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Part I of this symposium on framing global migration law introduced broad conceptual parameters of a new field, looking back to its international law roots and forward to a new orientation beyond the strictures of refugee law. Part II looks to situate global migration law along a range of theoretical dimensions. Jacqueline Bhabha establishes the continuities of human movement in a historical context, modern and premodern. Far from representing a radical departure, the current migration “crisis” is consistent with massive migrations over the ages. Tendayi Achiume considers migration through the lens of colonization and decolonization. Out-migration from Europe was a core economic element of the colonization project; Achiume suggests that contemporary migration from former dependencies to metropolitan powers will correct co-dependencies that continue to advantage postcolonial powers. Focusing Achiume's lens on the problem of human trafficking, Janie Chuang complicates the binary depictions of economic migration that underpin contemporary international law. She suggests that global migration law's grounding in a migrant-centered perspective could help state actors to understand the structural causes of modern-day exploitation, enabling a shift from a crime control approach to a human mobility paradigm.
Refugees dominate contemporary headlines. The migration “emergencies” at the southern U.S. border and the southern
borders of the European Union, as well as the “crisis” in the Bay
of Bengal, have drawn global attention to the dire inadequacies of the
international refugee regime, even as extended through various principles of
non-refoulement, in governing modern migration flows. Political
responses to these mass movements, from the Brexit vote to the election of
Donald Trump and his executive order halting the refugee resettlement process in
the United States, have threatened the viability of refugee law's
protections. At the policy level, numerous high-level stakeholders have convened
in different constellations, through the United
that these meetings have accomplished little thus far in terms of law
reform. The refugee law paradigm consumes so much space in the
imagination of international lawyers and policymakers that it is hard even to
begin to conceptualize an alternate approach to global migration law. The fear
of losing even the narrow ground staked out to protect refugees stiffens the
resistance to change. Proposals for reform tend to follow the tired old path of
suggesting ways in which the refugee definition can be expanded to include new
groups of migrants (ranging from climate change refugees to anyone fleeing
serious human rights abuses) rather than critically evaluating the structure of
global migration law more broadly.
Numerous archival documents show how the suspension of payments by Philip II, in September 1575, on the contracts with Genoese bankers (asientos) induced a freeze of the domestic credit market in Castile through the bankers’ intermediation for asientos and the credit interconnections. Commercial fairs stopped, banks failed and trade suffered while the king granted legal protection to the Genoese bankers. The evidence strikingly confirms that by his strategy, Philip II was able to remove the de facto ceiling on the domestic debt (juros) imposed by the fixed revenue commitment of the Castilian cities in the Cortes. The agreement with the bankers was signed in December 1577 immediately after the cities had agreed to the doubling of their commitment.
This paper studies the genetic importance of growth curve parameters and their relevance as selection criteria in breeding programmes of Segureño sheep. Logistic and Verhulst growth functions were chosen for their best fit to BW/age in this breed; the first showed the best general fit and the second the best individual fit. Live weights of 41 330 individuals from the historical archives of the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders were used in the analysis. The progeny of 1464 rams and 27 048 ewes were used to study the genetic and phenotypic parameters of growth curve parameters and derived traits. Reproductive management in the population consists in controlled natural mating inside every herd, with a minimum of 15% of the females fertilized by artificial insemination with fresh semen; with the purpose being the herd genetic connections, all herd genealogies are screened with DNA markers. Estimates of growth curve parameters from birth to 80 days were obtained for each individual and each function by the non-linear regression procedure using IBM SPSS statistics (version 21) with the Levenberg–Marquart estimation method. (Co)variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by using the REML/Animal model methodology. The heritability of mature weight was estimated as 0.41±0.042 and 0.38±0.021 with the logistic and Verhulst models, respectively, and the heritability of other parameters ranged from 0.41 to 0.62 and 0.37 to 0.61, with the models, respectively. A negative genetic correlation between mature weight and rate of maturing was found.
We study the impact of parameter uncertainty on the expected utility of a multiperiod investor subject to quadratic transaction costs. We characterize the utility loss associated with ignoring parameter uncertainty, and show that it is equal to the product between the single-period utility loss and another term that captures the effects of the multiperiod mean-variance utility and transaction cost losses. To mitigate the impact of parameter uncertainty, we propose two multiperiod shrinkage portfolios and demonstrate with simulated and empirical data sets that they substantially outperform portfolios that ignore parameter uncertainty, transaction costs, or both.
A selection of 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3-ones (1–19) and 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles substituted at positions 1 (20–24) or 2 (25–39) from our in-house compound library were screened in vitro against the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 41% of the studied molecules (16/39) achieved a significant activity of more than 85% growth inhibition at the highest concentration assayed (100 µg mL−1). Among these compounds, 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole derivatives 23, 24, 25 and 27 inhibited parasite growth by more than 50% at 10 µg mL−1. In addition, the first two compounds (23, 24) still showed remarkable activity at the lowest dose tested (1 µg mL−1), inhibiting parasite growth by nearly 40%. Their specific activity towards the parasite was corroborated by the determination of their non-specific cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The four mentioned compounds exhibited non-cytotoxic profiles at all of the concentrations assayed, showing a fair antiparasitic selectivity index (SI > 7·5). In silico studies were performed to predict pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug-score using Molinspiration and OSIRIS computational tools. The current in vitro results supported by the virtual screening suggest 2-substituted and, especially, 1-substituted 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles as promising starting scaffolds for further development of novel chemical compounds with the main aim of promoting highly selective trichomonacidal lead-like drugs with adequate pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles.
Non-linear models were analysed to describe both the biological and commercial growth curves of the Segureña sheep, one of the most important Spanish breeds. We evaluated Brody, von Bertalanffy, Verhulst, logistic and Gompertz models, using historical data from the National Association of Segureña Sheep Breeders (ANCOS). These records were collected between 2000 and 2013, from a total of 129 610 weight observations ranging from birth to adulthood. The aim of this research was to establish the mathematical behaviour of body development throughout this breed’s commercial life (birth to slaughter) and biological life (birth to adulthood); comparison between both slopes gives important information regarding the best time for slaughter, informs dietary advice according to animals’ needs, permits economical predictions of productions and, by using the curve parameters as selection criteria, enables improvements in growth characteristics of the breed. Models were fitted according to the non-linear regression procedure of statistical package SPSS version19. Model parameters were estimated using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. Candidate models were compared using the determinative coefficient, mean square error, number of iterations, Akaike information coefficient and biological coherence of the estimated parameters. The von Bertalanffy and logistic models were found to be best suited to the biological and commercial growth curves, respectively, for both sexes. The Brody equation was found to be unsuitable for studying the commercial growth curve. Differences between the parameters in both sexes indicate a strong impact of sexual dimorphism on growth. This can emphasize the value of the highest growth rate for females, indicating that they reach maturity earlier.
It is widely known that the Spanish monarchy borrowed large quantities of money from foreign bankers during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Many foreign companies, especially Italian, provided money and financial services to the Spanish kings. Scholars have described the financial system of Castile and the important role played by short-term credit in maintaining imperial policy.
The Spanish monarchy, like other medieval and early modern European sovereigns, had problems making credible commitments to honour its financial agreements. Periodically, bankers faced suspension of payments and defaults in the contracts signed by the Crown. A traditional interpretation of these crises maintains that they damaged the relationship between the monarchy and its bankers, increasing the price of short-term credit compared with other borrowing alternatives.
The history of Spanish sovereign debt in this period poses a puzzle: why did bankers continue to lend money to the kings of Spain when they repeatedly suspended their payments? As might be expected, the king could cancel his obligations whenever he wanted to after the lender had risked his money. One could argue that reputation and future borrowing needs would prevent the monarchy from cheating the banker. However, both bankers and the king knew their relationship had a finite life, so bankers in the later period could anticipate that the king would default. Carrying this logic further back would lead to an outcome in which lending would not have been provided in any period.
Historical evidence proves, however, that despite the finite horizon and repeated cheating on the part of the king, lenders and the Spanish monarchy continued to cooperate and maintain a strong credit relationship over time. It also shows that it did not make this kind of credit more expensive than others. The system worked in such a way that many small investors around Europe helped bankers to lend their money to the Spanish kings.
Did bankers make ‘irrational’ economic decisions? The situation is especially noteworthy given the fact that bankers did not coordinate their actions.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) are a cause of significant stress in caregivers. The revised memory and behavior problems checklist (RMBPC) (Teri et al., 1992) is an instrument used for the assessment of BPSD. The psychometric properties of the RMBPC-Spanish version were analyzed.
361 family caregivers of people with dementia were interviewed individually. The RMBPC is a 24-item questionnaire that assesses both the frequency of the BPSD and the reaction they cause in the caregiver. It has three factors: memory problems, disruptive behaviors, and depressive behaviors. Caregivers’ depressive symptomatology, anxiety and burden, and the functional capacity of the person with dementia were also measured.
The results of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) show that the original three-factor model with 24 items, with error covariances, had a marginally acceptable adjustment for the frequency and reaction scales. The deletion of items with low factor loadings results in a better adjustment of the data to the model, for both the frequency and reaction scales. We found adequate internal consistency for all subscales, and significant associations between the subscales, burden, anxiety, and depression.
The results suggest that the Spanish version of the RMBPC shows adequate adjustment for the three-factor model with 24-items, but that removing some of the items improves the adjustment. The results support the use of this instrument for the assessment of BPSD in Spanish people with dementia.
Elongated micro- and nanostructures of Sn doped or Sn and Cr co-doped monoclinic gallium oxide have been grown by a thermal method. The presence of Sn during growth has been shown to strongly influence the morphology of the resulting structures, including Sn doped branched wires, whips, and needles. Subsequent co-doping with Cr is achieved through thermal diffusion for photonic purposes. The formation mechanism of the branched structures has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Epitaxial growth has been demonstrated in some cases, revealed by a very high quality interface between the central rod and the branches of the structures, while in other cases, formation of extended defects such as twins has been observed in the interface region. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show a Sn-related complex band in the Sn-doped structures. In the Sn−Cr co-doped samples, the characteristic, very intense Cr3+ red luminescence emission quenches the bands observed in the Sn doped samples. Branched, Sn−Cr co-doped structures were studied with microphotoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy, and waveguiding behavior was observed along the trunks and branches of these structures.
Research on the behavioral correlates of anxiety in older adults is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore the association of anxiety with behavioral patterns defined by health, activity, emotional and social variables.
A convenience sample of 395 older adults completed measures of health, activity, emotions, social variables and experiential avoidance. Cross-sectional data were analysed using cluster analysis.
Five clusters were identified: active healthy, healthy, active vulnerable, lonely inactive and frail lonely. Participants in the active healthy and healthy clusters showed the highest scores on health variables (vitality and physical function), and adaptive scores on the rest of variables. They also reported the lowest scores on anxiety and included the lowest number of cases with clinically significant anxiety levels. Active vulnerable showed high scores on social support, leisure activities and capitalization on them but low scores in vitality and physical functioning. Participants in the lonely inactive cluster reported the highest mean score in experiential avoidance and high scores on boredom and loneliness, and low scores on social support, leisure activities capitalizing on pleasant activities and health variables. Frail lonely represent a particularly vulnerable profile of participants, similar to that of lonely inactive, but with significantly lower scores on health variables and higher scores on boredom and hours watching TV.
Anxiety in older adults is not only linked to poor health, but also to dysfunctional social behavior, loneliness, boredom and experiential avoidance. Maladaptive profiles of older adults with regard to these variables have been identified.
The decomposition of CCl4 in air was investigated at atmospheric pressure in a new type of dielectric barrier discharge reactor. The reactor was powered by three different power supplies: pulsed of low frequency (150–600 Hz), pulsed of 15 kHz frequency with regulated current pulse duration and AC of 6.8 kHz frequency. Maximum conversion of CCl4 depended on the power supply. 64, 87 and 98% were the maximum achieved conversions of CCl4 for tested power supplies. The products of CCl4 conversion and energy consumption depended on power supply system. The chlorine gas was always the main product obtained from CCl4. The smallest energy consumption (~0.3 kWh per mol CCl4 converted) was achieved for pulsed power supply system of low frequency. It was 26 and 230 times less than energy consumption (for similar overall CCl4 conversion) in AC of 6.8 kHz frequency and pulsed of 15 kHz frequency respectively.