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Let Γn be the representation group or spin group (9; 4) of the symmetric group Sn. Then the irreducible representations of Γn can be allocated into two classes which we shall call (i) ordinary representations, which are the irreducible representations of the symmetric group, and (ii) spin or projective representations.
As is well known (3; 5), there is an ordinary irreducible representation [λ] corresponding to every partition (λ) = (λ1, λ2, . . . , λm) of n with
Snow-cover characteristics on ice floes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, were examined during cruises in autumn 1998 and summer 1999. The autumn snow cover was shallower, colder and had higher and more variable salinity, and smaller single and composite grain-sizes than the summer snow cover. The autumn snow cover was dominated by rounded particles in chains of grains and clusters, while the summer snow cover was composed primarily of melt clusters. There was extensive flooding of the summer snow cover at the snow/ice interface. The summer snow cover was nearly isothermal and close to the melting point. It exhibited obvious signs of melting and refreezing in the form of ice lenses, pipes and superimposed ice, although no melt ponds were evident. Many of the ice lenses were located directly above the saline standing water found on most of the summer ice floes.
The Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo), a one-dimensional, thermodynamic model with unsteady heat conduction and penetrating solar radiation, is used to simulate ice growth and decay on shallow ponds in and near Fairbanks, central Alaska, USA. Simulations are compared with observations of ice thickness and composition (snow ice, congelation ice), freeze-up, break-up and duration. Simulations run using US National Weather Service meteorological data as input variables do not agree well with ice-thickness measurements. The simulations improve significantly when the model is run with more representative, locally measured data for air temperature and depth of snow on the ice. The causes of some discrepancies between simulations and observations are discussed and some suggestions for model improvements are made.
Ice phenology (freeze-up, break-up and duration) was monitored for five seasons between autumn 2001 and spring 2006 at 11 small, shallow ponds in the boreal forest of central Alaska, USA. The sequence in which freeze-up (FU; day of 100% ice cover) and break-up (BU; day of zero ice cover) occurred at the 11 ponds showed moderately high to very high coherence each season. This was probably due to FU and BU being poorly correlated with pond morphometry (area, depth). BU is strongly correlated with April mean air temperature; a ±1˚C change in mean April air temperature is equivalent to a ±1.86 day change in BU. FU and air-temperature relationships are inconclusive, primarily because post-FU warm intervals in two autumns cause an anticorrelation between mean September air temperature and FU. Mean ice duration varies between 205 and 225 days, and is strongly correlated with maximum ice thickness through its effect on BU. A ±10mm change in maximum ice thickness will cause a ±0.6 day change in ice duration. Maximum ice thickness and ice composition (snow ice, congelation ice) also have a strong influence on break-up when all data from all ponds and all years are considered. The predictability of FU and BU sequence, the minor role of morphometry in FU and BU, the strong role of April mean air temperature in BU, and the role of maximum ice thickness in duration suggests that these ponds would be good sites for continued long-term observation of phenology and the influence of weather/climate variation and change, and for freeze-up/break-up process studies, particularly the role of ice composition and albedo.
Circumstellar SiO masers can be observed in red giant evolved stars throughout the Galaxy. Since stellar masers are not affected by non-gravitational forces, they serve as point-mass probes of the gravitational potential and form an excellent sample for studies of the Galactic structure and dynamics. Compared to optical studies, the non-obscured masers are in particular valuable when observed close to the highly obscured Galactic Bulge and Plane. Their line-of-sight velocities can easily be obtained with high accuracy, proper motions can be measured and distances can be estimated. Furthermore, when different mass and metallicity effects can be accounted for, such a large sample will highlight asymmetries and evolutionary traces in the sample. In our Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey we have searched 20,000 infrared selected evolved stars for 43 GHz SiO masers with the VLA in the northern Bulge and Plane and are in the process of observing another 10,000 stars for 86 GHz SiO masers with ALMA in the southern Bulge. Our instantaneous detection rate in the Bulge is close to 70%, both at 43 and 86 GHz, with occasionally up to 7 simultaneous SiO transitions observed in a single star. Here we will outline the BAaDE survey, its first results and some of the peculiar maser features we have observed. Furthermore we will discuss the prospects for obtaining proper motions and parallaxes for individual maser stars to reconstruct individual stellar orbits.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) project aims to map the positions and velocities of up to ~20,000 late-type stars with SiO maser emission along the full Galactic plane, with a large concentration in the Galactic Bulge and inner Galaxy. Both J = 1 → 0 and J = 2 → 1 transitions using the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) are being observed. In the VLA observing setup, in addition to the 28SiO, v = 1 and v = 2J = 1 → 0 maser transitions, the bandwidth was wide enough to include the J = 1 → 0 transitions of the rare isotopologues of the SiO molecule in both the ground and vibrationally excited states: 29SiO, v = 0, 30SiO, v = 0, 29SiO, v = 1, and 29SiO, v = 2. Approximately 10% of the initial ~3500 targets of the project show maser emission from at least one of these lines. Some of these stars (with isotopic maser emission) show high radial velocities which implies that they are indeed in the Galactic Bulge or inner Galaxy (i.e. not foreground objects). We present line profiles, refined detection statistics, and the implications of the detection of the isotopic maser emission on pumping schemes that have been previously presented.
Ice cores were obtained in January 1990 from the land-fast ice in McMurdo Sound for a study of variations in texture, fabric, sub-structure, composition and development. Two primary ice types were observed, congelation and platelet, with a minor amount of frazil ice. Congelation ice growth precedes platelet-ice accretion. Congelation-ice fabrics show frequent moderate to strong alignments, a phenomenon believed to be due to water-current control of selective ice-crystal growth. Platelet ice originates at the base of the congelation ice, initially as a porous latticework of tabular ice crystals which subsequently consolidate by congelation of the interstitial water. Interstitial congelation-ice fabrics generally have little or no alignment, indicating the reduced effect of currents within the platelet latticework prior to solidification. Platelet-crystal textures range from small, wavy-edged forms to large, blade-like forms. Platelet-crystal fabrics indicate that, in addition to being randomly oriented, the platelet latticeworks commonly include many crystals with their flat (0001) faces oriented both parallel and normal to the base of the overlying ice. Plate-width data suggest that the interstitial congelation ice-growth rates remain similar to those of the overlying congelation ice. This effective increase in growth rates probably happens because the latticework of accumulating platelets ahead of the freezing interface ensures that the water within the platelet layer is at the freezing point and less heat has to be removed from platelet-rich water than from platelet-free water for a given thickness of congelation ice to grow. The negative oceanic heat flux associated with platelet-ice formation in McMurdo Sound explains why McMurdo Sound fast ice is thicker than Ross Sea pack ice, and also why it reaches a greater thickness than Arctic fast ice grown in a similar polar marine climate. Plate widths in the McMurdo Sound congelation ice suggest, however, that it grows no faster than Arctic congelation ice.
Sixty-three ice cores were collected in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas in August and September 1993 during a cruise of the R.V. Nathaniel B. Palmer. The structure and stable-isotopic composition (18O/16O) of the cores were investigated in order to understand the growth conditions and to identify the key growth processes, particularly the contribution of snow to sea-ice formation. The structure and isotopic composition of a set of 12 cores that was collected for the same purpose in the Bellingshausen Sea in March 1992 are reassessed. Frazil ice and congelation ice contribute 44% and 26%, respectively, to the composition of both the winter and summer ice-core sets, evidence that the relatively calm conditions that favour congelation-ice formation are neither as common nor as prolonged as the more turbulent conditions that favour frazil-ice growth and pancake-ice formation. Both frazil- and congelation-ice layers have an av erage thickness of 0.12 m in winter, evidence that congelation ice and pancake ice thicken primarily by dynamic processes. The thermodynamic development of the ice cover relies heavily on the formation of snow ice at the surface of floes after sea water has flooded the snow cover. Snow-ice layers have a mean thickness of 0.20 and 0.28 m in the winter and summer cores, respectively, and the contribution of snow ice to the winter (24%) and summer (16%) core sets exceeds most quantities that have been reported previously in other Antarctic pack-ice zones. The thickness and quantity of snow ice may be due to a combination of high snow-accumulation rates and snow loads, environmental conditions that favour a warm ice cover in which brine convection between the bottom and top of the ice introduces sea water to the snow/ice interface, and bottom melting losses being compensated by snow-ice formation. Layers of superimposed ice at the top of each of the summer cores make up 4.6% of the ice that was examined and they increase by a factor of 3 the quantity of snow entrained in the ice. The accumulation of superimposed ice is evidence that melting in the snow cover on Antarctic sea-ice floes ran reach an advanced stage and contribute a significant amount of snow to the total ice mass.
A radio survey of red giant SiO sources in the inner Galaxy and bulge is not hindered by extinction. Accurate stellar velocities (<1 km/s) are obtained with minimal observing time (<1 min) per source. Detecting over 20,000 SiO maser sources yields data comparable to optical surveys with the additional strength of a much more thorough coverage of the highly obscured inner Galaxy. Modeling of such a large sample would reveal dynamical structures and minority populations; the velocity structure can be compared to kinematic structures seen in molecular gas, complex orbit structure in the bar, or stellar streams resulting from recently infallen systems. Our Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamic Evolution (BAaDE) survey yields bright SiO masers suitable for follow-up Galactic orbit and parallax determination using VLBI.
Here we outline our early VLA observations at 43 GHz in the northern bulge and Galactic plane (0<l°<250), and ALMA observations at 86 GHz in the southern bulge (250<l°<360). We report a preliminary overall 70% detection rate in our color-selected MSX sources.
Iron oxides resulting from the corrosion of large quantities of steel that are planned to be installed throughout a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) are expected to be one of the key surfaces of interest for controlling radionuclide behaviour under disposal conditions. Over the lengthy timescales associated with a GDF, the system is expected to become anoxic so that reduced Fe(II) phases will dominate. Batch experiments have therefore been completed in order to investigate how a model reduced Fe-oxide surface (wüstite, Fe1–xO) alters as a function of exposure to aqueous solutions with compositions representative of conditions expected within a GDF. Additional experiments were performed to constrain the effect that highly alkaline solutions (up to pH 13) have on the adsorption behaviour of the uranyl (UO22+) ion onto the surfaces of both wüstite and portlandite [Ca(OH)2; representative of the expected cementitious phases]. Surface co-ordination chemistry and speciation were determined by ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements (both X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis (EXAFS)). Diffraction, elemental analysis and XANES showed that the bulk solid composition and Fe oxidation state remained relatively unaltered over the time frame of these experiments (120 h), although under alkaline conditions possible surface hydroxylation is observed, due presumably to the formation of surface hydroxyl complexes. The surface morphology, however, is altered significantly with a large degree of roughening and an observed decrease in the average particle size. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) occurs during adsorption in almost all cases and this is interpreted to indicate that wüstite may be an effective reductant of U during surface adsorption. This work also shows that increasing the carbonate concentration in reactant solutions dramatically decreases the adsorption coefficients for U on both wüstite and portlandite, consistent with U speciation and surface reactivity determined in other studies. Finally, the EXAFS results include new details about exactly how U bonds to this metal oxide surface.
We present experimental results supporting physics-based ejecta model development, where our main assumption is that ejecta form as a special limiting case of a Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability at a metal–vacuum interface. From this assumption, we test established theory of unstable spike and bubble growth rates, rates that link to the wavelength and amplitudes of surface perturbations. We evaluate the rate theory through novel application of modern laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techniques, where we coincidentally measure bubble and spike velocities from explosively shocked solid and liquid metals with a single LDV probe. We also explore the relationship of ejecta formation from a solid material to the plastic flow stress it experiences at high-strain rates () and high strains (700 %) as the fundamental link to the onset of ejecta formation. Our experimental observations allow us to approximate the strength of Cu at high strains and strain rates, revealing a unique diagnostic method for use at these extreme conditions.
Methods are developed for determining the decomposition matrices for the spin characters of the symmetric groups Sn for an odd prime p. Some general results are obtained which are non-trivial modifications of the corresponding results for ordinary characters. The methods are used to determine the decomposition matrices for 3 ≦ n ≦ ll, and p = 3 but with an interesting ambiguity in the case n = 9. The second author will deal separately with the cases p = 5, 7, 11.
Titanium trialuminide alloys suffer problems of intense segregation during solidification and extreme brittleness when subjected to tensile stresses. In this study, spray forming techniques have been used to obtain homogeneous materials of fine microstructure, containing various second phase particles, and the deformation behaviour of these materials examined over a range of temperatures.
The microstructure and deformation behaviour of an iron-modified titanium trialuminide with the L12 structure is reported here.Deformation mechanisms are interpreted by analysis of dislocation structures and further confirmation is obtained by activation volume measurements: the importance of Peierls effects at low temperatures and cross slip at high temperatures is shown. The material remains brittle in tension both at room temperature and at high temperatures: the second phase particles in the material are yet not present in sufficient volume fraction to greatly affect plastic behaviour.
Crystallographic and chemical analysis of the microstructures obtained by annealing a heavily deformed Ti-24Al-11 Nb alloy have been performed. The influence of the niobium distribution within the different phases present and the variation of degree of long range order caused by this distribution have been related to the deformation mechanisms leading to strain hardening at the early stages of deformation. In particular, slip band formation and twinning have been observed to occur within the (α2 phase according to the different degree of order measured.