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Nutrition education programs for athletes aim to enhance nutrition knowledge and more importantly support positive dietary change to enhance performance, health and well-being. This systematic review assessed changes in the dietary intakes of athletes in response to nutrition education programs. A search was conducted which included studies providing quantitative dietary intake assessment of athletes of any calibre aged between 12-65y in response to a nutrition education program. Standardized differences (effect sizes) were calculated (when possible) for each dietary parameter. The search yielded 6285 papers with 22 studies (974 participants (71.9% female)) eligible for inclusion. Studies described athletes competing at high school (n=3) through to college level or higher (n=19). Study designs were either single-arm with an intervention only group (12 studies; n=241) or double-arm including an intervention and control group (10 studies; n=689). No control groups received an alternative or ‘sham’ intervention. Face-to-face lectures (9/22) and individual nutrition counselling (6/22) were the most common education interventions. Non-weighed, three-day diet records (10/22) were the most frequently utilised dietary assessment method. Although 14/22 studies (n=5 single and n=9 double) reported significant change in at least one nutrition parameter, dietary changes were inconsistent. Poor study quality and heterogeneity of methods prohibits firm conclusions regarding overall intervention success or superior types of educational modalities. Of note, carbohydrate intakes ‘post-intervention’ when assessed often failed to meet recommended guidelines (12/17 studies). Given the substantial investment made in nutrition education interventions with athletes, there is a need for well-designed and rigorous research to inform future best practice.
Service integration is a global trend aiming to create partnerships, cost-effectiveness and joined-up working across public and third sector services to support an ageing population. However, social policy research suggests that the policy making process behind integration and implementation is complex, contradictory and full of tension. This paper explores social policy integration at the ground-level of services in the health and housing sector within a new integrated model for housing for older people. The paper applies a critical Lipskian approach to show that housing can promote integration for both users and wider stakeholders. Front-line workers were central to service integration, often working to integration principles despite policy changes and uncertainty. Challenges of social policy integration include the gaps between policy and practice and the developing nature of interaction at the ground-level – most notably, the role of technology. Technology and digital health platforms could enhance service user and practitioner interactions at the ground-level. The paper calls for renewed focus on policy processes in relation to service integration and consideration of new forms of service user, practitioner and policy maker interaction.
Situational awareness (SA) is critical to mobilizing a rapid, efficient, and effective response to disasters. Limited by time and resources, response agencies must make decisions about rapidly evolving situations, which requires the collection, analysis, and sharing of actionable information across a complex landscape. Emerging technologies, if appropriately applied, can enhance SA and enable responders to make quicker, more accurate decisions. The aim of this systematic review is to identify technologies that can improve SA and assist decision-making across the United States Government and the domestic and international agencies they support during disaster response operations. A total of 1459 articles and 36 after-action reports were identified during literature searches. Following the removal of duplicates and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 302 articles and after-action reports were included in the review. Our findings suggest SA is constrained primarily due to unreliable and significantly delayed communications, time-intensive data analysis and visualization, and a lack of interoperable sensor networks and other capabilities providing data to shared platforms. Many of these challenges could be addressed by existing technologies. Bridging the divide between research and development efforts and the operational needs of response agencies should be prioritized.
To report feasibility, early outcomes and challenges of implementing a 14-day threshold for undertaking surgical tracheostomy in the critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patient.
Twenty-eight coronavirus disease 2019 patients underwent tracheostomy. Demographics, risk factors, ventilatory assistance, organ support and logistics were assessed.
The mean time from intubation to tracheostomy formation was 17.0 days (standard deviation = 4.4, range 8–26 days). Mean time to decannulation was 15.8 days (standard deviation = 9.4) and mean time to intensive care unit stepdown to a ward was 19.2 days (standard deviation = 6.8). The time from intubation to tracheostomy was strongly positively correlated with: duration of mechanical ventilation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001), time from intubation to decannulation (r(23) = 0.66; p < 0.001) and time from intubation to intensive care unit discharge (r(23) = 0.71; p < 0.001).
Performing a tracheostomy in coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients at 8–14 days following intubation is compatible with favourable outcomes. Multidisciplinary team input is crucial to patient selection.
Community forestry has long been regarded as a way to achieve the sustainable management of forest and tree resources while maximizing benefits for those responsible for the custodianship of natural resources. Throughout much of the developing world, forests and the lands they occupy have been increasingly ceded to the management and control of Indigenous peoples and local communities. In the post-conflict environment of Liberia, community forestry has been identified as a means of maximizing the engagement of local communities in forest management initiatives. Liberia’s recent comprehensive National Forestry Policy is an important step forward in this process. The new legislative framework makes it clear that a major reorientation of the forestry sector is required if it is to successfully address the economic challenges facing the country. These challenges concern the need to substantially improve forest governance and to ensure that the forest sector contributes more effectively to the alleviation of poverty and livelihood improvement. While, on paper, the legal framework for community forestry is robust, implementation is falling short due to conflicts over land and resources that have pervaded the Liberian forestry sector for decades. Increased investment in oil palm expansion, artisanal agriculture and broader government-supported logging activities all threaten the implementation of community forestry. Concomitantly, a fundamental lack of capacity at the community level and at the level of the Forestry Department has curtailed early attempts to operationalize community forestry in the country. In this chapter we explore the evolution and development of community forestry in Liberia, and assess prospects for its future implementation. We provide a clear framework of recommendations to address potential constraints to its success.
To evaluate the association between the age of cow milk introduction and childhood growth.
A secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study.
Healthy children <5 years of age enrolled in the TARGet Kids! practice-based research network. The primary exposure was the age of cow milk introduction. The primary outcome was height-for-age z-score. Secondary outcomes were volume of cow milk consumed (cups/d) and BMI z-score. Outcomes were measured at the last visit before 5 years of age. Multiple linear regression was used to examine these relationships.
Among 1981 children, introduction of cow milk at a younger age was associated with greater height by 3–5 years of age (P < 0·001). Each month earlier that cow milk was introduced was associated with 0·03 higher height-for-age z-score unit (95 % CI –0·05, –0·02) or 0·1 cm (95 % CI –0·15, –0·12 cm). At 4 years of age, the height difference between a child introduced to cow milk at 9 v. 12 months was 0·4 cm (95 % CI –0·45, –0·35 cm). There was no association between the timing of cow milk introduction and volume of cow milk consumed per day or BMI z-score.
Earlier introduction of cow milk was associated with greater height but not with weight status in children aged 3–5 years. Further research is needed to understand the casual relationship between earlier cow milk consumption and childhood height. These findings may be important for paediatricians and parents when considering when to introduce cow milk.
New ideas for diagnostics in clinical parasitology are needed to overcome some of the difficulties experienced in the widespread adoption of detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites in livestock. Here we provide an initial evaluation of the performance of a newly developed automated device (Telenostic) to identify and quantify parasitic elements in fecal samples. This study compared the Telenostic device with the McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC for counting of strongyle eggs in a fecal sample. Three bovine fecal samples were examined, in triplicate, on each of the three fecal egg-counting devices. In addition, both manual (laboratory technician) and automated analysis (image analysis algorithm) were performed on the Telenostic device to calculate fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, there were consistent egg counts reported across the three devices and calculation methods. The Telenostic device compared very favourably to the Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster. Only in sample C, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the egg counts obtained by Mini-FLOTAC and by the other methods. From this limited dataset it can be concluded that the Telenostic-automated test is comparable to currently used benchmark FEC methods, while improving the workflow, test turn-around time and not requiring trained laboratory personnel to operate or interpret the results.
This paper uses evidence from a previously unresearched ecclesiastical textile associated with Archbishop John Morton (c 1420−1500) to generate new insights into the material culture of the Roman Catholic faith before, during and after the penal period in England (c 1558−1829). This composite textile was initially thought to be made up of fragments of a late 1400s cope bearing Morton’s rebus, reconfigured as an altar frontal, which had survived in the house of an important Roman Catholic family. The embroidered motifs include a unique Lily Crucifix. The textile’s complex biography is ‘unpicked’ using physical and textual evidence to understand its changing forms, roles and significance. Analysis of the material and construction, combined with evidence gained through X-radiography, showed the frontal to be composed of parts of a cope and at least one other vestment, with a now missing image of the Annunciation. Mapping the stages of fragmentation, removal and re-modelling demonstrates the transformation of significant mainstream vestments into other forms. The paper illuminates aspects of Morton’s faith and provides new insights into the practices of recusant Roman Catholics.
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mental health are unknown. We need to understand the scale of any such impact in different sections of the population, who is most affected and how best to mitigate, prevent and treat any excess morbidity. We propose a coordinated and interdisciplinary mental health science response.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are more likely to develop an alcohol use disorder than those with no such history. Early life adversity has a high coincidence with FH+ making pathogenic studies difficult in clinical studies. Here, we developed a mouse model to study pathogenic mechanisms underlying these risk factors. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Male and female C57BL6/J mice were exposed to increasing concentrations of ethanol (3-21%) or water for 15 days prior to breeding. Ethanol was not present during gestation. Offspring were either removed from the home cage and isolated for 3 hours or left undisturbed from postnatal days 1-21. Beginning on PND 56 offspring mice were assessed for clinically relevant behavioral disruptions in social behavior, cognitive working memory, locomotor activity, anxiety-like phenotypes, ethanol preference and binge drinking behavior. In a separate experiment, brains of Cx3cr2+/GFPxCcr2+/RFP mice from ELA or control conditions were collected every 7 days after birth for assessment of neuroinflammation and central immune cell morphology and density. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mice with a family history of ethanol exposure and ELA are predicted to exhibit behavioral changes (impaired working memory, reduced social behavior, increased anxiety-like behaviors, increased ethanol consumption) to a greater extent than mice with a family history of ethanol exposure or ELA alone. We expect markers of neuroinflammation (cytokine expression, immune cell activation) to predict the behavioral changes in these mice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Alcohol consumption and stressful life events are known environmental precipitants to neuroinflammation, which in turns may predispose individuals to anti-social and risky behavior. A mouse model of these early postnatal conditions will allow basic scientists to unravel the biological underpinnings of the behaviors driven by these factors.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, the scale, speed and nature of which is beyond anything most of us have experienced in our lifetimes. The mental health burden associated with this pandemic is also likely to surpass anything we have previously experienced. In this editorial, we seek to anticipate the nature of this additional mental health burden and make recommendations on how to mitigate against and prepare for this significant increase in mental health service demand.
Nerve transfer surgery (NT) for patients with nerve and spinal cord injuries can result in dramatic functional improvements. As a result, interdisciplinary complex nerve injury programs (CNIPs) have been established in many Canadian centres, providing electrodiagnostic and surgical consultations in a single encounter. We sought to determine which allied health care services are included in Canadian CNIPs, at the 3rd Annual Canadian Peripheral Nerve Symposium. Twenty CNIPs responded to a brief survey and reported access as follows: occupational therapy=60%, physiotherapy=40%, social work=20%, mental health=10%. Access to allied health services is variable in CNIPs across Canada, possibly resulting in heterogeneity in patient care.
In the last three decades, early intervention for psychosis (EIP) services have been established worldwide and have resulted in superior symptomatic and functional outcomes for people affected by psychotic disorders. These improved outcomes are a result of reducing delays to treatment and the provision of specialised, holistic interventions. The COVID-19 pandemic poses significant challenges to the delivery of these services, such as undetected cases or long delays to treatment. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic will likely increase the mental health needs of communities, including the incidence of psychotic disorders. In this perspective piece, we provide suggestions as to how EIP services can adapt within this environment, such as utilising novel technologies. Finally, we argue that despite the economic consequences of the pandemic, the funding for mental health services, including EI services, should be increased in line with the need for these services during and beyond the pandemic.
Clinicians are routinely subjected to intense and stressful working environments, and the current COVID-19 crisis increases their risk of psychological distress. Mindfulness has been shown to improve life satisfaction, resilience to stress, self-compassion, compassion and general well-being in healthcare workers. Based on their clinical experience, the authors present mindfulness moments for clinicians (MMFC), a selection of short, simple and accessible mindfulness practices to promote resilience and compassion among clinicians working in this pandemic. The practices can be used on the job and are accessible to both novice and experienced meditators. Most of these practices are extracted from evidence-based mindfulness programmes. Further research is indicated to assess the effectiveness of using MMFC to support clinicians in their work and to promote resilience.
Innovation Concept: Research training programs for students, especially in emergency medicine (EM), may be difficult to initiate due to lack of protected time, resources, and mentors (Chang Y, Ramnanan CJ. Academic Medicine 2015). We developed a ten-week summer program for medical students aimed at cultivating research skills through mentorship, clinical enrichment, and immersion in EM research culture through shadowing and project support. Methods: Five second year Ontario medical students were recruited to participate in the Summer Training and Research in Emergency Medicine (STAR-EM) program at University Health Network, Toronto, from June - Aug, 2019. Program design followed review of existing summer research programs and literature regarding challenges to EM research (McRae, Perry, Brehaut et al. CJEM 2018). The program had broad emergency physician (EP) engagement, with five EP research project mentors, and over ten EPs delivering academic sessions. Curriculum development was collaborative and iterative. All projects were approved by the hospital Research Ethics Board (REB). Curriculum, Tool or Material: Each weekly academic morning comprised small group teaching (topics including research methodology, manuscript preparation, health equity, quality improvement, and wellness), followed by EP-led group progress review of each student's project. Each student spent one half day per week in the emergency department (ED), shadowing an EP and identifying patients for recruitment for ongoing mentor-initiated ED research projects. Remaining time was spent on independent student project work. Presentation to faculty and program evaluation occurred in week 10. Scholarly output included one abstract submitted for publication per student. Program evaluation by students reflected a uniform impression that course material and mentorship were each excellent (100%, n = 5). Interest in pursuing academic EM as a career was identified by all students. Faculty researchers rated the program as very effective (80%, n = 4) or somewhat effective (20%, n = 1) in terms of enhancing productivity and scholarly output. Conclusion: The STAR-EM program provides a transferable model for other academic departments seeking to foster the development of future clinician investigators and enhance ED research culture. Program challenges included delays in REB approval for student projects and engaging recalcitrant staff to participate in research.
Introduction: Outpatient oncology clinics have become the mainstay of cancer treatment, but their limited services and hours of operation often lead to emergency department (ED) referrals. With Canada's aging population and cancer survival rates improving, cancer-related ED visits are becoming a significant aspect of emergency medicine. A cancer-related visit to the ED is associated with unique challenges for patients, their caregivers and clinicians. This study focuses on understanding the ED experience of patients and their caregivers sent from an outpatient oncology clinic to a separate affiliated large academic hospital. Methods: A descriptive, phenomenological study of interviews was conducted using the method of Giorgi. The sample included 12 participants (n = 9 patients, 3 caregivers) referred to the ED at a large academic hospital (i.e., Toronto General Hospital, TGH) following a same-day outpatient oncology appointment at an affiliated cancer centre (i.e., Princess Margaret Hospital, PMH). Interviews continued until thematic saturation. All transcripts were analyzed by 2 reviewers with bracketing to ensure accuracy. Results: Four themes were identified from analysis: (1) communication; (2) expectations; (3) care and symptom management and (4) potential improvements. Overall patients and caregivers felt communication between PMH and TGH, and from providers could have been better. Many felt there was a break-down in communication as they did not expect to go through the usual ED triage process, which caused additional anxiety and frustration with the wait times. The majority felt their symptoms were managed in a timely manner and reported the staff to be friendly, caring and professional; however, often felt forgotten and anxious due to a lack of “checking-in”. Their experience could have been improved by receiving more information on the process, a more welcoming environment and separate waiting area or private room for those who are immunocompromised. Conclusion: Although referral from an outpatient oncology clinic to the ED of an affiliated hospital is a common process within Canada, this is the first study to explore the patient and caregiver experience. Understanding the patient and caregiver experience is valuable for identifying quality improvement initiatives. Our analysis revealed the patient and caregiver experience could be improved with better communication and expectation setting regarding the ED process before and throughout the visit.