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The values of the highest Lyapunov exponent (HLE)
for turbulent flow in a plane channel at Reynolds numbers up to
are determined. The instantaneous and statistical properties of the corresponding leading Lyapunov vector (LLV) are investigated. The LLV is calculated by numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations linearized about the non-stationary base solution corresponding to the developed turbulent flow. The base turbulent flow is calculated in parallel with the calculation of the evolution of the perturbations. For arbitrary initial conditions, the regime of exponential growth
which corresponds to the approaching of the perturbation to the LLV is achieved already at
. It is found that the HLE increases with increasing Reynolds number from
. The LLV structures are concentrated mainly in a region of the buffer layer and are manifested in the form of spots of increased fluctuation intensity localized both in time and space. The root-mean-square (r.m.s.) profiles of the velocity and vorticity intensities in the LLV are qualitatively close to the corresponding profiles in the base flow with artificially removed near-wall streaks. The difference is the larger concentration of LLV perturbations in the vicinity of the buffer layer and a relatively larger (by approximately 80 %) amplitude of the vorticity pulsations. Based on the energy spectra of velocity and vorticity pulsations, the integral spatial scales of the LLV structures are determined. It is found that LLV structures are on average twice narrower and twice shorter than the corresponding structures of the base flow. The contribution of each of the terms entering into the expression for the production of the perturbation kinetic energy is determined. It is shown that the process of perturbation development is essentially dictated by the inhomogeneity of the base flow, as well as by the presence of transversal motion in it. Neglecting of these factors leads to a significant underestimation of the perturbation growth rate. The presence of near-wall streaks in the base flow, on the contrary, does not play a significant role in the development of the LLV perturbations. Artificial removal of streaks from the base flow does not change the character of the perturbation growth.
The lines of the transitions between the subordinate levels of the CIII, NIII etc. ions are observed in the spectra of planetary nebulae (PN) (1). Their theoretical intensities may be found by solving the stationarity equations and accounting for both the recombination and cascade radiative transitions. It is possible to calculate the recombination spectra in various approaches: the single- or multi-configuration approximations (SCA and MCA) making use of both the superposition of configurations (SC) or the multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock-Jucys equations (2), taking into consideration the contribution of the dielectronic recombination to the intensities of the recombination lines. The energy spectra, the transition probabilities etc., as a rule ought to be calculated in the intermediate coupling scheme (2). Both analytical or numerical (e.g. Hartree-Fock) wave functions may be adopted.
Several firn/ice cores were recovered from the Siberian Altai (Belukha plateau), central Tien Shan (Inilchek glacier) and the Tibetan Plateau (Zuoqiupu glacier, Bomi) from 1998 to 2003. The comparison analyses of stable-isotope/geochemistry records obtained from these firn/ice cores identified the physical links controlling the climate-related signals at the seasonal-scale variability. The core data related to physical stratigraphy, meteorology and synoptic atmospheric dynamics were the basis for calibration, validation and clustering of the relationships between the firn-/ice-core isotope/ geochemistry and snow accumulation, air temperature and precipitation origin. The mean annual accumulation (in water equivalent) was 106 gcm−2 a−1 at Inilchek glacier, 69 gcm−2 a−1 at Belukha and 196 g cm−2 a−1 at Zuoqiupu. The slopes in regression lines between the δ18O ice-core records and air temperature were found to be positive for the Tien Shan and Altai glaciers and negative for southeastern Tibet, where heavy amounts of isotopically depleted precipitation occur during summer monsoons. The technique of coupling synoptic climatology and meteorological data with δ18O and d-excess in firn-core records was developed to determine climate-related signals and to identify the origin of moisture. In Altai, two-thirds of accumulation from 1984 to 2001 was formed from oceanic precipitation, and the rest of the precipitation was recycled over Aral–Caspian sources. In the Tien Shan, 87% of snow accumulation forms by precipitation originating from the Aral–Caspian closed basin, the eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas, and 13% from the North Atlantic.
Snow algae are cold-tolerant algae growing on snow and ice and have been reported on glaciers in many parts of the world. Blooms of snow algae can reduce the surface albedo of snow and ice and significantly affect their melting. In addition, snow algae found in ice cores can be potential indicators of the paleo-environment, making them of great interest both to the biology and the geophysics of glaciers. A snow algal community was investigated in 2002 and 2003 on Akkem glacier in the Russian Altai mountains, where no information on its biological community has previously been available. Five species of snow algae including green algae and cyanobacteria were observed on the glacier. Red snow due to a bloom of algae (Chloromonas sp.) was visually apparent in the snow area during our study periods. The total algal cell-volume biomass on the glacier ranged from 97 to 1156μL m−2, which is equivalent to that reported previously on glaciers in the Himalaya and Alaska. The community structure showed that Mesotaenium berggrenii and/or Ancylonema nordenskioeldii, which are common species on glaciers in the Northern Hemisphere, were dominant in the ice area, while Chloromonas sp. was dominant in the snow area. Such community structures are similar to those on Alaskan and Arctic glaciers but differ from those on Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers, even though the Altai mountains are geographically closer to the Himalaya and Tibet than to Alaska. The difference in algal communities between the Altaic and other glaciers is discussed together with physical and chemical conditions affecting the algae.
In the summers of 2001 and 2002, glacio-climatological research was performed at 4110–4120 m a.s.l. on the Belukha snow/firn plateau, Siberian Altai. Hundreds of samples from snow pits and a 21 m snow/firn core were collected to establish the annual/seasonal/monthly depth–accumulation scale, based on stable-isotope records, stratigraphic analyses and meteorological and synoptic data. The fluctuations of water stable-isotope records show well-preserved seasonal variations. The δ18O and δD relationships in precipitation, snow pits and the snow/firn core have the same slope to the covariance as that of the global meteoric water line. The origins of precipitation nourishing the Belukha plateau were determined based on clustering analysis of δ18O and d-excess records and examination of synoptic atmospheric patterns. Calibration and validation of the developed clusters occurred at event and monthly timescales with about 15% uncertainty. Two distinct moisture sources were shown: oceanic sources with d-excess <12‰, and the Aral–Caspian closed drainage basin sources with d-excess >12‰. Two-thirds of the annual accumulation was from oceanic precipitation, of which more than half had isotopic ratios corresponding to moisture evaporated over the Atlantic Ocean. Precipitation from the Arctic/Pacific Ocean had the lowest deuterium excess, contributing one-tenth to annual accumulation.
Advanced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels and oxide dispersion-strengthened steels exhibit significant radiation embrittlement under low temperature neutron irradiation. In this study we focused on atom probe tomography (APT) of Eurofer97 and ODS Eurofer steels irradiated with neutrons and heavy ions at low temperatures. Previous TEM studies revealed dislocation loops in the neutron-irradiated f\m steels. At the same time, our APT showed early stages of solid solution decomposition. High density (1024 m–3) of ∼3–5 nm clusters enriched in chromium, manganese, and silicon atoms were found in Eurofer 97 irradiated in BOR-60 reactor to 32 dpa at 332°C. In this steel irradiated with Fe ions up to the dose of 24 dpa, pair correlation functions calculated using APT data showed the presence of Cr-enriched pre-phases.
APT study of ODS Eurofer found a significant change in the nanocluster composition after neutron irradiation to 32 dpa at 330 °C and an increase in cluster number density. APT of ODS steels irradiated with Fe ions at low temperatures revealed similar changes in nanoclusters.
These results suggest that irradiation-induced nucleation and evolution of very small precipitates may be the origin of low temperature radiation embrittlement of f\m steels.
The abundances of C, N and O in planetary nebulae must correspond to the evolutionary status of their progenitor red giant stars. The best spectral features for abundance determination of these elements are the recombination lines, which depend weakly on the variations of Te and ne. The abundance ratio of the ions A+ and H+ can be given by [1–3].
A multiple parameter dating technique was used to establish a depth/age scale for a 171.3 m (145.87 m w.e.) surface to bedrock ice core (Bl2003) recovered from the cold recrystallization accumulation zone of the Western Belukha Plateau (4115 m a.s.l.) in the Siberian Altai Mountains. The ice-core record presented visible layering of annual accumulation and of δ18O/δD stable isotopes, and a clear tritium reference horizon. A steady-state glacier flow model for layer thinning was calibrated and applied to establish a depth/age scale. Four radiocarbon (14C) measurements of particulate organic carbon contained in ice-core samples revealed dates for the bottom part of Bl2003 from 9075 ± 1221 cal a BC at 145.2 ± 0.1 m w.e. (0.665 m w.e. from the bedrock) to 790 ± 93 AD at 121.1 m w.e. depth. Sulfate peaks coincident with volcanic eruptions, the Tunguska meteorite event, and the 1842 dust storm were used to verify dating. Analysis of the Bl2003 ice core reveals that the modern Altai glaciers were formed during the Younger Dryas (YD) (~10 950 to ~7500 cal a BC), and that they survived the Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) (~6500 to ~3600 cal a BC) and the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) (~640 to ~1100 AD). A decrease in air temperature at the beginning and an abrupt increase at the end of the YD were identified. Intensification of winds and dust loading related to Asian desert expansion also characterized the YD. During the YD major ion concentrations increased significantly, up to 50 times for Na+ (background), up to 45 times for Ca2+ and Mg2+, and up to 20 times for SO42− relative to the recent warm period from 1993 to 2003. A warm period lasted for about three centuries following the YD signaling onset of the HCO. A significant and prolonged decrease in air temperature from ~2000 to ~600 cal a BC was associated with a severe centennial drought (SCD). A sharp increase in air temperatures after the SCD was coincident with the MWP. After the MWP a cooling was followed gradually with further onset of the Little Ice Age. During the modern warm period (1973–2003) an increase in air temperature is noted, which nearly reaches the average of HCO and MWP air temperature values.
Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was first applied to biologically active nanocomplexes to obtain concurrent information on their size, state of aggregation, concentration, and antigenic specificity in liquid. The subject of the NTA was an immunogenic complex (a candidate nanovaccine) comprised of spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermal remodeling of the tobacco mosaic virus and Rubella virus tetraepitopes exposed on the surface of SP.
Observations carried out in the frame of the ISTC project 3547  were used to parametrize and validate the model of radionuclides transport from Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) by the Tom and Ob rivers and also to assess discharges of radioactive substances from SCC to the Tom River and to estimate possible contamination of the rivers in case of accidents.
The four-dimensional (4D) incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are solved numerically for the plane channel geometry. The fourth spatial coordinate is introduced formally to be homogeneous and mathematically orthogonal to the others, similar to the spanwise coordinate. Exponential growth of small 4D perturbations superimposed onto 3D turbulent solutions was observed in the Reynolds number range from Re = 4000 to Re = 10000. The growth rate of small 4D perturbations expressed in wall units was found to be λ+4D = 0.016 independent of Reynolds number. Nonlinear evolution of 4D perturbations leads either to attenuation of turbulence and relaminarization or to establishment of a self-sustained 4D turbulent solution (4D turbulent flow). Both results on flow evolution were obtained at the lowest Reynolds number, depending on the grid resolution, pointing to the proximity of Re = 4000 as the critical Reynolds number for 4D turbulence. Self-sustained 4D turbulence appeared to be less intense compared with 3D turbulence in terms of mean wall friction, which is about 55% of that predicted by the empirical Dean law for turbulent channel flow at all Reynolds numbers considered. Thus, the law of resistance of 4D turbulent channel flow can be expressed as Cf = 0.04Re−0.25.
A series of crystalline isomorphic solid solutions of Yttrium-Lutetium Aluminum Garnets (Y1−cLuc)3Al5O12 (c = 0 – 1) has been studied. The measurements of dielectric loss (DL) tangent tgδ has been performed at electromagnetic wavelengths 1 – 0.6 mm and temperature T = 300 K. The results obtained has been compared with longitudinal acoustic waves (AW) attenuation data for frequencies f = 1 – 9.4 GHz, T = 4.2 – 300 K and with theory. The correlation between the DL and the AW attenuation is observed. The dependencies of DL (at T = 300 K) and AW attenuation (at T > 77 K) on concentration c are qualitatively identical in the whole interval c = 0 – 1. From comparison with theory it follows that the observed DL is due to the two-phonon intrinsic lattice loss. It is caused by the lattice anharmonicity as well as the AW attenuation at not too low temperatures. Also the prediction for concentration dependence of DL at very low temperatures is discussed that follows from comparison with the results of “heat pulse” propagation experiments for the same samples at T = 2 K and theory.
Coherently strained CdSe quantum structures are fabricated under varying dynamical growth conditions during the epitaxy of cubic CdSe on (100) ZnSe. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is employed to monitor the growth mode (2D vs. 3D). Conventional photoluminescence (PL) shows that both growth modes yield quantum structures with high PL efficiencies in which excitons are strongly localized by interface fluctuations at varying length scales. Spatially-resolved, near-field PL from quantum structures formed during 3D growth reveals reproducible fine structure in the PL spectrum attributed to emission from excitons laterally confined to quantum dot-like regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies suggest that these observations result from a combination of island growth and strain-driven interdiffusion.
A detailed statistical analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer in eccentric annular duct was performed via direct numerical simulations (DNS) with particular emphasis on the needs of turbulence closure models. A large number of flow characteristics such as components of the Reynolds stress tensor, temperature–velocity correlations and some others were obtained for the first time for such kind of a flow. The results of the paper will serve as a benchmark test case for turbulence modelling, specifically for models intended to be used for flows with partly turbulent regimes.