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We demonstrate the fabrication, by exclusive means of inkjet-printing, of capacitive relative humidity sensors on flexible, plastic substrate. These sensors can be successfully used for the measurement of relative-humidity in both air and common soil. We also show that the same technique may be used for the fabrication of the same type of sensors on the surface of the leaves of Elægnus Ebbingei (silverberry).Our results demonstrate the suitability of leaves as substrate for printed electronics and pave the way to the next generation of sensors to be used in fields such as agriculture and flower farming.
Larger body size has long been assumed to correlate with greater risk of extinction, helping to shape body-size distributions across the tree of life, but a lack of comprehensive size data for fossil taxa has left this hypothesis untested for most higher taxa across the vast majority of evolutionary time. Here we assess the relationship between body size and extinction using a data set comprising the body sizes, stratigraphic ranges, and occurrence patterns of 9408 genera of fossil marine animals spanning eight Linnaean classes across the past 485 Myr. We find that preferential extinction of smaller-bodied genera within classes is substantially more common than expected due to chance and that there is little evidence for preferential extinction of larger-bodied genera. Using a capture–mark–recapture analysis, we find that this size bias of extinction persists even after accounting for a pervasive bias against the sampling of smaller-bodied genera within classes. The size bias in extinction also persists after including geographic range as an additional predictor of extinction, indicating that correlation between body size and geographic range does not provide a simple explanation for the association between size and extinction. Regardless of the underlying causes, the preferential extinction of smaller-bodied genera across many higher taxa and most of geologic time indicates that the selective loss of large-bodied animals is the exception, rather than the rule, in the evolution of marine animals.
Although the Cascajal Block (CB), an incised greenstone slab from southeastern Veracruz, Mexico, arguably contains the earliest written text in the New World, debate remains regarding the object's authenticity, dating, and cultural affiliation. To address these issues, this article details recent analyses of the CB via polynomial texture mapping (PTM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PTM revealed new details that have resulted in a new epigraphic drawing of the block's incised text and allowed for improved identification of several constituent signs. Spectrometric analysis confirmed that the chemical composition of the CB matrix is consistent with serpentine and identified a uniform patina on its surface, which provided additional contextual data. SEM micrographs of polymer replica molds taken from the incised text evidence manufacturing traces that correspond to lapidary techniques observed on other Formative-period Olmec objects of secure provenience. Results assist in clarifying the archaeological contexts of the object and confirm that in terms of symbols, material, and manufacture the CB conforms to other Formative-period Olmec objects, supporting the object's authenticity, dating, and cultural affiliation.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy for lung tumours can expose patients to radiation pneumonitis (RP) (<6 months after irradiation) and lung fibrosis (beyond 6 months). The aim of this study was to describe post-irradiation radiographics appearances.
Materials and methods:
This retrospective study of 90 patients with a stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma reports a detailed description of the computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography/CT changes that can be observed after treatment, according to modified Kimura score for RP and Koenig’s classification for fibrosis. This evaluation was realised at 1 month and then every 3–4 months, with a median follow-up of 35 months.
The most common radiological RP pattern was diffuse consolidation. It appears in a mean time of 4 months and reaches its maximum at 9 months after radiotherapy. Seventy-three per cent of the RP evolved to fibrosis. Most of these findings were encompassed in the 35 Gy isodose.
Radiological parenchymal changes are frequent in the treatment region, which renders the tumour response monitoring by tumour size, particularly by response evaluation criteria in solid tumours, unsuitable.
The taxonomic and ecologic composition of Earth's biota has shifted dramatically through geologic time, with some clades going extinct while others diversified. Here, we derive a metric that quantifies the change in biotic composition due to extinction or origination and show that it equals the product of extinction/origination magnitude and selectivity (variation in magnitude among groups). We also define metrics that describe the extent to which a recovery (1) reinforced or reversed the effects of extinction on biotic composition and (2) changed composition in ways uncorrelated with the extinction. To demonstrate the approach, we analyzed an updated compilation of stratigraphic ranges of marine animal genera. We show that mass extinctions were not more selective than background intervals at the phylum level; rather, they tended to drive greater taxonomic change due to their higher magnitudes. Mass extinctions did not represent a separate class of events with respect to either strength of selectivity or effect. Similar observations apply to origination during recoveries from mass extinctions, and on average, extinction and origination were similarly selective and drove similar amounts of biotic change. Elevated origination during recoveries drove bursts of compositional change that varied considerably in effect. In some cases, origination partially reversed the effects of extinction, returning the biota toward the pre-extinction composition; in others, it reinforced the effects of the extinction, magnifying biotic change. Recoveries were as important as extinction events in shaping the marine biota, and their selectivity deserves systematic study alongside that of extinction.
Arbitrage between consumption and saving occurs in a context of an aging society where family solidarity is deteriorating. Maximizing inter-temporal utility makes it possible to calculate the preference for saving. The arbitrage involves subjective satisfaction with the quality of life, anticipated survival, and consumption profiles. Simultaneous equations based on the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging, 2006–2014 (10,205 adults aged 45 and over) show that the preference for saving is determined only by and through these endogenous variables, with no other direct socioeconomic effects. People spending more money in education are those with the highest preference for saving. Socioeconomic variables influence the preference for saving in agreement to the economic theory of the life cycle, but through the structured filter of endogenous subjective variables and consumption profiles.
This paper discusses the principal findings of a new integrated dataset of transnational armed conflict in Africa. Existing Africa conflict datasets have systematically under-represented the extent of cross-border state support to belligerent parties in internal armed conflicts as well as the number of incidents of covert cross-border armed intervention and incidents of using armed force to threaten a neighbouring state. Based on the method of ‘redescribing’ datapoints in existing datasets, notably the Uppsala Conflict Data Project, the Transnational Conflict in Africa (TCA) data include numerous missing incidents of transnational armed conflict and reclassify many more. The data indicate that (i) trans-nationality is a major feature of armed conflict in Africa, (ii) most so-called ‘civil wars’ are internationalised and (iii) the dominant definitions of ‘interstate conflict’ and ‘civil war’ are too narrow to capture the particularities of Africa's wars. While conventional interstate war remains rare, interstate rivalry using military means is common. The dataset opens up a research agenda for studying the drivers, patterns and instruments of African interstate rivalries. These findings have important implications for conflict prevention, management and resolution policies.
Organismal metabolic rates reflect the interaction of environmental and physiological factors. Thus, calcifying organisms that record growth history can provide insight into both the ancient environments in which they lived and their own physiology and life history. However, interpreting them requires understanding which environmental factors have the greatest influence on growth rate and the extent to which evolutionary history constrains growth rates across lineages. We integrated satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration with a database of growth coefficients, body sizes, and life spans for 692 populations of living marine bivalves in 195 species, set within the context of a new maximum-likelihood phylogeny of bivalves. We find that environmental predictors overall explain only a small proportion of variation in growth coefficient across all species; temperature is a better predictor of growth coefficient than food supply, and growth coefficient is somewhat more variable at higher summer temperatures. Growth coefficients exhibit moderate phylogenetic signal, and taxonomic membership is a stronger predictor of growth coefficient than any environmental predictor, but phylogenetic inertia cannot fully explain the disjunction between our findings and the extensive body of work demonstrating strong environmental control on growth rates within taxa. Accounting for evolutionary history is critical when considering shells as historical archives. The weak relationship between variation in food supply and variation in growth coefficient in our data set is inconsistent with the hypothesis that the increase in mean body size through the Phanerozoic was driven by increasing productivity enabling faster growth rates.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious consequence of intimate partner violence (IPV) that is often overlooked. In the case of Indigenous women in Canada the challenges are broad, multidimensional, and left almost entirely unexplored. Given the elevated rates of violence and injury experienced by women exposed to IPV and the increased levels of physical assault among Indigenous women in Canada, it is important to understand the unique experiences and service needs of these women. This study sought to identify barriers and facilitating factors for TBI-sensitive service provision for Indigenous women experiencing IPV.
As part of a larger national stakeholder consultation process to develop a TBI educational toolkit for IPV service providers, input from Indigenous stakeholders was specifically sought to allow for insights into unique challenges and strengths related to this population. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with IPV direct-service providers, support professionals, and advocates working with Canadian First Nations and Inuit women.
Findings suggest that multiple intersections of marginalization, shame and stigma, and colonization, coupled with significant barriers to service provision in remote communities are such that solutions generated for urban-based settler populations are ineffective.
Recommendations include a widespread educational campaign to raise awareness of the seriousness of TBI among Indigenous women exposed to IPV. Education is particularly important among healthcare and direct service providers, survivors and their families and communities, legal professionals and child protection agencies, and Indigenous and settler government bodies. Future research should focus on expanding our understanding of this complex issue and developing culturally sensitive, community-based supports.
This chapter examines the Philippines’ government policy towards the South China Sea (SCS) dispute since 1995 in the context of bilateral relations with China as well as membership in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Specifically, it looks at how the country has managed its maritime dispute with China since the Mischief Reef incident in 1995 and the implications of the international court's ruling in July 2016 for its bilateral ties with China and ASEAN regional diplomacy, as well as its external defence posture. Using a neoclassical realist perspective, I argue that—despite the favourable ruling of the international court—the Philippines under the new administration of President Duterte still faces a number of challenges in managing its maritime conflict with China. These challenges include: difficulties in renormalization of relations with Beijing; the push for a regional Code of Conduct (COC) between China and the ASEAN in the SCS; and the dismal state of the Philippines’ external defence capability. This author also contends that, under new leadership, the Philippines should seriously consider embarking on developing selfreliance or self-help capability as part of its internal balancing strategy, which should have been the country's core defence strategy since 1992, to effectively protect its interests in the West Philippine Sea.
Self-help is fundamentally a principle of action in an anarchical system of states where each state actor is responsible for their own survival or security. Realists do not consider it prudent for states to rely on other states or institutions to ensure their security. While powerful states can pursue military or defence build-up when they feel threatened by other states, this may not be adequate for smaller states especially if they face a more powerful hegemonic state. To compensate, small states may resort to balance of power strategies by aligning with a more powerful state or forming alliances with other states to counter a perceived hegemony. From a neorealist perspective, states can pursue balance of power internally, by mobilizing internal resources to build economic and defence capability, and externally, by forming alliances or bandwagoning with other states. According to Waltz, power is a means to ensure a state's security and the concern of states is ultimately to maximize security.
In the western Serengeti of Tanzania, African elephant Loxodonta africana populations are increasing, which is rare across the species’ range. Here, conservation objectives come into conflict with competing interests such as agriculture. Elephants regularly damage crops, which threatens livelihoods and undermines local support for conservation. For damage reduction efforts to be successful, limited resources must be used efficiently and strategies for mitigation and prevention should be informed by an understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of crop damage. We assessed historical records of crop damage by elephants to describe the dynamics and context of damage in the western Serengeti. We used binary data and generalized additive models to predict the probability of crop damage at the village level in relation to landscape features and metrics of human disturbance. During 2012–2014 there were 3,380 reports of crop damage by elephants submitted to authorities in 42 villages. Damage was concentrated in villages adjacent to a reserve boundary and peaked during periods of crop maturity and harvest. The village-level probability of crop damage was negatively associated with distance from a reserve, positively with length of the boundary shared with a reserve, and peaked at moderate levels of indicators of human presence. Spatially aggregated historical records can provide protected area managers and regional government agencies with important insights into the distribution of conflict across the landscape and between seasons, and can guide efforts to optimize resource allocation and future land use planning efforts.
As professors, we seek not only to impart knowledge about issues and concepts in American politics but also to engage and inspire students to become more knowledgeable and more active in politics. This article explains how a student-run exit poll conducted on Election Day 2016 accomplished both goals. Seven faculty members from four universities pooled our students and carried out an exit poll in the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, and Ohio. By the time the polls closed, our students had spoken to more than 2,300 respondents, providing a memorable experience and creating a shared dataset that served as the centerpiece for many final class projects. Through this project, students gained hands-on experience in survey design, sampling, research ethics, polling, and data analysis.
The aim of this study is to enrich public health emergency management (PHEM) curricula and increase the workforce readiness of graduates through the implementation of an innovative curriculum structure centered around simulation and the creation of authentic learning experiences into a mastery-based Disaster Preparedness graduate certificate program launched in 2016 at the Colorado School of Public Health. Learners progress through a sequence of increasingly complex discussion and operations-based exercises designed to align with training methodologies used by future employers in the disaster response field, covering PHEM fundamentals and domestic and international disaster preparedness and response. Preliminary feedback is overwhelmingly positive, equating the experience to securing an internship. Embedding simulation-based exercises and authentic learning environments into graduate curricula exposes learners to diverse disaster scenarios, provides occasion for practicing critical thinking and dynamic problem solving, increases familiarity with anticipated emergency situations, and builds the confidence necessary for exercising judgment in a real-world situation. This novel curriculum should serve as a model for graduate programs wishing to enrich traditional training tactics using a typical school of public health support and alignment with community resources. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:777–781)
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Preterm birth rates have been rising in the United States, and reducing preterm birth is a high-priority clinical and public health concern. There are no existing strategies to reduce preterm birth in nulliparous individuals. The present study aims to evaluate prenatal care as a protective factor for preterm birth in this population. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Missouri birth record data for child birth years 1993-2016 were used to create a sample of 325,088 singleton births to nulliparous women, themselves born in MO 1975-1985. Logistic regressions, stratified by maternal race (White, African-American, Asian, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Other), were used to predict preterm birth (< 37 weeks gestational age) as a function of 1) initiation of prenatal care of by end of first trimester and 2) Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, with sociodemographic covariates of child birth year, maternal age, highest educational level, and marital status (four level variable, including married yes/no, and partner named on birth record, yes/no). Subsequent analyses will use this logistic regression to create a propensity score predicting smoking during pregnancy using birth record parental sociodemographic characteristics, stratified by maternal race. Primary analyses will focus on the role of prenatal care in predicting smoking during pregnancy and preterm birth risk within propensity score stratum. Secondary analyses will consider the role of other risk factors, including maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and maternal DUI history, on preterm birth risk. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Preliminary logistic regressions predicting preterm birth were analyzed, stratified by maternal race. In White mothers, preterm birth prevalence was 8.2%, and risk was significantly increased by maternal age ≤ 15 and ≥ 31, being unmarried, and by receiving no prenatal care, yet unaffected by timing of prenatal care initiation. For African-American mothers, preterm birth prevalence was 11.9%, and risk was significantly increased by being unmarried and both by not initiating prenatal care by end of first trimester and receiving no prenatal care. Preliminary samples were too small for solid inferences for other races. Anticipated results are that after propensity score match, earlier initiation of prenatal care will show modest protective effect on preterm birth, but other characteristics such as maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and DUI status will show stronger effects on predicting preterm birth risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: By evaluating the role of prenatal care initiation and delivery on preterm birth, this work provides an evidence base for prenatal care schedules and for understanding the interplay of sociodemographics, healthcare delivery, and individual characteristics in the context of preterm birth risk and potentially reduce negative health outcomes.
On February 1, 2019, President Donald Trump withdrew the United States from a landmark Cold War treaty: the agreement between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev to ban intermediate-range nuclear missiles from Europe. One day after Trump's announcement, Vladimir Putin announced that Russia would also withdraw from the treaty. Allegations of Russian violations in recent years have thus led to actions that threaten to return Europe to some of the most frightening days of the Cold War.
The Reformation was a turning point in history.Many scholars have argued that it played a crucial role stimulating economic growth, liberal ideas, and institutional change. However, assessing these claims is challenging because identifying the effects of the Reformation is extremely difficult.
The schism between Reformed and Catholic Christianity coincided with so many other developments that clear chains of causation are difficult to pick out. Many important events occurred between the invention of the printing press circa 1450 and 1648 when the Thirty Years' War ended. Stronger and more centralized political units emerged in France, Spain, the Netherlands, and England. The New World was discovered, and colonial empires were established.
We describe how, in conjunction with the rise of more powerful and centralized states in Western Europe, the Reformation undermined the equilibrium of conditional toleration that we outlined in Part 1. By significantly increasing religious diversity across Europe, the Reformation placed pressure on existing systems of conditional toleration. Keeping Jewish communities confined to ghettos was something an early modern city could manage, but separating Catholics from Protestants would often prove too much. The larger the polity in question – and themore involved the government was in people's lives – the more severe the problem of heterogeneity became.When the pressure was too great, civil conflict, always a possibility, became a terrible reality. The years followingMartin Luther's declaration of independence from Rome saw some of the most savage acts of religious violence Europe had ever experienced. Violence and unrest instigated political reform; however, many rulers decided to abandon the use of identity rules and religion to legitimate rule, relying instead on more secular institutions that were founded on more general rules.
The states that emerged out of the inferno of persecution and violence of the sixteenth century differed fundamentally from their medieval predecessors, and these differences would have important consequences for economic development and the rise of liberalism. In the Dutch Republic, Great Britain, and to a lesser extent, France, the enforcement of strict religious conformity ceased to be viable by the eighteenth century. All three of these polities were relatively powerful and centralized, qualitatively different from their medieval predecessors even if to modern eyes they appear to have been riddled with cronyism and corruption. All of these societies saw fierce religious persecution in the decades after 1517.