work, we roughened substrate surface and sputtered AZO films, where the effect of roughness on various AZO properties was investigated. The haze values were largely enhanced, retaining other important properties such as conductivity and transparency. The optical band gap exhibits a clear blue shift because of the roughness. The possible cause of this shift may be variation in the Al content due to the different deposition and post-annealing mechanisms of AZO films on the roughened surface.
The eastern Nankai accretionary prism toe was surveyed to evaluate the nature and deformation of its frontal thrust. According to the determined porosities and yield strengths, turbidites were successively buried down to depths of 250–300 m before accretion, and were then exposed at the prism toe by uplift along the Tenryu frontal thrust during 3.4–1.98 Ma. Consolidation tests provided reasonable estimates of burial depth and, when combined with exposed sediment dates, yield prism toe uplift rates of 0.74–2.27 m ka–1. The displacement along the frontal thrust is estimated to be 500–900 m and the slip rates are 1.47–4.55 m ka–1, corresponding to the highest class of active faults on land in Japan. During the surveys of the Tenryu frontal thrust zone, we discovered a new active fault scarp that was several tens of centimetres high, interpreted to be a protothrust located c. 100 m south of the frontal thrust. This scarp is associated with chemosynthetic biocommunities. The thrust might potentially be the result of displacement during the East Nankai (To-Nankai) earthquake (Mw 8.1) in 1944. These lines of evidence indicate that the Tenryu frontal thrust is still active and that displacement along the thrust might induce a tsunami during future Tokai or To-Nankai earthquakes.
Ligophorus satunensis n. sp. was collected from the bluetail mullet, Crenimugil buchanani (Bleeker, 1853), caught off Satun, Thailand, representing the first report of the Ligophorus species in Thailand. The new species is most similar to Ligophorus fenestrum Soo & Lim, 2012 in its fenestrated dorsal hamuli, a ventral bar with a long, bifurcated anteromedian protuberance (AMP) without lateral pieces, and a non-sclerotized vagina. However, it differs from the latter in its dorsal hamuli (up to two layers of fenestrations of the dorsal hamuli in L. satunensis n. sp. vs six layers in L. fenestrum), ventral hamuli (nonfenestrated vs fenestrated), penis (turning a full circle before reaching the genital pore vs turning less than half a circle), and its accessory piece (non-grooved basally and grooved distally vs simply grooved along its entire length). A single specimen, very similar to L. satunensis n. sp., obtained from the same host fish, which can be differentiated from the latter by a considerably shorter AMP of the ventral bar and a smaller and slender dorsal hamuli, is tentatively designated here as Ligophorus sp. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees constructed from the concatenated sequences of partial large-subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (28S) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions support that L. satunensis n. sp. is a new species closely related to L. fenestrum.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
The unidentified infrared (UIR) bands have been ubiquitously observed in various astrophysical environments and consist of a series of emission features arising from aromatic and/or aliphatic C-C and C-H bonds . Therefore, their carriers are thought to be related to interstellar organics. However, our knowledge on the true carriers of the UIR bands is still limited. Recently  has proposed Mixed Aromatic Aliphatic Organic Nanoparticles, which contains hetero atoms in addition to conventional hydrocarbon models, as a more realistic interpretation of the band carriers. The challenges toward identifying the carriers of the UIR bands are still ongoing. Past studies have shown that the UIR bands observed around classical novae, which characterized by the presence of broad feature around 8μm, are somewhat different from those observed in other astrophysical environment. Here we report the success of experimentally synthesizing the organics called Nitrogen-included Carbonaceous Compounds (NCC; ) whose infrared properties can reproduce the UIR bands observed in classical novae.
To assess the diagnostic role of mean platelet volume in tonsillitis with and without peritonsillar abscess.
Mean platelet volume and other laboratory data were retrospectively investigated.
Mean platelet volume was significantly lower in the tonsillitis group (7.8 per cent ± 0.7 per cent) than in the control group (8.7 per cent ± 0.6 per cent; p < 0.0001), and it was significantly lower in the abscess group (7.5 per cent ± 0.6 per cent) than in the no abscess group (8.0 per cent ± 0.7 per cent; p = 0.0277). White blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were not significantly different between patients with an abscess and those without. The mean platelet volume cut-off values for the diagnosis of tonsillitis and peritonsillar abscess were 7.95 fl and 7.75 fl, respectively.
Our results suggest that a decreased mean platelet volume is associated with the development and severity of tonsillitis. This finding provides useful diagnostic information for physicians treating patients with tonsillitis.
The gas field ion source (GFIS) is able to generate tightly focused ion beams, which can be used to image or modify a specimen. Among the beam species, helium offers extremely high resolution, however, low sputter yield and sub-surface bubble formation are limiting factors in some applications. Therefore, heavier ions such as neon or nitrogen are used as well. In addition to being a suitable choice for lithographic mask editing, secondary electron (SE) generation by nitrogen beams has been recently shown to be affected by certain types of samples, providing additional contrast compared to helium ions. Here, we report our progress on the study of SE imaging differences between the nitrogen ion microscopy (N2IM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM). SE images of two nano-patterned samples comprising insulator, metal and carbon regions have been imaged by nitrogen and helium ions in two fundamentally different GFIS microscopes. The results corroborate previous reports of significant contrast differences in certain samples caused by the different ion species.
Recently, Plasma Assisted Atomic Layer Deposition Technique will easily control the thickness and the composition of semiconductor films. The radical generated by using the plasma techniques, gave the decrease of the defect into the semiconductor films. In this investigation, the relationship between microwave plasma power, nitrogen gas flow rate and concentration of generated nitrogen radical, was evaluated. At the first, Plasma emission spectrum at microwave plasma power (0 to 400W) was measured using a mixed 200sccm argon gas and 10sccm nitrogen gas. Next, the plasma emission spectrum was measured in the mixing of nitrogen gas flow rate (0 to 40sccm) with 200sccm argon gas flow rate. At that time, the microwave plasma power was set to 200W. Nitrogen radical spectrum were identified from all the emission spectrum, and the nitrogen radical intensity was calculated. As a result, the nitrogen radical intensity became the largest at 200sccm argon gas flow rate and 10sccm nitrogen gas flow rate. In addition, the nitrogen radical intensity increased in proportion to the microwave plasma power. The concentration of generated nitrogen radical could be controlled by changing the microwave plasma power and the nitrogen gas flow rate. Mentioned above, nitride thin films will be obtained on Si Substrates by microwave generated remote plasma assisted atomic layer deposition technique.
In April 2016, the Japanese government introduced an additional benefit for dementia care in acute care hospitals (dementia care benefit) into the universal benefit schedule of public healthcare insurance program. The benefit includes a financial disincentive to use physical restraint. The present study investigated the association between the dementia care benefit and the use of physical restraint among inpatients with dementia in general acute care settings.
A national cross-sectional study design was used. Eight types of care units from acute care hospitals under the public healthcare insurance program were invited to participate in this study. A total of 23,539 inpatients with dementia from 2,355 care units in 937 hospitals were included for the analysis. Dementia diagnosis or symptoms included any signs of cognitive impairment. The primary outcome measure was “use of physical restraint.”
Among patients, the point prevalence of physical restraint was 44.5% (n = 10,480). Controlling for patient, unit, and hospital characteristics, patients in units with dementia care benefit had significantly lower percentage of physical restraint than those in any other units (42.0% vs. 47.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; 95% confident interval [0.63, 0.92]).
The financial incentive may have reduced the risk of physical restraint among patients with dementia in acute care hospitals. However, use of physical restraint was still common among patients with dementia in units with the dementia care benefit. An educational package to guide dementia care approach including the avoidance of physical restraint by healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals is recommended.
Higher-Order Spectra (HOS) are used to characterise the nonlinear aeroelastic behaviour of a plunging and pitching 2-degree-of-freedom aerofoil system by diagnosing structural and/or aerodynamic nonlinearities via the nonlinear spectral content of the computed displacement signals. The nonlinear aeroelastic predictions are obtained from high-fidelity viscous fluid-structure interaction simulations. The power spectral, bi-spectral and tri-spectral densities are used to provide insight into the functional form of both freeplay and inviscid/viscous aerodynamic nonlinearities with the system displaying both low- and high-amplitude Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO). It is shown that in the absence of aerodynamic nonlinearity (low-amplitude LCO) the system is characterised by cubic phase coupling only. Furthermore, when the amplitude of the oscillations becomes large, aerodynamic nonlinearities become prevalent and are characterised by quadratic phase coupling. Physical insights into the nonlinearities are provided in the form of phase-plane diagrams, pressure coefficient distributions and Mach number flowfield contours.
We perform simulations of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections relating to the magnetic storm on 17 March 2015. A hierarchical mesh structure is used, which is controlled by an adaptive mesh refinement technique, with fine-scale cells where it matters, the structure of the running shock waves of the coronal mass ejections and co-rotating interactive regions. The initial and the inner-boundary conditions are derived from another simulation, which uses a split dodecahedron grid. The resulting shock-wave with the models adjusted to the observed ejection speed on the sky plane show delays by 20% in the arrival time at the Earth from the observed data. By contrast, the model adjusted to the observed arrival time at the Earth needs the ejection speed 30% higher than that in the above models.
Psychological and educational interventions are valuable adjuncts in the management of adult atopic dermatitis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy of these interventions. Twelve articles published between 1986 and 2013 were identified through electronic searches. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, version 5.1.1 (Higgins & Green, 2015). A random-effects model was used to estimate the standardised mean difference (SMD). No significant difference was found in eczema severity determined in three RCTs (124 participants; SMD, -0.29; 95% CI [-0.64, 0.07]) and dropout rate in five RCTs (198 participants; relative risk, 0.66; 95% CI [0.20, 2.17]). Education via online video was significantly superior to handouts in ameliorating eczema severity in one RCT (80 participants). We conclude that, rather than a combination of these interventions with conventional therapy being of no value, the data did not have sufficient power to provide evidence-based conclusions.
Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy is crucial for pregnancy outcomes and the child's subsequent health. However, there are few valid instruments for assessing vitamin intake that address the effects of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). This study aimed to investigate the validity of a FFQ concerning vitamin intake during early and late pregnancy with and without NVP. The participants comprised 200 Japanese pregnant women who completed the FFQ and from whom blood samples were taken in early and late pregnancy. Energy-adjusted dietary vitamin intakes (vitamin C, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin D) from FFQ were compared with their blood concentrations. A subgroup of women with NVP was investigated. In early pregnancy, significant correlations between FFQ and biomarkers were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·18) and vitamin D (r 0·26) in women with NVP and for vitamin A (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·24) and vitamin D (r 0·23) in women without NVP. No significant correlations were observed in either group for vitamins B6 or E. In late pregnancy, similar significant associations were observed for vitamin C (r 0·27), folate (r 0·22), vitamin B6 (r 0·18), vitamin B12 (r 0·27) and vitamin A (r 0·15); coefficients were higher among women without NVP. Our study demonstrates that the FFQ is a useful tool for assessing intake of several important vitamins in early and late pregnancy regardless of NVP status.