To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The transmission rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to gloves or gowns of healthcare personnel (HCP) caring for MRSA patients in a non–intensive care unit setting was 5.4%. Contamination rates were higher among HCP performing direct patient care and when patients had detectable MRSA on their body. These findings may inform risk-based contact precautions.
Online marketplaces could help direct-to-consumer (DTC) farms compete for customers making grocery purchases on the internet by reducing the search and transportation costs of in-person DTC transactions. While in-person DTC marketplaces have been conducive for metropolitan farms historically, we explore whether rural DTC farms, with distance-based challenges accessing customers, are more likely to have online platforms. We find that rural farms distant from metropolitan counties that are new to DTC marketing are 7% more likely to have online marketplaces than more experienced rural farms, while new metropolitan farms are less likely to have them.
To evaluate whether clinical cultures are an appropriate surrogate for surveillance cultures to measure the effect of interventions on the incidence of MRSA and VRE in the hospital.
Cross-sectional and quasi-experimental, retrospective analysis
Setting and population:
Convenience sample of patients admitted between January 1, 2002, and June 31, 2011, to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of an acute-care hospital in the United States.
Asynchronously in the MICU and SICU, we introduced (1) universal glove and gown use, (2) bundled intervention to prevent central-line–associated bloodstream infection, and (3) daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing.
We observed a statistically significant correlation between surveillance and clinical culture-based incidence rates of MRSA in the MICU (0.32; P < .001) and the SICU (0.37; P < .001) but not for VRE in either the MICU (0.16, P = .11) or the SICU (0.15; P = .12). For VRE, but not for MRSA, incidence density rates based on surveillance cultures were 2- to 4-fold higher than for clinical cultures. When evaluating the impacts of the interventions, different effect estimates were noted for universal glove and gown use on MRSA acquisition in MICU, and for VRE acquisition in both the MICU and the SICU based on surveillance versus clinical cultures.
For multidrug-resistant organism acquisition, surveillance cultures should be used when feasible because clinical cultures may not be an appropriate surrogate. Clinical or surveillance-based end points for infection control interventions should reflect the conceptual model from colonization to infection and where an intervention might have an effect, rather than considering them interchangeable.
This paper presents updated analyses on the genetic associations of sleep disruption in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We published previously a study of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in eight genes related to circadian rhythms and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances in 124 individuals with AD. Here, we present new relevant analyses using polygenic risk scores (PRS) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) enumerations. PRS were calculated using the genetic data from the original participants and relevant genome wide association studies (GWAS). VNTRs for the same circadian rhythm genes studied with SNPs were obtained from a separate cohort of participants using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Objectively (wrist actigraphy) determined wake after sleep onset (WASO) was used as a measure of sleep disruption. None of the PRS were associated with sleep disturbance. Computer analyses using VNTRseek software generated a total of 30 VNTRs for the circadian-related genes but none appear relevant to our objective sleep measure. In addition, of 71 neurotransmitter function-related genes, 29 genes had VNTRs that differed from the reference VNTR, but it was not clear if any of these might affect circadian function in AD patients. Although we have not found in either the current analyses or in our previous published analyses of SNPs any direct linkages between identified genetic factors and WASO, research in this area remains in its infancy.
Options with extendable features have many applications in finance and these provide the motivation for this study. The pricing of extendable options when the underlying asset follows a geometric Brownian motion with constant volatility has appeared in the literature. In this paper, we consider holder-extendable call options when the underlying asset follows a mean-reverting stochastic volatility. The option price is expressed in integral forms which have known closed-form characteristic functions. We price these options using a fast Fourier transform, a finite difference method and Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine the efficiency and accuracy of the Fourier method in pricing holder-extendable call options for Heston parameters calibrated from the subprime crisis. We show that the fast Fourier transform reduces the computational time required to produce a range of holder-extendable call option prices by at least an order of magnitude. Numerical results also demonstrate that when the Heston correlation is negative, the Black–Scholes model under-prices in-the-money and over-prices out-of-the-money holder-extendable call options compared with the Heston model, which is analogous to the behaviour for vanilla calls.
We studied the association between chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) concentration on skin and resistant bacterial bioburden. CHG was almost always detected on the skin, and detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus on skin sites was infrequent. However, we found no correlation between CHG concentration and bacterial bioburden.
Farm-to-school (F2S) local food procurement must be cost-effective to be financially sustainable without policy support. We test, among schools participating in F2S programs, whether market channel procurement strategies for local foods affect schools’ perceptions of whether meal costs decline as a result of F2S participation. Schools that buy local foods exclusively from intermediaries are 7 percentage points less likely to report lower costs from undertaking F2S initiatives. We further demonstrate that the probability that schools source local foods exclusively from intermediaries is influenced by the number of direct marketing farmers in their county.
Exposure to high levels of postdivorce interparental conflict is a well-documented risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and there is strong evidence of a subpopulation of families for which conflict persists for many years after divorce. However, existing studies have not elucidated differential trajectories of conflict within families over time, nor have they assessed the risk posed by conflict trajectories for development of psychopathology or evaluated potential protective effects of children's coping to mitigate such risk. We used growth mixture modeling to identify longitudinal trajectories of child-reported conflict over a period of six to eight years following divorce in a sample of 240 children. We related the trajectories to children's mental health problems, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors and assessed how children's coping prospectively predicted psychopathology in the different conflict trajectories. We identified three distinct trajectories of conflict; youth in two high-conflict trajectories showed deleterious effects on measures of psychopathology at baseline and the six-year follow-up. We found both main effects of coping and coping by conflict trajectory interaction effects in predicting problem outcomes at the six-year follow-up. The study supports the notion that improving youth's general capacity to cope adaptively is a potentially modifiable protective factor for all children facing parental divorce and that children in families with high levels of postdivorce conflict are a particularly appropriate group to target for coping-focused preventive interventions.
Concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy is the standard treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Cetuximab can be used in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the randomised studies that led to approval for its use in this setting excluded nasopharyngeal cancer. In the context of limited data for the use of cetuximab in nasopharyngeal cancer in the medical literature, this review aimed to summarise the current evidence for its use in both primary and recurrent or metastatic disease.
A literature search was performed using the keywords ‘nasopharyngeal neoplasm’, ‘cetuximab’ and ‘Erbitux’.
Twenty studies were included. There were no randomised phase III trials, but there were nine phase II trials. The use of cetuximab in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been tested in various settings, including in combination with induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and in the palliative setting.
There is no evidence of benefit from the addition of cetuximab to standard management protocols, and there is some evidence of increased toxicity. There is more promise for its use in metastatic or locally recurrent settings. This review draws together the existing evidence and could provide a focus for future studies.
In cluster-randomized trials (CRT), groups rather than individuals are randomized to interventions. The aim of this study was to present critical design, implementation, and analysis issues to consider when planning a CRT in the healthcare setting and to synthesize characteristics of published CRT in the field of healthcare epidemiology.
A systematic review was conducted to identify CRT with infection control outcomes.
We identified the following 7 epidemiological principles: (1) identify design type and justify the use of CRT; (2) account for clustering when estimating sample size and report intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)/coefficient of variation (CV); (3) obtain consent; (4) define level of inference; (5) consider matching and/or stratification; (6) minimize bias and/or contamination; and (7) account for clustering in the analysis. Among 44 included studies, the most common design was CRT with crossover (n = 15, 34%), followed by parallel CRT (n = 11, 25%) and stratified CRT (n = 7, 16%). Moreover, 22 studies (50%) offered justification for their use of CRT, and 20 studies (45%) demonstrated that they accounted for clustering at the design phase. Only 15 studies (34%) reported the ICC, CV, or design effect. Also, 15 studies (34%) obtained waivers of consent, and 7 (16%) sought consent at the cluster level. Only 17 studies (39%) matched or stratified at randomization, and 10 studies (23%) did not report efforts to mitigate bias and/or contamination. Finally, 29 studies (88%) accounted for clustering in their analyses.
We must continue to improve the design and reporting of CRT to better evaluate the effectiveness of infection control interventions in the healthcare setting.
On 1st July 2015, Out of Home Care (OOHC) services in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) joined together to form the ACT Together consortium and aimed to improve outcomes for children and young people who are unable to live with their birth families. Within the consortium, the Therapeutic Services Team (TST) steers the evolution of trauma-informed therapeutic practice, a key focus of which is the establishment of therapeutic care. Current research indicates that a holistic therapeutic approach has the greatest impact in supporting a young person to overcome adverse childhood experiences. This leads to the necessity of a therapeutic care system providing input across the whole domain of OOHC, including trauma-informed therapeutic carers. A common issue met by the TST is the lack of clarity regarding the difference between therapeutic intervention and therapy. This paper defines the concepts of therapy and therapeutic care, discusses how this forms a continuum which flows throughout the whole OOHC system and reflects on what support carers require to make the shift to becoming therapeutic carers, including outlining their role in underpinning better outcomes for the children and young people who pass through their doors.
Prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDROs) continues to increase, while infection control gaps in healthcare settings facilitate their transmission between patients. In this setting, 5 distinct yet interlinked pathways are responsible for transmission. The complete transmission process is still not well understood. Designing and conducting a single research study capable of investigating all 5 complex and multifaceted pathways of hospital transmission would be costly and logistically burdensome. Therefore, this scoping review aims to synthesize the highest-quality published literature describing each of the 5 individual potential transmission pathways of MDROs in the healthcare setting and their overall contribution to patient-to-patient transmission.
In 3 databases, we performed 2 separate systematic searches for original research published during the last decade. The first search focused on MDRO transmission via the HCW or the environment to identify publications studying 5 specific transmission pathways: (1) patient to HCW, (2) patient to environment, (3) HCW to patient, (4) environment to patient, and (5) environment to HCW. The second search focused on overall patient-to-patient transmission regardless of the transmission pathway. Both searches were limited to transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, multidrug-resistant A. baumannii, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. After abstract screening of 5,026 manuscripts, researchers independently reviewed and rated the remaining papers using objective predefined criteria to identify the highest quality and most influential manuscripts.
High-quality manuscripts were identified for all 5 routes of transmission. Findings from these studies were consistent for all pathways; however, results describing the routes from the environment/HCW to a noncolonized patient were more limited and variable. Additionally, most research focused on MRSA, instead of other MDROs. The second search yielded 10 manuscripts (8 cohort studies) that demonstrated the overall contribution of patient-to-patient transmission in hospitals regardless of the transmission route. For MRSA, the reported cross-transmission was as high as 40%.
This scoping review brings together evidence supporting all 5 possible transmission pathways and illustrates the complex nature of patient-to-patient transmission of MDROs in hospitals. Our findings also confirm that transmission of MDROs in hospitals occurs frequently, suggesting that ongoing efforts are necessary to strengthen infection prevention and control to prevent the spread of MDROs.
A rearing study of egg and larval parasitoids of hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée); Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was undertaken during an outbreak of this pest in Labrador, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Six parasitoid species were found: Telenomus coloradensis Crawford and T. droozi Muesebeck (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), Winthemia occidentis Reinhard and Blondelia eufitchiae (Townsend) (Diptera: Tachinidae), as well as one species of Phobocampe Förster and Mesochorus vittator (Zetterstedt) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). None of them was a new Canadian record. To facilitate understanding of the regional parasitoid assemblage in Labrador, we compiled all published records in Canada and collated all specimen records from the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). This comprehensive list will aid researchers interested in potential biological control candidates for hemlock looper.