To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and subsequent devastating tsunami struck the northeastern coast of Japan on March 11, 2011. According to the previous studies about displaced evacuees, increases in suicide rates and social isolation (especially among older adults) have been reported. However, the living condition of residents at prefabricated temporary housing after GEJE is unclear.
To explore potential factors which might relate to social isolation and suicidal thoughts among older adults by using a qualitative method.
Inclusion criteria for this study were older adults over 65 years living in prefabricated temporary housing since the GEJE. Data were collected by face-to-face-interviews with semi-structured questionnaire between October and December 2014. The protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Board of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology. This research was supported by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (No.H25-iryou-shitei-003).
Twenty older adults participated in the study. Most of them had been engaged in agriculture or fishery and experienced the sudden loss of family members, friends, and property in the aftermath of the GEJE. Findings indicated that social connections formed through the collective construction of prefabricated temporary housing. The study found that individuals who had less emotional and financial support experienced a greater feeling of sadness, social isolation, and suicidal thoughts. The study also suggested that people who live in temporary housing are strongly affected by economic insecurity and that it aggravates the risks for social isolation and psychological distress.
Although there were limitations regarding standardization and compatibility, this research found that the qualitative method can obtain the data which the quantitative method cannot reach. Scale-up of universal guidelines including the knowledge from qualitative research and case report under the devastating disaster setting is anticipated for better evidence base for next coming disaster.
The variation in CO2 flux from the forest floor is important in understanding the role of mangrove forests as a carbon sink. To clarify the effects of soil temperature and tidal conditions on variation in CO2 flux, sediment–atmosphere CO2 fluxes were measured between June 2012 and May 2013. We used the closed chamber method for two plots, with a 0.5 m difference in elevation (B, high elevation; R-B, low elevation), in a mangrove forest in south-western Japan. CO2 fluxes were highest in the warm season and showed a weak positive correlation with soil temperature in both forests. Estimated monthly CO2 flux showed moderate seasonal variation in accordance with the exposure duration of the soil surface under tidal fluctuation. Additionally, measured CO2 flux and soil temperature were slightly higher in the R-B plot than the B plot, although estimated annual CO2 flux was higher in the B plot than the R-B plot due to different exposure durations. These results suggest that variation in the exposure duration of the forest floor, which changes seasonally and microgeographically, is important in evaluating the annual CO2 flux at a local scale and understanding the role of mangrove ecosystems as regulators of atmospheric CO2.
We describe a new species of Crambionella, C. helmbiru, from central Java, Indonesia. The combination of the mean number of lappets per octant (14), presence of foliaceous appendages amongst frills on oral-arms, absence of tubercles on the velar lappets, proportion of terminal club length to oral-arm length (0.28), and the body colour distinguish this species from three previously described congeners. In addition, the analysis of partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene indicate substantial genetic differences from both Crambionella orsini and Crambionella stuhlmanni, supporting the validity of this new species. A combination of morphological and genetic approaches determined that the remarkable differences in exumbrellar colours observed in specimens are simply intra-specific variation. Surprisingly, this species has been commercially harvested for more than 20 years and is well-known to the local people in the region, yet it had remained unknown to science until this point. The commercial fisheries targeting this formerly unknown species are also described in detail.
Since January 2006, the use of antibiotics for domestic animals as feed additives has been banned within the European Union, influenced by the consumers’ demands for products free of antimicrobial residues. As an alternative, probiotics in animal nutrition have attracted attention for their potential roles as growth promoters as well as antibiotics. Recently, much research data has been gathered and suggests a potential role for probiotics from fungi as natural growth promoters in broiler nutrition. One such fungi, Aspergillus awamori, has been shown to improve the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. This review examines the current scientific data on the use of A. awamori as a probiotic in broiler nutrition. From the available literature, it can be concluded that A. awamori may provide an effective alternative to antibiotics in the production of broilers.
We re-examine the long-standing problem of the date of the Cassiopeia A supernova (SN), in view of recent claims that it might be the 1630 ‘noon-star’ seen at the birth of King Charles II. We do not support this identification, based on the expected brightness of a Type-IIb SN (too faint to be seen in daylight), the extrapolated motion of the ejecta (inconsistent with a date earlier than 1650), the lack of any scientific follow-up observations, the lack of any mention of it in Asian archives. The origin of the 1630 noon-star event (if real) remains a mystery; there was a bright comet in 1630 June but no evidence to determine whether or not it was visible in daylight. Instead, we present French reports about a fourth-magnitude star discovered by Cassini in Cassiopeia in or shortly before 1671, which was not seen before or since. The brightness is consistent with what we expect for the Cas A SN; the date is consistent with the extrapolated motion of the ejecta. We argue that this source could be the long-sought SN.
Most blood vessels contain elastin that provides the vessels with the resilience and flexibility necessary to control hemodynamics. Pathophysiological hemodynamic changes affect the remodeling of elastic components, but little is known about their structural properties. The present study was designed to elucidate, in detail, the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of delicate elastic fibers in small vessels, and to reveal their architectural pattern in a rat model. The fine vascular elastic components were observed by a newly developed scanning electron microscopy technique using a formic acid digestion with vascular casts. This method successfully visualized the 3D architecture of elastic fibers in small blood vessels, even arterioles and venules. The subendothelial elastic fibers in such small vessels assemble into a sheet of meshwork running longitudinally, while larger vessels have a higher density of mesh and thicker mesh fibers. The quantitative analysis revealed that arterioles had a wider range of mesh density than venules; the ratio of density to vessel size was higher than that in venules. The new method was useful for evaluating the subendothelial elastic fibers of small vessels and for demonstrating differences in the architecture of different types of vessels.
The present study was conducted to show that dietary supplementation with a fungus, Aspergillus awamori, modifies muscle fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens. A total of thirty chicks, selected from a group of 100 chicks aged 15 d, were divided into a control group and two treatment groups (ten birds per treatment). The control group was fed a basal diet, and the treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with A. awamori at levels of 0·05 and 0·2 %. From the start of the study at 15 d, the birds were raised for an additional 12 d, and growth and the muscle fatty acid profile were evaluated. Although feed intake was decreased by the fungus, body-weight gain and breast muscle weight were increased, and thus, feed efficiency was improved. Abdominal fat and plasma cholesterol and TAG were decreased, while plasma HDL-cholesterol and breast muscle fat content were increased. Interestingly, muscle α-tocopherol content was increased and muscle thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were decreased by A. awamori. Furthermore, there was an observed decrease in SFA and an increase in unsaturated fatty acids in the muscle fat due to the fungus feeding. The mRNA of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and Δ-6 desaturase in the muscle were all increased, while the mRNA of 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A were decreased by the fungus. In conclusion, the present study clearly shows that the muscle lipid profile could be modified by the addition of A. awamori to the diet.
Oxide dispersion strengthened austenitic stainless steel (ODS316), which is based on advanced SUS316 steel, has been developed by mechanically alloying and hot extrusion. Hafnium and titanium were added to make a fine distribution of oxide particles. The stability of oxide particles dispersed in ODS316 under irradiation was evaluated after 250 keV Fe+ irradiation up to high doses at 500 °C. TEM observation and EDS analysis indicated that fine complex oxide particles with Y, Hf and Ti were mainly dispersed in the matrix. There are no significant changes in the distribution and the size of oxide particles after irradiation. It was also revealed that the constitution ratio of Ti in complex oxide appeared to be decreased after irradiation. This diffuse-out of Ti during irradiation could be explained by the difference in oxide formation energy among alloying elements.
In the Kingdom of Tonga, migration to overseas developed countries has prevailed. To elucidate the effects of migration on population dynamics, an interview survey was conducted in the migrant-sending community of Kolovai, in the outer region of Tongatapu Island. All births, deaths, marriages and in- and out-migrations that took place between 1983 and 2002 were recorded for all members of the ‘Kolovai population’, consisting of persons who had lived in this community for at least a one-year period during this 20 years. The ‘Kolovai population’ members, numbering 1184 (564 males and 620 females), were divided into three groups based on residence at the end of each year, i.e. Kolovai (called KK), other places in Tonga (KT) or overseas countries (KO). The KK population decreased from 774 in 1982 to 570 in 2002, owing mostly to an increase of 167 persons as the natural balance and a decrease of 324 persons as the balance of international migration. Comparison of total fertility rate (TFR) between KK and KO women revealed that the mean TFR of the former decreased from 3·460 in the earlier 10-year period (1983–1992) to 2·240 in the later 10-year period (1993–2002), while that of the latter was more than 3·5 in both 10-year periods. This difference was largely due to the decrease in the proportion married among KK women. If the current trends of international migration and fertility continue, the population of Kolovai will be reduced and its age composition will become cylinder-shaped in the near future.
Ryutaro Ohtsuka, President, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba City, Japan,
Stanley J. Ulijaszek, Professor of Human Ecology, Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, UK
This chapter focuses on physiological adaptations of speakers of Non-Austronesian (NAN) and Austronesian (AN) languages in space and time, with some reference to Aboriginal Australian populations. The language-based dichotomous classification of Oceanian populations into the NAN and AN language groups has been, in general, in agreement with biological traits observed in either (Kirk and Szathmary 1985; Hill and Serjeantson 1989; Attenborough and Alpers 1992; Yoshida et al. 1995; Ohashi et al. 2000, 2003). In relation to colonization histories, the descendants of first-wave migrants belong to the NAN language group. Their ancestors reached Sahul Land from Asia, subsequently some of them dispersing into present-day Australia, becoming Aboriginal Australians. Second-wave migrants and their descendants, represented by Lapita people, were and continue to be AN speakers. The Lapita people dispersed later from their homeland in island Melanesia in Near Oceania (Green 1991) into Remote Oceania, or islands in South East Melanesia as well as Polynesia and Micronesia. The extent of admixture of NAN and AN language groups in island Melanesia and later in wider Melanesia remains debated, however. As demonstrated by several studies (Serjeantson et al. 1983; Friedlaender 1987), genetic traits and languages do not always correlate, due to replacement of languages and/or pidginization or creolization of the languages themselves; for similar reasons, links between Aboriginal Australian languages and NAN languages have scarcely been found (Foley 1986).
The Asia-Pacific region has seen great social, environmental and economic change across the past century, leading to dramatic changes in the health profiles of all populations represented in South East and East Asia, Pacific Islands and the islands of Melanesia. This volume considers evidence concerning prehistoric migration, and colonial, regional and global processes in the production of health change in the Asia-Pacific region. Notably, it examines ways in which a health pattern dominated by under-nutrition and infection has been displaced in many ways, and is being displaced elsewhere by over-nutrition and the degenerative diseases associated with it. This book presents a cohesive view of the ways in which exchange relationships, economic modernization, migration and transnational linkages interact with changing rural subsistence ecologies to influence health patterns in this region.
Stanley J. Ulijaszek, Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, University of Oxford, 51, Banbury Road, Oxford, OX2 6PF, UK,
Ryutaro Ohtsuka, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
The Asia-Pacific region encompasses South East Asia, East Asia, Pacific Islands and the islands of Melanesia. In the present day, strong economic forces link it to the Pacific Rim nations of the United States, Australia and New Zealand. While epidemiologists have studied some of the relationships across geographical and population units within this region, there is thus far no formal consideration of health impacts of linkages within and across these units in historical and evolutionary contexts. While migrations across the region are known and common, these have both evolutionary and colonial histories. The nature and extent to which knowledge of population movements, past and recent, can impact on present-day human biology in this region has not been synthesized, despite having been considered separately by various authors and research groups. This volume considers recent evidence concerning prehistoric migration, and colonial, regional and global processes in the production of health in the Asia-Pacific region. Using their own research findings and/or by synthesizing those of others, the contributors to this volume describe health change in various populations in relation to their biological, cultural and/or socioeconomic attributes at various scales of time.
This region, consisting of the southeastern frontier of the Eurasian continent and the vast South Pacific, was the geographical locale of the first crossing of wide seas and oceans by human groups. A consequence of this was the adaptation of such migrant groups to a variety of novel environments.
Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) tend to undergo a large deformation upon the application of a magnetic field. This deformation is attributed to twin boundary motion in the martensitic phase. In an effort to harness the shape memory effect for use in sensors, actuators, and micro-devices, the behavior of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films is attracting attention. Substrate curvature measurements were done with Ni-Mn-Ga films with a thickness of 2.0 μm sputter-deposited on Si(100) wafer having amorphous 500 nm thick SiNx buffer layer. During the wafer bow curvature measurements, stress levels of 0.65 GPa were attained. The martensitic transformation is manifested by a stress-temperature hysteretic loop. Measurements of magnetization curves were carried out on Ni-Mn-Ga films with thickness between 0.5 and 3.0 μm. A change of the magnetization behavior from the easy-plane type for thin films to the out-of-plane easy-axis type for thick films is observed. This effect is caused by the interplay between different contributions to the overall anisotropy of film.
A new species of the planktonic copepod Tortanus (Atortus) (Calanoida: Tortanidae), T. (A.) magnonyx is described from the Seychelles, Mauritius and Madagascar. This is the sixth species of the Indian Ocean recticauda species group, of the Indo-West Pacific recticauda species complex, that has been described from the western Indian Ocean. The inshore areas where these copepods are found have been poorly surveyed, so the number of species found implies a high diversity.
Selective harvest has become a dominant method of commercial logging in tropical rainforests of the Asia-Pacific region. Although it has usually been recognized that this method minimizes the impact on forest because of the limited number of trees harvested and slight effects on growth of unharvested trees, recent reports suggest that its damage is potentially serious. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a selective logging operation in 1993–1994 on customary land (2024 ha) of New Georgia Island, Solomon Islands. Geo-referenced IKONOS panchromatic (1-m resolution) and multispectral (4-m resolution) images from 2002 (the post-logging period) and aerial photographs (2.5 m pixels, original scale: 1:25 000) from 1991 (the pre-logging period) were analysed by means of supervised classification and on-screen visual interpretation, in association with detailed field observation. The area deforested by selective logging was 88 ha (95% confidence limits: 79–98 ha), accounting for 7.4% of the original forest and thus causing substantial damage.