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The basal ganglia represents a key component of the pathophysiological model for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This brain region is part of several neural circuits, including the orbitofronto-striatal circuit and dorsolateral prefronto-striatal circuit. There are, however, no published studies investigating those circuits at a network level in non-medicated patients with OCD. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 20 non-medicated patients with OCD and 23 matched healthy volunteers. Voxelwise statistical parametric maps testing strength of functional connectivity of three striatal seed regions of interest (ROIs) with remaining brain regions were calculated and compared between groups. We performed additional correlation analyses between strength of connectivity and the severity scores for obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in the OCD group. Positive functional connectivity with the ventral striatum was significantly increased (Pcorrected <.05) in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with OCD. There was no significant correlation between measures of symptom severity and the strength of connectivity (Puncorrected <.001). This is the first study to investigate the corticostriatal connectivity in non-medicated patients with OCD. These findings provide the first direct evidence supporting a pathophysiological model involving basal ganglia circuitry in OCD.
The importance of dietary protein for the maintenance of muscle mass and strength is heavily discussed. However, adequate energy intake is an underlying assumption but often not considered. In this study, we investigated the impact of daily intake and meal distribution of both protein and energy on muscle mass and strength. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 184 older individuals (gender: 86F/98M, age: 70.2 ± 3.9 yrs, BMI: 25.4 ± 3.7 kg/m2; means ± SD) were recruited. Participants underwent a 3-day weighed dietary record, Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan, hand-grip strength, and Maximal Voluntary Isometric knee-extension Contraction (MVIC). Participants were divided into two categories: lower (LOW; < 0.83 g/adjusted(a)BW/day) or higher (HIGH; ≥ 1.1 g/aBW/day) protein intake levels analysed by gender to characterize a daily protein and energy intake pattern. Main meal protein and energy intake distributions were calculated, and correlations were made. Further, energy intake at breakfast and lunch divided by total energy intake (energy ratio) was correlated with appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI), hand-grip strength, and MVIC were determined using the LOW/HIGH-protein-intake categorization. Further, gender-specific ASMI, hand-grip strength and knee extension were compared based on the following four distinct daily protein intake ranges: < 0.66; ≥ 0.66- < 0.83; ≥ 0.83- < 1.1; ≥ 1.1 g/aBW/day. A positive correlation appeared between protein and energy intake in all main meals (r ≥ 0.57, p < 0.0001). In the LOW category, positive correlations were found between energy ratio and ASMI (r = 0.16, p = 0.048), hand-grip strength (r = 0.40, p = 0.0009), and MVIC (r = 0.36, p = 0.0019), whereas no associations were found in the HIGH category. ASMI, hand grip, and MVIC were similar regardless of the protein intake ranges, though with women being lower than men (p < 0.05) in all outcomes. These results show that total daily protein intake did not affect muscle mass and strength in our cohort. However, our data demonstrate that greater energy intake in breakfast and lunch relative to total energy intake is associated with higher muscle mass and strength, particularly when protein intake is lower than 0.83 g/aBW/day, indicating the potential importance of meal energy content at lower intakes of protein.
To investigate whether oral intake of highly branched α-glucan isomaltodextrin (IMD) could stimulate ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, we examined (1) the digestibility of IMD, (2) the digestion and absorption rates of IMD, in rat small intestine and (3) portal GLP-1 concentration in rats given IMD. In Expt 1, ileorectostomised rats were given a 3 % IMD diet for 10 d. Separately, a 16-h in vitro digestion of IMD, using porcine pancreatic α-amylase and brush-border membrane vesicles from rat small intestine, was conducted. In Expt 2, upon 24-h fasting, rats were given any of glucose, IMD and high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) (1 g/kg of body weight). In Expt 3, caecectomised rats were given 0·2 % neomycin sulphate and a 5 % IMD diet for 10 d. The in vivo and in vitro digestibility of IMD was 70–80 %. The fraction of IMD digested in vitro for the first 120 min was 67 % of that in maize starch. The AUC for 0–120 min of plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower in HAMS group and tended to be lower in IMD group than in the glucose group. Finally, we also observed that, when compared with control rats, glucose of IMD significantly stimulated and improved the concentration of portal active GLP-1 in antibiotic-administered, caecectomised rats. We concluded that IMD was slowly digested and the resulting glucose stimulated GLP-1 secretion in rat small intestine. Oral delivery of slowly released IMD glucose to the small intestine probably exerts important, yet unknown, physiological effects on the recipient.
We investigated whether non-digestible saccharide fermentation-derived hydrogen molecules (H2) in rat colon could improve the in vivo reduction–oxidation (redox) balance via regeneration of α-tocopherol, by assessing their effect on hydroxyl radicals, the α-tocopherol concentration and the redox balance. In Expt 1, a Fenton reaction with phenylalanine (0 or 1·37 mmol/l of H2) was conducted. In Expt 2, rats received intraperitoneally maize oil containing phorone (400 mg/kg) 7 d after drinking ad libitum water containing 0 or 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) (groups CP and FP, respectively). In Expt 3, rats unable to synthesise ascorbic acid drank ad libitum for 14 d water with 240 mg ascorbic acid/l (group AC), 20 mg of ascorbic acid/l (group DC) or 20 mg of ascorbic acid/l and 4 % FOS (group DCF). In the Fenton reaction, H2 reduced tyrosine produced from phenylalanine to 72 % when platinum was added and to 92 % when platinum was excluded. In Expt 2, liver glutathione was depleted by administration of phorone to rats. However, compared with CP, no change in the m-tyrosine concentration in the liver of FP was detected. In Expt 3, net H2 excretion was higher in DCF than in the other rats after 3 d of the experiment. Furthermore, the concentrations of H2 and α-tocopherol and the redox glutathione ratio in perirenal adipose tissue of rats were significantly higher in DCF than in DC. To summarise, in rat colon, fermentation-derived H2 further shifted the redox balance towards a more reducing status in perirenal adipose tissue through increased regeneration of α-tocopherol.
To conceptualize a “good end of life” for people with dementia from the perspectives of bereaved family caregivers in Japan.
Design and participants:
A qualitative study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews focused on the family caregivers’ perceptions of their loved one’s experiences. Family caregivers who had lost their relatives with dementia more than six months previously were recruited using maximum variation sampling by cultural subpopulation. A thematic analysis was conducted.
From 30 interviews held, four main themes emerged. A good end of life for people with dementia means experiencing a “Peaceful Death” while “Maintaining Personhood” at a “Preferred Place” allowing for feelings of “Life Satisfaction.” A “Preferred Place” emerged as a basic requirement to achieving a good end of life according to the three other themes, in particular, “Maintaining Personhood.” However, the interviewees experienced difficulties in ensuring that their loved ones stayed at a “Preferred Place.”
Despite different cultural backgrounds, perceptions of a good end of life with dementia were remarkably similar between Japan and Western countries. However, recent societal changes in family structures and long-term care access in Japan may explain the theme of a comfortable place taking a central position. We suggest that these themes be considered and translated into care goals. They could supplement established end-of-life care goals for quality of life in dementia, which aim to maximize functioning and increase comfort.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER
Ethics Committee of the Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University (R0808-2)
Clay-mineral type and content, bulk mineralogical composition and alteration of bentonite are very important factors for the ultra-long-term stabilization of barriers and backfills in radioactive waste disposal. This study investigates the effects of clay-mineral type and content on the swelling characteristics and permeability of bentonite–sand mixtures with clay minerals using one-dimensional swelling-pressure and constant-pressure permeability tests. The hydraulic conductivity of bentonite–sand–clay mineral mixtures increased with increasing content of non-swelling alteration products of montmorillonite. Furthermore, hydraulic conductivity was comparable to that determined with the Kozeny–Carman equation for a specific surface area, suggesting that hydraulic conductivity may be estimated based on the abundance of expected alteration products of montmorillonite. This study provides a basis for evaluation of the hydraulic conductivity of bentonite–sand mixtures with known quantities of expected alteration products of montmorillonite.
Although the disaster reduction effects of forest braking have long been known empirically, they have not been known in detail down to recent. In this study, we ascertained forest braking effect by numerical simulations using the avalanche dynamics program, TITAN2D, to model large-scale avalanches. One of these avalanches occurred in the Makunosawa valley, Myoko, and damaged a cedar forest; the others occurred on Mt. Iwate and damaged a subalpine forest. All avalanches damaged many trees and terminated within the forests. In our simulations, the resistance of the forests to avalanches is simulated using a larger bed friction angle. Fitting the observations from the Makunosawa avalanche by trial and error, a bed friction angle of 13–14° in the non-forested area and of 25° in the forested area is obtained. We conducted simulations of the Mt. Iwate avalanches using the same method as for the Makunosawa valley avalanche, and obtained good agreement between observations and simulations. Simulations reveal that without the forest, the avalanche would have traveled at least 200 m farther than the forest's actual end in the Makunosawa valley, and at least 200 m and possibly up to 600 m farther on Mt. Iwate. This study therefore clearly shows that forests provide a braking effect for avalanches.
This study aimed to investigate how Japanese learners of English as a foreign language, whose first language does not have obligatory morphological number marking, process conceptual plurality. The targeted structure was reciprocal verbs, which require conceptual plurality to interpret their meanings correctly. The results of a sentence completion task confirmed that participants could use reciprocal verbs reciprocally in English. In a self-paced reading experiment, participants read sentences with reciprocal verbs and those with optionally transitive verbs (e.g., while the king and the queen kissed/left the baby read the book in the bed). There was no reading time delay for reciprocal verbs but a delay for optionally transitive verbs. Therefore, the participants succeeded in processing second language conceptual plurality in the online sentence comprehension task.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
“Gas Density Histogram (GDH)” is an observational counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) of the gas density of interstellar medium (ISM). We used 12CO data in (l, b) = (29°, 0) region from “FOREST unbiased galactic imaging survey with Nobeyama 45-m telescope (FUGIN)”, which is a large coverage survey in three CO (1-0) lines. Using the kinetic distance, we estimated the volume density of the voxel from the observed column density. The resultant GDHs of the inter-arm regions show lognormal or lognormal-like, but those in the spiral arm regions show flat-top shape.
To investigate molecular composition of low-metallicity environments, we conducted spectral line survey observations in the 3 mm band toward three dwarf galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the Mopra 22 m, the Nobeyama 45 m and the IRAM 30 m, respectively. The rotational transitions of CCH, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, SO, 13CO, and 12CO were detected in all three galaxies. We found that the spectral intensity patterns are similar to one another regardless of star formation activities. Compared with Solar-metallicity environments, the molecular compositions of dwarf galaxies are characterized by (1) deficient nitrogen-bearing molecules and (2) enhanced CCH and suppressed CH3OH. These are interpreted (1) as a direct consequence of the lower elemental abundance of nitrogen, and (2) as a consequence of extended photon dominated regions in cloud peripheries due to the lower abundance of dust grains, respectively.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Our objective was to examine the accuracy of non-psychiatrist assessments of psychiatric problems in cancer patients.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of cancer patients who were admitted and referred to the consultation–liaison (C–L) team between January of 2011 and December of 2012. The agreement between non-psychiatrist assessments and final diagnoses by attending C–L psychiatrists was estimated for every category of referral assessment using codes from the International Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (10th revision). The data were obtained from the consultation records of 240 cancer inpatients who were referred to the C–L service at a tertiary care center in Tokyo.
The agreement ratio between referring oncologists and psychiatrists differed according to the evaluation categories. The degrees of agreement for the categories of “delirious,” “depressive,” “dyssomnia,” “anxious,” “demented,” “psychotic,” and “other” were 0.87, 0.43, 0.51, 0.50, 0.27, 0.55, and 0.57, respectively. The agreement for all patients was 0.65. Significant differences were observed among seven categories (chi-squared value = 42.454 at p < 0.001 and df = 6). The analysis of means for proportions showed that the degree of agreement for the “delirious” category was significantly higher and that that for the “depressive” category was lower than that for all patients, while for the “demented” category it was close to the lower decision limit but barely significant. One half of the 20 cases who were referred as depressive were diagnosed with delirium, with one quarter of those having continuously impaired consciousness. Some 7 of the 11 cases who were referred as demented were diagnosed as having delirium.
Significance of Results:
The accuracy of non-psychiatrist assessments for psychiatric problems in cancer patients differs by presumed diagnosis. Oncologists should consider unrecognized delirium in cancer inpatients who appear depressed or demented.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
Particle size, particle speed and airflow speed have been measured in the powder snow clouds of avalanches to investigate the suspension and transportation processes of snow particles. The avalanches were artificially triggered at the Lautaret full-scale avalanche test-site (French Alps) where an ultrasonic anemometer and a snow particle counter were setup in an avalanche track for measurements. Relatively large particles were observed during passage of the avalanche head and then the size of the particles slightly decreased as the core of the avalanche passed the measurement station. The particle size distribution was well fitted by a gamma distribution function. A condition for suspension of particles within the cloud based on the ratio of vertical velocity fluctuation to particle settling velocity suggests that the large particles near the avalanche head are not lifted up by turbulent diffusion, but rather ejected by a process involving collisions between the avalanche flow and the rough snow surface. Particle speeds were lower than the airflow speed when large particles were present in the powder cloud.