To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The stiffness of conjugated polymers should lead to chain alignment near buried interfaces, even if the polymer film is nominally amorphous. Although simulations predict that this alignment layer is approximately 1.5 times the persistence length, chain alignment at buried interfaces of amorphous polymers has not been experimentally measured. Using Mueller matrix spectroscopy, the optical response of regiorandom poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) was modeled in order to extract the aligned layer thickness. By approximating the optical properties of the aligned layer as that of regioregular P3HT, the data can be effectively modeled. When the film is thicker than 150 nm, optical properties are best described with a 4-nm aligned layer, which is quantitatively consistent with previous predictions.
Tribolium castaneum is one of the most economically important insects that damages stored products. The effects of several infested or uninfested raw feed materials (wheat bran, coarse wheat meal, corn feed flour), feed products (compound feed for pigs and for laying hens) and flour mixed with brewer's yeast on the food-searching behaviour of T. castaneum adults were studied in a total of 48 combinations. Preference and olfactometer tests revealed that all the tested uninfested and intraspecific infested substrates were significantly more attractive to T. castaneum than the control (represented by part of an arena or olfactometer arm without substrate). We determined that all infested substrates were 2–9 times more attractive than uninfested in the preference test, while in the olfactometer test, they were 3–8 times more attractive. In comparing the attractiveness of the infested and uninfested substrates, in both tests wheat bran was found to be the most attractive substrate to T. castaneum adults and coarse wheat meal the least. The results of the present study contribute to our knowledge of how raw feed materials and products influence the behaviour of T. castaneum and their susceptibility to infestation, and indicate the possible utilization of wheat bran in monitoring processes of T. castaneum in pest management programmes.
Relaxor ferroelectrics have drawn attention for possible applications in solid-state cooling and thermal energy harvesting, owing to their electrothermal energy conversion properties. Here, we have synthesized and characterized the structure–property correlations of a new Sn- and Nb-doped (Ba,Ca)TiO3 relaxor ferroelectric with large pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects over a broad temperature range. We observed two peaks for the temperature-dependent pyroelectric coefficient: (i) -(∂P/∂T) ∼ 563 μC/(m2 K) at T∼ 270 K and (ii) -(∂P/∂T) ∼ 1021 μC/(m2 K) at T∼ 320 K. In addition, a broad peak for electrocaloric temperature change is observed near 320 K with a relative cooling power of ∼17 J/kg. These properties could be correlated to structural changes observed using X-ray diffraction at two different temperature ranges in the material. Analysis of high-energy X-ray scattering and specific heat capacity data revealed a transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase near Tm∼ 320 K, whereas an additional increase in the tetragonality (c/a) of the polar phase is observed below Ts∼ 270 K.
Mechanistic endophenotypes can inform process models of psychopathology and aid interpretation of genetic risk factors. Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provide clues to its development. This study evaluates whether common genetic risk for ADHD is associated with total brain volume (TBV) and hypothesized subcortical structures in children.
Children 7–15 years old were recruited for a case–control study (N = 312, N = 199 ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and motion-corrected MRI measured brain volumes. Polygenic scores were computed based on discovery data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N = 19 099 ADHD, N = 34 194 controls) and the ENIGMA + CHARGE consortium (N = 26 577).
ADHD was associated with smaller TBV, and altered volumes of caudate, cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus after adjustment for TBV; however, effects were larger and statistically reliable only in boys. TBV was associated with an ADHD polygenic score [β = −0.147 (−0.27 to −0.03)], and mediated a small proportion of the effect of polygenic risk on ADHD diagnosis (average ACME = 0.0087, p = 0.012). This finding was stronger in boys (average ACME = 0.019, p = 0.008). In addition, we confirm genetic variation associated with whole brain volume, via an intracranial volume polygenic score.
Common genetic risk for ADHD is not expressed primarily as developmental alterations in subcortical brain volumes, but appears to alter brain development in other ways, as evidenced by TBV differences. This is among the first demonstrations of this effect using molecular genetic data. Potential sex differences in these effects warrant further examination.
According to UK guidelines, stop smoking practitioners are expected to be open and supportive towards e-cigarette users. As adequate support from practitioners can be instrumental for smokers to successfully quit smoking, it is crucial to explore the challenges that stop smoking practitioners face when advising on e-cigarette use.
This qualitative study explores the challenges that stop smoking practitioners face when advising patients on e-cigarettes.
A qualitative study was conducted with semi-structured interviews with 10 stop smoking practitioners from four stop smoking services in London. Face to face interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to explore practitioners' experiences when advising on e-cigarettes.
Two themes were noted: practitioners' concerns and practitioner–patient interactions. Practitioners were particularly concerned regarding the lack of information, safety issues and the maintenance of addiction linked with e-cigarettes. They emphasised the difficulty of advising on a product that they cannot prescribe. Overall, practitioners expressed the lack of confidence when advising on e-cigarettes since they were often unprepared and not able to answer patients' questions on e-cigarettes.
Stop smoking practitioners' lack of confidence and limited knowledge regarding e-cigarettes emphasises the necessity for training and guidance on e-cigarettes to improve their interactions with patients on this subject. In particular, practitioners need to be provided with clear guidance on how to counsel patients about how and where to buy e-cigarettes.
In the setting of disease, religion can play a positive role in a person’s life, helping them manage their perception of an illness, bolstering the ability of the patient and their family to manage the diagnosis, day-to-day functioning and treatment . Individuals who have practised religion earlier in life may show new vigour in their belief after diagnosis of a serious illness, or religion can be discovered for the first time. Increased religiosity can be a means for support and comfort through difficult periods in a person’s life.
The article examines Sparta’s influence on the treatment of luxury and wealth in early-modern republican thought, analyzing three key thinkers: Francesco Guicciardini, Montesquieu and Abbé de Mably. In this view, unnecessary wealth and, particularly, consumption over a certain limited level, is a pernicious extravagance that harms virtue and leads to corruption of the commonwealth that allows it. Both the direct influence of the Spartan example and the correlative Platonic ideal, inspired by the Lacedaemonians, are analyzed; the influence of Plutarch is emphasized. Special attention is given to the distinction between the Platonic account, with the twin dangers of both wealth and poverty, and a simpler, binary opposition of virtuous poverty vs. corrupting wealth. Guicciardini’s and Mably’s views are closely examined; for Montesquieu, the article traces the decisive role Plato plays in Montesquieu’s account of luxury, and analyzes his almost unknown work, Dialogue de Xantippe, showing the importance of Sparta for Montesquieu’s idea of republic.
Part-of-speech (PoS) tagging of non-standard language with models developed for standard language is known to suffer from a significant decrease in accuracy. Two methods are typically used to improve it: word normalisation, which decreases the out-of-vocabulary rate of the PoS tagger, and domain adaptation where the tagger is made aware of the non-standard language variation, either through supervision via non-standard data being added to the tagger’s training set, or via distributional information calculated from raw texts. This paper investigates the two approaches, normalisation and domain adaptation, on carefully constructed data sets encompassing historical and user-generated Slovene texts, in particular focusing on the amount of labour necessary to produce the manually annotated data sets for each approach and comparing the resulting PoS accuracy. We give quantitative as well as qualitative analyses of the tagger performance in various settings, showing that on our data set closed and open class words exhibit significantly different behaviours, and that even small inconsistencies in the PoS tags in the data have an impact on the accuracy. We also show that to improve tagging accuracy, it is best to concentrate on obtaining manually annotated normalisation training data for short annotation campaigns, while manually producing in-domain training sets for PoS tagging is better when a more substantial annotation campaign can be undertaken. Finally, unsupervised adaptation via Brown clustering is similarly useful regardless of the size of the training data available, but improvements tend to be bigger when adaptation is performed via in-domain tagging data.
We analyzed the association of cannabinoid receptor CNR1 genotypes with changes in neurocognitive performance in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) after 18 months of treatment. Our secondary aim was to analyze the association of CNR1 genotypes with changes of perceived levels of stress.
We enrolled a sample of 159 patients with FEP from two Croatian psychiatric hospitals between 2014 and 2017. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 18 months. We analyzed the associations of changes in neurocognitive test results and the perceived levels of stress with CNR1 polymorphic loci (rs7766029 and rs12720071) in 121 patients.
In the analysis adjusted only for baseline neurocognitive test scores, carriers of rs7766029 CC genotype had significantly (with false discovery rate, FDR < 15%) higher improvement in verbal memory (Wechsler, Wechsler 30′) and attention (Digit span F) compared with other participants. In such analysis, rs12720071 carriers of AG genotype had significantly (FDR < 15%) higher improvement in executive functions (Block design), but lower improvement in language functions than AA carriers. In the fully adjusted analysis for age, sex, cannabis use and negative symptoms, only the association of rs7766029 genotypes with the change in the Weschler 30′ score was significant (FDR < 15%). In the analysis adjusted only for the baseline neurocognitive tests’ scores, both rs7766029 and rs12720071 genotypes were significantly associated with the change in perceived levels of stress (FDR < 15%). In the fully adjusted analysis, only the association with rs7766029 genotype remained significant.
The rs7766029 CNR1 variants may moderate changes in neurocognitive performance as well as in perceived levels of stress of patients with FEP over time.
The prisoner population is ageing, and consideration is needed for how to best support those with age-related health conditions in the system. Existing work practices and organizational structures often fail to meet the needs of prisoners with dementia, and prison staff experience high levels of burden because of the increased needs of these prisoners. Little is known about the best method of responding to the needs of this growing subpopulation of prisoners.
A scoping review was conducted to answer the question: what are the perceived best care options for prisoners with dementia? To be included, publications had to be publicly available, reported on research findings, or viewed opinions and commentaries on care practices relevant to older prisoners with dementia. Searches were conducted in 11 databases to identify relevant publications. Data from the included publications were extracted and summarized into themes.
Eight themes were identified that could support better care practices for prisoners with dementia: (1) early and ongoing screening for older prisoners; (2) specialized services; (3) specialized units; (4) programs or activities; (5) adaptations to current contexts; (6) early release or parole for older prisoners with dementia deemed at low risk of reoffending; and (7) training younger prisoners (8) as well as staff to assist older prisoners with dementia. Besides practical strategies improving care practice, costs, prison-specific resources, and staff skills were highlighted as care barriers across all themes. A lack of empirical evidence supported these findings.
One of the implications of the international ageing prison population is the higher number of people living with dementia being incarcerated. Suggestions for best care approaches for prisoners with dementia now need to move from opinion to empirical approaches to guide practice.
Use of virtual reality (VR) is considered beneficial for reviewing 3D models throughout product design. However, research on its usability in the design field is still explorative, and previous studies are often contradictory regarding the usability of VR for 3D model review. This paper argues that the usability of VR should be assessed by analysing human factors such as spatial perception and taking into consideration the complexity of the reviewed product. Hence, a comparative evaluation study has been conducted to assess spatial perception in desktop interface-based and VR-based review of 3D models of products with different levels of complexity. The results show that participants in VR more could perceive the fit of user interface elements, and estimation of the model dimensions had a lower relative error than in desktop interface. It has been found that various sensory cues are used to perceive the model size and that the employed sensory cues depend on the level of complexity. Finally, it is proposed that differences between a desktop interface and VR for reviewing models are more evident when reviewing models of higher complexity levels.
Sketching-related activities are considered as an essential form of communication in the early phases of a design process. In the presented study, it is argued that both the sketching and the sketch-related verbalisations are reflected in the level of elaboration of the sketching outputs. Hence, a protocol study was conducted to analyse the frequencies of different sketching-related activities during team conceptual design sessions and the associated levels of elaboration for each of the sketching outputs in the form of concept drawings. The results show that although teams generate sketches of various number, complexity and clarity, there exist commonalities across the studied experiment sessions. For example, teams share a pattern of developing solutions without transformations or using lateral transformations within the first part of the sessions and using vertical transformations to produce final concepts towards the end of the sessions. Moreover, teams used associated sketch elements to start drawing new sketches and then alternated to other activities, most of all verbal explanation, for the sake of elaboration and better understanding.
During the process of product engineering, decisions with uncertain consequences have to be made about future development (Albers et al., 2017a). Customer, user and vendor requirements that are already known and those who are relevant for the future have to be recognized and transferred into consistent projects. Classical approaches like customer surveys or market analyses are only partially useful for anticipating or validating future product requirements since they rather evaluate todays situation. Methods of foresight are preferably applied to make decisions under circumstances of uncertainty and to generate future knowledge. The following work treats thus a system that enables the user to deduce future requirements based on trend analyses. The system which was first mentioned in Albers et al. and further developed in Marthaler et al. will serve as the basis. (Albers et al., 2018a; Marthaler et al., 2019). The goal is to present and evaluate a system based on the analysis and identification of trends that allows to identify robust requirements for future product generations and to transfer them into concrete development agreements in the form of a development road map.
Many activities in the new product development requires the decision making to find the final solution from multiple alternatives and make an evaluation. Even methods to support decision maker are available, the decision can go to the wrong direction because of heuristics. “Decoy effect” is a heuristic that appears in a comparison when 2 of 3 alternatives are similar but different in quality. The alternative that is similar but better in quality is possibly selected. The paper aims to understand the decoy effect by investigating it in the pairwise comparison that is a powerful technique for comparing alternatives. In an experiment, 3 ideas for the next generation of apple peeler are compared in pairs with different sequences. An impact of the decoy alternative on the comparison between other two alternatives, is investigated. Results show low impact of the decoy effect in the pairwise comparison, but this effect induces a high chance of selecting the decoy alternative when comparing the results from this study and the previous study by proposing 3 alternatives in the same sequence. Applying pairwise comparison to avoid decoy effect is thus an idea that will be further investigated.
This article presents a summary of new evidence for the Mesolithic in the Dinaric Alps of Montenegro. The region is one of the best areas in south-eastern Europe to study Early Holocene foragers and the nature of the transition to Neolithic lifeways at the end of the seventh and the beginning of the sixth millennium cal bc thanks to the existence of biodiverse landscapes and numerous karstic features. We argue that harpoons found at two different sites in this regional context represent a curated technology that has its roots in a local Mesolithic cultural tradition. The continued use of this standardized hunting tool kit in the Neolithic provides an important indication about the character of the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. We also use this regional case study to address wider questions concerning the visibility and modes of Mesolithic occupation in south-eastern Europe as a whole.
Switzerland is among the few countries worldwide where a request for assisted suicide (AS) can be granted on the basis of a primary psychiatric diagnosis. Psychiatrists play an increasingly important role in this regard, especially when the request for AS arises in the context of suffering caused by severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). The objective of the survey was to assess general attitudes among psychiatrists in Switzerland regarding AS requests from patients with SPMI.
In a cross-sectional survey of 1,311 German-speaking psychiatrists in Switzerland, participants were asked about their attitude to AS for patients with SPMI, based on three case vignettes of patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, treatment-refractory depression, or severe persistent schizophrenia.
From a final sample of 457 psychiatrists (a response rate of 34.9%) whose mean age was 57.8 years, 48.6% of respondents did not support access to AS for persons diagnosed with SPMI, 21.2% were neutral, and 29.3% indicated some degree of support for access. In relation to the case vignettes, a slightly higher percentage of respondents supported the patient's wish to seek AS: 35.4% for those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, 32.1% for those diagnosed with depression, and 31.4% for those diagnosed with schizophrenia.
Significance of results
Although a majority of the responding psychiatrists did not support AS for SPMI patients, about one-third would have supported the wishes of patients in the case vignettes. In light of the increasing number of psychiatric patients seeking AS and the continuing liberalization of AS practices, it is important to understand and take account of psychiatrists’ perspectives.
A design and manufacturing method is described for creating a motor tendon–actuated soft foam robot. The method uses a castable, light, and easily compressible open-cell polyurethane foam, producing a structure capable of large (~70% strain) deformations while requiring low torques to operate (<0.2 N·m). The soft robot can change shape, by compressing and folding, allowing for complex locomotion with only two actuators. Achievable motions include forward locomotion at 13 mm/s (4.3% of body length per second), turning at 9◦/s, and end-over-end flipping. Hard components, such as motors, are loosely sutured into cavities after molding. This reduces unwanted stiffening of the soft body. This work is the first demonstration of a soft open-cell foam robot locomoting with motor tendon actuators. The manufacturing method is rapid (~30 min per mold), inexpensive (under $3 per robot for the structural foam), and flexible, and will allow a variety of soft foam robotic devices to be produced.