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To examine rural–urban differences in temporal trends and risk of inappropriate antibiotic use by agent and duration among women with uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).
Observational cohort study.
Using the IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (2010–2015), we identified US commercially insured women aged 18–44 years coded for uncomplicated UTI and prescribed an oral antibiotic agent. We classified antibiotic agents and durations as appropriate versus inappropriate based on clinical guidelines. Rural–urban status was defined by residence in a metropolitan statistical area. We used modified Poisson regression to determine the association between rural–urban status and inappropriate antibiotic receipt, accounting for patient- and provider-level characteristics. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate trends in antibiotic use by rural–urban status.
Of 670,450 women with uncomplicated UTI, a large proportion received antibiotic prescriptions for inappropriate agents (46.7%) or durations (76.1%). Compared to urban women, rural women were more likely to receive prescriptions with inappropriately long durations (adjusted risk ratio 1.10, 95% CI, 1.10–1.10), which was consistent across subgroups. From 2011 to 2015, there was slight decline in the quarterly proportion of patients who received inappropriate agents (48.5% to 43.7%) and durations (78.3% to 73.4%). Rural–urban differences varied over time by agent (duration outcome only), geographic region, and provider specialty.
Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is quite common for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI. Rural women are more likely to receive inappropriately long antibiotic durations. Antimicrobial stewardship interventions are needed to improve outpatient UTI antibiotic prescribing and to reduce unnecessary exposure to antibiotics, particularly in rural settings.
For numerical semigroups with a specified list of (not necessarily minimal) generators, we describe the asymptotic distribution of factorization lengths with respect to an arbitrary modulus. In particular, we prove that the factorization lengths are equidistributed across all congruence classes that are not trivially ruled out by modular considerations.
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is routinely used for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In 2018, draft guidance from the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) suggested EVAR was not cost-effective compared to open surgical repair. The analysis was driven by clinical inputs from randomized control trials which may not reflect current clinical practice. Data from registries may inform more robust economic modelling. The Global Registry for Endovascular Aortic Treatment (GREAT) was initiated to collect contemporary real-world data on the performance of GORE® aortic endografts and includes long-term data on survival, re-interventions and resource use. This study compares the real-world values for mortality and resource use following elective EVAR as collected by GREAT with the 2018 NICE AAA draft guidance.
A total of 1,348 patients (88.7% men; mean age 73.1 years) undergoing elective AAA repair with the GORE® EXCLUDER device. Mortality, re-intervention and resource use was compared with the economic inputs for 2018 NICE draft guidance cost-utility analysis.
All patients survived EVAR compared to the 0.4 percent mortality indicated in the NICE analysis. All-cause mortality was lower through 1, 3 and 5 years with values of 6.9, 14.8 and 16.2 percent respectively compared to the NICE base case. The average length of stay was 3.7 days in GREAT compared to 8.34 days in the NICE analysis. Short- and long-term re-interventions were also lower with real-world data (3.6% versus 7.3% and 5.5% versus 8.3%).
GREAT provides conflicting data on survival and resource use associated with EVAR compared to inputs of the 2018 NICE draft guidance These differences are likely to significantly alter incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Robust cost-effectiveness modelling in health technology assessments should consider contemporary data, as it is likely more reflective of current clinical practice and more informative for clinical and economic decision making for AAA.
Evaluate the difference in antibiotic prescribing between various levels of resident training or attending types.
Observational, retrospective study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Madison, Wisconsin.
We measured antibiotic utilization from January 1, 2016, through December 31, 2018, in our general medicine (GM) and hospitalist services. The GM1 service is staffed by outpatient internal medicine physicians, the GM2 service is staffed by geriatricians and hospitalists, and the GM3 service is staffed by only hospitalists. The GMA service is led by junior resident physicians, and the GMB service is led by senior resident physicians. We measured utilization using days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days (PD). In a secondary analysis based on antibiotic spectrum, we used average DOT per 1,000 PD.
Teaching services prescribed more antibiotics than nonteaching services (671.6 vs 575.2 DOT per 1,000 PD; P < .0001). Junior resident–led services used more antibiotics than senior resident–led services (740.9 vs 510.0 DOT per 1,000 PD; P < .0001). Overall, antibiotic prescribing was numerically similar between various attending physician backgrounds. A secondary analysis showed that GM services prescribed more broad-spectrum, anti-MRSA, and anti-pseudomonal antibiotics than the hospitalist services. GM junior resident–led services prescribed more broad-spectrum, anti-MRSA, and antipseudomonal therapy compared to their senior counterparts.
Antibiotics were prescribed at a significantly higher rate in services associated with trainees than those without. Services led by a junior resident physician prescribed antibiotics at a significantly higher rate than services led by a senior resident. Interventions to reduce unnecessary antibiotic exposure should be targeted toward resident physicians, especially junior trainees.
This qualitative study describes the lived experience of physicians who work in communities that have experienced a public mass shooting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen physicians involved in eight separate mass casualty shooting incidents in the United States. Four major themes emerged from constant comparative analysis: (1) The psychological toll on physicians: “I wonder if I'm broken”; (2) the importance of and need for mass casualty shooting preparedness: “[We need to] recognize this as a public health concern and train physicians to manage it”; (3) massive media attention: “The media onslaught was unbelievable”; and (4) commitment to advocacy for a public health approach to firearm violence: “I want to do whatever I can to prevent some of these terrible events.”
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
Lipid metabolism and inflammation contribute to CVD development. This study investigated whether the consumption of cranberries (CR; Vaccinium macrocarpon) can alter HDL metabolism and prevent inflammation in mice expressing human apo A-I transgene (hApoAITg), which have similar HDL profiles to those of humans. Male hApoAITg mice were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93M high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (16 % fat, 0·25 % cholesterol, w/w; n 15) or the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet containing CR (5 % dried CR powder, w/w, n 16) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight between the groups. Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations were significantly lower in the control than CR group with no significant differences in serum HDL-cholesterol and apoA-I. Mice fed CR showed significantly lower serum lecithin–cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the control. Liver weight and steatosis were not significantly different between the groups, but hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was significantly lower in the CR group. In the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), the CR group showed higher weights with decreased expression of genes for lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker and the numbers of crown-like structures were less in the CR group. In the soleus muscle, the CR group also demonstrated higher expression of genes for fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis than those of the control. In conclusion, although CR consumption elicited minor effects on HDL metabolism, it prevented obesity-induced inflammation in eWAT with concomitant alterations in soleus muscle energy metabolism.
The chapter outlines how behavioral insights can aid measures to enhance human rights. It introduces the origins of behavioral insights and explains how they can encourage positive behaviors, enhance access to service, and strengthen human rights institutions. The chapter goes on to examine the limitations of behavioural insights and to discuss the ethical implications of their use.
Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, Latin America became something of a dumping ground for U.S. priests suspected of sexual abuse, with north-to-south clerical transfers sending predatory priests to countries where pedophilia did not exist in any kind of ontological sense. This article, in response, engages the case of Father David Roney of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. After a career of accusations and payouts, with Roney entering and exiting Church-mandated therapy programs, Bishop Raymond Lucker retired this notoriously predatory priest to rural Guatemala in 1994. By placing Roney beyond the reach of psychiatrists, psychologists, and spiritual directors, the Roman Catholic Church leveraged a psychological and juridical difference between two geographical settings in order to render the pedophilia of this priest effectively non-existent, thereby insulating itself from further reputational damage and additional litigation. Given that the Roman Catholic Church has long been an empirical point of reference for studies of subject formation—from pastoralism and mysticism to ritual and the confession—this article adds that the Church also provides ample evidence of an opposite process: of unmaking people.
In a youth-driven society such as Ireland, older adults may well find themselves marginalized by institutionalized ageism and figured as outsiders in the cultural imagination. Rather than static concepts of age, however, new patterns are emerging in post–Celtic Tiger Irish literature in its representations of aging. Read within the interdisciplinary framework of cultural gerontology, the narratives of aging explored in this chapter reveal recent changes among the middle-aged and older characters’ views on, as well as their place within, Irish society and culture. These works, spanning drama, poetry, and fiction, illuminate the complexities of later life, informed by declining health and experiences of loss, while at the same time highlighting generational interdependencies. Crucially, they avoid the nuclear family as a symbol on which to model the nation, urging readers to embrace new notions of the Irish family, ones that might adjust to accommodate and incorporate better the experiences of growing old.
There are numerous associations between psychological characteristics and political values, but it is unclear whether messages tailored to these psychological characteristics can influence political decisions. Two studies (N = 398, N = 395) tested whether psychological-based argument tailoring could influence participants’ decision-making. We constructed arguments based on the 2016 Brexit referendum; Remain supporters were presented with four arguments supporting the Leave campaign, tailored to reflect the participant’s strongest (/weakest) moral foundation (Loyalty or Fairness) or personality trait (Conscientiousness or Openness). We tested whether individuals scoring high on a trait would find the tailored arguments more persuasive than individuals scoring low on the same trait. We found clear evidence for targeting, particularly for Loyalty, but either no evidence or weak evidence, in the case of Conscientiousness, for tailoring. Overall, the results suggest that targeting political messages could be effective, but provide either no, or weak evidence that tailoring these messages influences political decision-making.
A grounded theory approach, consistent with the work of Strauss and Corbin, was used to undertake semi-structured interviews with 17 older people, to explore their experiences of living in a care home, during the four- to six-week period following the move. Purposive sampling was initially adopted, thereafter, theoretical sampling was employed to recruit individuals identified by care managers within older peoples’ community teams and care home managers within a large Health and Social Care Trust in the United Kingdom. Consistent with grounded theory methodology, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Constant comparative analysis underpinned data analysis and data management techniques. Data analysis revealed five distinct categories that captured these experiences. These were: (a) wanting to connect – ‘I am so lost here’, (b) wanting to adapt – ‘Well mentally you have to make the best of it’, (c) waiting for assistance – ‘it's a frustration for me’, (d) ‘waiting on the end’ – I am making no plans’ and (e) wanting to re-establish links with family and home – ‘I love getting home and I like getting out to the town’. Together these five categories formed the basis of the core category, ‘Waiting and Wanting’, which encapsulates the initial adaptation experiences of the men and women in the study. Findings indicate that individuals were dependent on others to create a sense of belonging, independence and wellbeing. Moreover, risk aversive practices were perceived as a threat to individuals’ independence and autonomy. Recommendations include the need to amend policy and practice for the development of a bespoke induction programme for each resident facilitated by a senior member of the care home staff working in partnership with individuals and families, in addition to the health and social care team, to support a more positive transition for new residents, relatives and care home staff.