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A new circularly polarized microstrip array antenna using the orthogonal feed technique is proposed in this paper. The antenna has a multi-layer structure and a new 3-way power divider employing the both-sided microwave integrated circuit technology is designed to configure the feed network of the array. Circular polarization (CP) is realized by creating a quadrature phase difference between orthogonal feed circuits of the patches. The multi-layer structure gives flexibility to adjust the patch spacing that helps to reduce the sidelobe level of the antenna. It is found that the multi-layer structure exhibits a gain of about 2 dB higher than that of a single layer structure by means of sidelobe reduction. The proposed structure also exhibits good CP performances that are verified by a good agreement of measured and simulated results. Simple and compact structure makes the antenna suitable for various wireless applications.
The Toda equation and its variants are studied in the filed of integrable systems. One particularly generalized time discretisation of the Toda equation is known as the discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation, which has two main variants referred to as the dhTodaI equation and dhTodaII equation. The dhToda equations have both been shown to be applicable to the computation of eigenvalues of totally nonnegative (TN) matrices, which are matrices without negative minors. The dhTodaI equation has been investigated with respect to the properties of integrable systems, but the dhTodaII equation has not. Explicit solutions using determinants and matrix representations called Lax pairs are often considered as symbolic properties of discrete integrable systems. In this paper, we clarify the determinant solution and Lax pair of the dhTodaII equation by focusing on an infinite sequence. We show that the resulting determinant solution firmly covers the general solution to the dhTodaII equation, and provide an asymptotic analysis of the general solution as discrete-time variable goes to infinity.
Cryoconite granules are dark-colored spherical aggregates of organic and inorganic material on glacier ice, and are commonly observed on glaciers the world over. The structure of cryoconite granules on Ürümqi glacier No. 1, Tien Shan, China, was analyzed. Granules were distributed over the entire ice surface of the ablation area, and ranged in size from 0.26 to 3.5 mm (mean 1.1 mm). The granule surface was densely covered with filamentous cyanobacteria. Microscopy of a thin section revealed various inner structures. Most granules had concentric layers of dense organic matter, which are probably derived from annual growth of the granules by the activity of cyanobacteria. The number of layers averaged 3.5 and ranged up to 7, which is likely to indicate their mean and maximum growth ages, respectively. Some granules contained two or more subgranules, showing that small granules had combined and enlarged. Such structures suggest that granule formation was mainly due to the activity of filamentous cyanobacteria, and that the granules repeatedly grew and disintegrated over a cycle of several years on the glacier.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
We have measured radiocarbon contents in leaves collected from 15 sites in Japan, including mountain areas and big city areas for last three years. Comparing the radiocarbon contents in various areas, high 14C concentrations (80–100‰ as δ14C) are seen for the leaves from the mountain and country sites. On the contrary, low concentrations (5–40‰) were observed for the leaves from city region, especially near the road with heavy traffic. These results indicate that the atmosphere of the mountain and country sites in Japan is still clean but the CO2 gas coming from fossil non-radioactive carbon significantly pollutes the atmosphere of the city sites. The value of δ14C for the mountain areas implies that 14C produced by nuclear bomb test in 1960s still remains. The decrease of δ14C at heavy traffic sites in Tokyo is consistent with the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere assuming that almost all CO2 gas in this region originates from the fossil fuel.
A liquid scintillation counting apparatus that enables highly accurate measurements of 14C has been constructed at the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University. The main aim of the project is high precision year-by-year measurements of the 14C content in tree rings of an old cedar tree from Yaku Island, Japan. We present the results of 14C measurements on tree rings from the Agematsu region for recent decades to confirm the validity of the system.
We have made CO mapping observations of nearby barred spiral galaxies (NGC253, NGC3504, NGC4303, NGC4321, NGC6951, M83) with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope using the 2×2 SIS focal-plane array receiver. The purpose of this project is to investigate distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in barred spiral galaxies and the relation between star formation and them. We present some of the results (NGC3504 and NGC6951).
In order to study relationship between molecular gas and star-forming activities, we have made observations of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 253 in 12CO(J = 1–0), 13CO(J = 1–0), and HCN(J = 1–0) emission lines with the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. NGC 253 is located in a distance of 2.5 M pc(Mauersbergeretal.(1996)) and has an inclination angle of 78°.5 (Pence 1980). This galaxy has a starburst nuclear region and is suggested in an early stage of a starburst (Rieke, Lebofsky, & Walker (1988)).
Our survey observation is high spatial resolution (16″) by NRO observatory 45 m antenna and have many galaxies of sample. This high resolution observations (16″ = 1.6 kpc at 20 Mpc) could be to resolve the some characteristic structure, typical molecular gas disk, arm - interarm and optical bar.
There are three wide-field telescopes at the Bisei Spaceguard Center operated by the Japan Spaceguard Association. These telescopes are dedicated to detect near-earth asteroids and produce several tera-byte data per month. Since these data contain many main-belt asteroids, we will use them for an education program that will allow school pupils and the general public to find new main-belt asteroids. We are now developing a new software for its purpose.
Although outbreaks of acute respiratory infection (ARI) at shelters are hypothesized to be associated with shelter crowding, no studies have examined this relationship. We conducted a retrospective study by reviewing medical records of evacuees presenting to one of the 37 clinics at the shelters in Ishinomaki city, Japan, during the 3-week period after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. On the basis of a locally weighted scatter-plot smoothing technique, we categorized 37 shelters into crowded (mean space <5·5 m2/per person) and non-crowded (⩾5·5 m2) shelters. Outcomes of interest were the cumulative and daily incidence rate of ARI/10 000 evacuees at each shelter. We found that the crowded shelters had a higher median cumulative incidence rate of ARI [5·4/10 000 person-days, interquartile range (IQR) 0–24·6, P = 0·04] compared to the non-crowded shelters (3·5/10 000 person-days, IQR 0–8·7) using Mann–Whitney U test. Similarly, the crowded shelters had an increased daily incidence rate of ARI of 19·1/10 000 person-days (95% confidence interval 5·9–32·4, P < 0·01) compared to the non-crowded shelters using quasi-least squares method. In sum, shelter crowding was associated with an increased incidence rate of ARI after the natural disaster.
Smallpox is an acute, febrile, contagious disease caused by the Variola virus, which is a member of the Poxviridae family. Until the 1970s, smallpox had been a pandemic disease for more than 3000 years, endemic in tropical and developing areas and periodically epidemic worldwide. The World Health Organization declared smallpox to be completely eradicated in 1980 as the result of global vaccination efforts. At that time, all routine vaccination programs were terminated, given the success of this monumental eradication. Although smallpox remains fully eradicated, uncertainty exists regarding the possibility of recurrent smallpox outbreaks. At the end of the Cold War, concerns regarding unstable international security and the feasibility of terrorism with weapons of mass destruction have been highlighted. The potential threat of intentional release of smallpox has forced regional health authorities to reconsider their political landscape and create preparedness plans to protect the community in the event of biological attacks. Here we present current countermeasures to this biological threat in Japan and discuss methods for strengthening public health preparedness both domestically and internationally. These methods include infection control, vaccination policy, and international partnerships to help deter or contain a contagious smallpox pandemic. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:220-223)
A new circularly polarized planar array antenna using linearly polarized microstrip patches is designed and optimized for X-band wireless communication applications. Four square patch elements with feed network are used to design the circularly polarized array antenna. The feed network consists of microstrip lines on the obverse side of the dielectric substrate and slot line on the reverse side of the substrate. Both-sided MIC technology is successfully employed to apply its inherent advantages in the design process of the array structure. The unequal feed line is used to create 90° phase difference between the linearly polarized patches. Therefore, the circular polarization is realized by the combination of linearly polarized patches and unequal feed line. Characteristics of the proposed array are investigated by using two electromagnetic (EM) simulators: advanced design system and EMPro. The −10 dB impedance bandwidth of the antenna is around 5%. The 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1.48% is obtained. The design of the proposed antenna along with parametric study is presented and discussed.