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From the three historians of early Christianity whose lives and careers Elizabeth Clark discusses in The Fathers Refounded—Arthur Cushman McGiffert of Union Theological Seminary in New York, George LaPiana at Harvard Divinity School, and Shirley Jackson Case from the University of Chicago Divinity School—there breathes a palpable air of white, upper-middle-class liberal Protestant complacency and intellectual superiority. Modernists all, they know they are on the winning side of truth because they are confident that they are on the winning side of time. Summarizing McGiffert's distinction between ancient and contemporary Christianity, Clark writes: “Only in modernity, when God's immanence was championed, was the dualism between human and divine in Christ overcome.” “Christ, if he was human,” McGiffert believed, “must be divine, as all men are.” McGiffert's historiography shimmers with Emersonian confidence and ebullience. In his assumption—his assertion—of “only in,” we hear the ringing sound of modernity's triumphant temporality.
Radiology departments have been directly involved from the beginning of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emergency to provide imaging lung assessment of suspected and positive patients while ensuring the execution of other routine and emergency examinations for non-COVID-19 patients. To limit the risk of the infection spread, radiology departments should be reconfigured. We propose the example of the reorganization of the Radiology Department of our hospital, in the center of Milan, in Northern Italy, which consisted of the creation of 2 completely distinct pathways and distinct radiological machines for COVID-19 positive or suspected positive and for non-COVID-19 patients.
Irony is a form of speech used to convey feelings in an indirect way. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated an impaired irony processing, associated with poor theory of mind.
We used fMRI to examine neural circuitry underlying deficits in understanding irony in schizophrenia.
11 right-handed patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 11 right-handed healthy subjects were studied. Participants were asked to listen short scenarios. The 15 irony condition consisted an ironic statement, and the 15 control condition was physical causality. We used an event-related design. Every scenario started with a two sentences long context, followed by a 2-4 s (jittered) inter-stimulus interval. The third, critical ironic sentence appeared next, and finally a simple yes/no comprehension question followed. Between trials an inter-trial interval of 5-7 s (jittered) were used.
The schizophrenic group performed significantly worse in the irony condition than the control group (p=0.0008). Ironic statements resulted in significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and insula, right superior and medial frontal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, posterior division of right superior and left middle temporal gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left cuneus and right inferior parietal lobule in the schizophrenic group. The control group showed significantly greater activity in the left IFG and insula compared to the schizophrenic group.
Among schizophrenic patients we found a significant underactivation in the left IFG and insula during irony comprehension, which may contribute to the impairements of social behavior in schizophrenia.
Deficits of social cognition are a relevant predictor of functioning and outcome. Several studies have found that euthymic bipolar patients perform worse in social cognition tasks than healthy controls. Some data show a higher relapse risk in bipolar patients with concomitant mentalization deficits. However, relatively little is known about the neurobiological base of these deficits.
12 euthymic bipolar I patients and 14 age- and IQ-matched healthy controls underwent event-related functional MRI study while performing 15 irony, and 15 control tasks (auditory stimulus) in the scanner. Both within group (irony versus control task) and random effects between group analyses were performed on fMRI data.
Bipolar patients were significantly compromised in their ability to appropriately answer irony tasks. Bipolar patients showed a reduced activation in right cingulate, right anterior paracingulate cortex, right precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, left hippocampus, left insula in comparison to healthy controls. However, bipolar patients brain activation was significantly increased in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left secondary somatosensory cortex.
The findings of this neuroimaging study suggest that euthymic bipolar patients are restricted in their ability to mentalize fully. They show less activation in brain regions involved in mental imaginery, emotional processing and self-representation. Therefore, bipolar patients have difficulties in understanding others’ intentions and emotions, which impacts on interpersonal relationships and the functional outcome.
Many authors punctuate the lack of knowledge about the evolution of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in adulthood (Howlin et al., 2004). This deficiency leads to an almost absolute absence of long term care structures specifically conceived for autistic adults; hence, they usually live at parental home, or they are admitted into mental institutions which are not suitable for cognitive and adaptive peculiarities of autistic disturbance (Barale & Ucelli, 2006).
Among the limited ad hoc solutions, the present research concentrated on the farmstead community model, which utilizes the rural setting in order to plan rehabilitation projects (Giddan & Giddan, 1993); the aim was to establish whether the farm community model can positively affect the long-term outcome.
A 48 months follow-up study was performed; the sample, recruited from the community “Cascina Rossago”, was composed of 10 adults (1F, 9M; mean age: 29.4 years) affected by ASD and mental retardation (APA, 2000). The construct of adaptive behaviour, assessed by Vineland Scales (Sparrow et al., 1984), was chosen to achieve a fitting measure of global functioning; data survey was both retrospective (chart review) and prospective.
Paired samples t-tests showed significant differences between T1 and T2 with regard to “Composite Scale” (t(9)=3.354; p<.01), “Communication” subscale (t(9)=2.449; p<.05) and “Socialization” subscale (t(14)=2.613; p<.05); the “Daily Living Skills” subscale demonstrated a borderline p-value (t(9)=2.250; p=0.0510).
These results indicate that farmstead community environment can produce a favourable effect on adaptive behaviour, especially in those areas which represent the chronic core of autistic symptoms.
We assessed the recovery-orientation of the Pavia Rehabilitation Services using an Italian Version of the DREEM (Developing Recovery Enhancing Environment Measure). A preliminary Italian Version of the DREEM was translated by the first author (MB) and a back-translation was carried out by a trained translator (MT). A third member of the research team (JS) resolved disagreements between the two versions by discussion and consensus with MB and MT. The final version was administered to the patients of the rehabilitation services of Pavia. 15 patients out of a possible 21 (71.4%) participated in the first interview. Demographic information including gender (53% male, 47% female), age range (26-35 years: 27%, 36-45 years: 33%, 46-55 years: 27%, 56-65 years: 6%, 66 years and over: 7%), ethnicity (Italian: 100%) was collected. 20% had been using mental health services for between 5 and 10 years, and 80% for more than 10 years. The section “elements of recovery and recovery enhancing services” scored 1.2 for “importance ratings for recovery elements” and 2.4 for “staff performance”, with a performance gap of 1.2. Mean scores for “organizational climate” and “recovery markers” were 2.3 in both sections. The mean score of 1.2 on the importance ratings shows that patients have a good understanding of recovery elements. The other scores reveal a fairly good recovery orientation of the service, but with a wide margin for improvements as indicated by the performance gap. The Italian version of the DREEM is useful; the results can promote reflections, discussion and learning within the staff.
The Rio Branco is a river with unique biogeographic and ecological features, threatened by the Brazilian Government’s plan to build a major hydroelectric dam and associated hydroway along its course. The river crosses one of Amazonia’s largest rainfall gradients and a major geomorphological boundary along a savanna/forest ecotone, marked by the Bem Querer rapids. Above the rapids, the upper Rio Branco runs through the Boa Vista sedimentary formation and crosses the crystalline rocks of the Guiana Shield, and its margins are flanked by gallery forests. Downriver, it runs through a low-lying sedimentary basin, with Amazonian floodplain forests along its margins. Here, we present the results of ∼ 15 years of ornithological research on the Branco and its major tributaries, providing baseline data and evaluating potential threats to the riverine avifauna. Our surveys included opportunistic observations and standardized surveys along the entire length of the river in 16 systematically distributed localities. We catalogued 439 bird species, 87% of which are documented by physical evidence (specimens, recordings, photographs). Forty-six percent are restricted to single habitats, suggesting a high degree of habitat specialisation. A third of the species are widely distributed along the river, whereas 45% are restricted to either the upper or the lower Rio Branco, including 40 and 30 Indicator Species, respectively. Twenty-five species are threatened at global or national levels, including two ‘Critically Endangered’, nine ‘Vulnerable’, and 14 ‘Near Threatened’. We present a list of 50 bird species that are candidates for monitoring studies. Threats to the avifauna from dam construction include permanent flooding above the dam, eliminating gallery forests, river islands, and sandy beaches, and the disruption of the flood pulse along the river, affecting river island and floodplain forest specialists, many of which are globally threatened with extinction. If built, the Bem Querer dam will wipe out the ecotone region and affect dramatically the river’s avifauna.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Should positional sexual misconduct (sexual advances or interaction where one party is known, or should be known, to have a significant power over the other) be included in the list of morally forbidden behaviours? I explore benefits and costs of this moral reform with the help of J. S. Mill.
Research in both journals and books on strategic alliances has increased rapidly since the 1990s. Numerous related topics have been explored, such as globalisation, governance structure, learning capability, and alliance stability. The founding fathers of this literature were analysed by Ling and Chen (2012) in their bibliometric survey, which covered more than 1500 publications and 82,614 citations. Dyer and Singh (1998), Gulati (1995; 1998), Hamel (1991), Kogut (1988), Dyer (1997), Doz and Hamel (1998), and Hamel, Doz, and Prahalad (1989) emerged as the most cited authors. By using the bibliometric technique, it is possible to create a map of science in a specific field or discipline. In the scientific literature, mapping of science can facilitate an understanding of the contemporaneous state of knowledge as the first requirement for a good history of science, facilitating the understanding of conceptual relations. While the analyses of citations and co-citations refer to influential articles of the past, they do not represent the core subfield of contemporary research that is, indeed, the main aim of the bibliographic coupling analysis used in this chapter.
Today, nearly the entire adult population in Sweden uses a digital BankID for more purposes than only financial ones. Issuing identity documents is commonly perceived as a task for state authorities, but in Swedish society banks have played a dominant role as identificators. The first contribution of this article is that it explains this unique emergence of bank identity and traces the historical roots of a financial identification society to the mid-1960s. Banks started issuing standardized identity cards as a complement to the new system of paying salaries and wages by direct deposit to checking accounts, and these cards eventually became quasi-official identity documents. The Swedish story thus contrasts the scholarship on identification and state control. By treating identity as both a socio-cultural category and a materialization of a technology of control, I argue that the formalization of official identity documents for everyday use was intertwined with the creation of new financial identities. The introduction and general distribution of ID cards were parts of a process whereby wage earners became financial consumers, and the banks transformed themselves into retail companies. My second contribution therefore relates to the scholarly narrative on the financialization of everyday life since the 1980s. While the mass move to financial identification in Sweden, highlighted in this article, certainly fits the content of this narrative, it questions its chronology.