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Drawing from the study of human reasoning, Argumentation describes different types of arguments and explains how they influence beliefs and behaviour. Raymond Nickerson identifies many of the fallacies, biases, and other flaws often found in arguments as well as 'stratagems' (schemes, illogical and alogical tactics) that people regularly use to persuade others. Much attention is given to the evaluation of arguments. Readers will learn a new schematic for evaluating arguments based on cognitive science. As a source for understanding and evaluating arguments in decision-making, it is ideal for courses on cognition, reasoning, and psychology.
The purpose of the present study was: (1) to develop a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived body volume (BV) equation with the GE-Lunar prodigy while utilising underwater weighing (UWW) as a criterion and (2) to cross-validate the novel DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXANickerson), Wilson DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXAWilson) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP)-derived BV (4C-ADP) in Hispanic adults. A total of 191 Hispanic adults (18–45 years) participated in the present study. The development sample consisted of 120 females and males (50 % females), whereas the cross-validation sample comprised of forty-one females and thirty males (n 71). Criterion body fat percentage (BF %) and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined using a four-compartment (4C) model with UWW as a criterion for BV (4C-UWW). 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP were compared against 4C-UWW in the cross-validation sample. 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP all produced similar validity statistics when compared with 4C-UWW in Hispanic males (all P > 0·05). 4C-DXANickerson also yielded similar BF % and FFM values as 4C-UWW when evaluating the mean differences (constant error (CE)) in Hispanic females (CE = –0·79 % and 0·38 kg; P = 0·060 and 0·174, respectively). However, 4C-DXAWilson produced significantly different BF % and FFM values (CE = 3·22 % and –2·20 kg, respectively; both P < 0·001). Additionally, 4C-DXAWilson yielded significant proportional bias when estimating BF % (P < 0·001), whereas 4C-ADP produced significant proportional bias for BF % and FFM (both P < 0·05) when evaluated in Hispanic females. The present study findings demonstrate that 4C-DXANickerson is a valid measure of BV in Hispanics and is recommended for use in clinics, where DXA is the main body composition assessment technique.
This chapter discusses the possibility of increasing intelligence by instruction. It considers the question of whether increasing intelligence should be a goal of education, assuming that intelligence can be taught. It then considers the question of whether intelligence can be taught. It reviews several organized attempts to teach intelligence, and proposes a perspective for viewing such attempts, given the mixed results they have produced.
Despite the frequency that refugees suffer bereavement, there is a dearth of research into the prevalence and predictors of problematic grief reactions in refugees. To address this gap, this study reports a nationally representative population-based study of refugees to determine the prevalence of probable prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its associated problems.
This study recruited participants from the Building a New Life in Australia (BNLA) prospective cohort study of refugees admitted to Australia between October 2013 and February 2014. The current data were collected in 2015–2016, and comprised 1767 adults, as well as 411 children of the adult respondents. Adult refugees were assessed for trauma history, post-migration difficulties, probable PGD, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mental illness. Children were administered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
In this cohort, 38.1% of refugees reported bereavement, of whom 15.8% reported probable PGD; this represents 6.0% of the entire cohort. Probable PGD was associated with a greater likelihood of mental illness, probable PTSD, severe mental illness, currently unemployed and reported disability. Children of refugees with probable PGD reported more psychological difficulties than those whose parents did not have probable PGD. Probable PGD was also associated with the history of imprisonment, torture and separation from family. Only 56.3% of refugees with probable PGD had received psychological assistance.
Bereavement and probable PGD appear highly prevalent in refugees, and PGD seems to be associated with disability in the refugees and psychological problems in their children. The low rate of access to mental health assistance for these refugees highlights that there is a need to address this issue in refugee populations.
Refugees report elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but are relatively unlikely to seek help for their symptoms. Mental health stigma is a key barrier to help-seeking amongst refugees. We evaluated the efficacy of an online intervention in reducing self-stigma and increasing help-seeking in refugee men.
Participants were 103 refugee men with PTSD symptoms from Arabic, Farsi or Tamil-speaking backgrounds who were randomly assigned to either receive an 11-module online stigma reduction intervention specifically designed for refugees (‘Tell Your Story’, TYS) or to a wait-list control (WLC) group. Participants completed online assessments of self-stigma for PTSD and help-seeking, and help-seeking intentions and behaviors at baseline, post-intervention, and at a 1 month follow-up.
Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, compared to the WLC, TYS resulted in significantly smaller increases in self-stigma for seeking help from post-treatment to follow-up (d = 0.42, p = 0.008). Further, participants in the TYS conditions showed greater help-seeking behavior from new sources at follow-up (B = 0.69, 95% CI 0.19–1.18, p = 0.007) than those in the WLC. The WLC showed significantly greater increases in help-seeking intentions from post-intervention to follow-up (d = 0.27, p = 0.027), relative to the TYS group.
This is the first investigation of a mental health stigma reduction program specifically designed for refugees. Findings suggest that evidence-based stigma reduction strategies are beneficial in targeting self-stigma related to help-seeking and increasing help-seeking amongst refugees. These results indicate that online interventions focusing on social contact may be a promising avenue for removing barriers to accessing help for mental health symptoms in traumatized refugees.
We estimate Moody’s preference for accurate versus biased ratings using hand-collected data on the internal labor market outcomes of its analysts. We find that accurate analysts are more likely to be promoted and less likely to depart. The opposite is true for analysts who downgrade more frequently, who assign ratings below those predicted by a ratings model, and whose downgrades are associated with large negative market reactions. Downgraded firms are also more likely to be assigned a new analyst. These patterns are consistent with Moody’s balancing its desire for accuracy against its corporate clients’ desire for higher ratings.
This study investigated the longitudinal associations among prenatal substance use, socioeconomic adversity, parenting (maternal warmth, sensitivity, and harshness), children's self-regulation (internalization of rules and conscience), and conduct problems from infancy to middle childhood (Grade 2). Three competing conceptual models including cascade (indirect or mediated), additive (cumulative), and transactional (bidirectional) effects were tested and compared. The sample consisted of 216 low-income families (primary caretaker and children; 51% girls; 74% African American). Using a repeated-measures, multimethod, multi-informant design, a series of full panel models were specified. Findings primarily supported a developmental cascade model, and there was some support for additive effects. More specifically, maternal prenatal substance use and socioeconomic adversity in infancy were prospectively associated with lower levels of maternal sensitivity. Subsequently, lower maternal sensitivity was associated with decreases in children's conscience in early childhood, and in turn, lower conscience predicted increases in teacher-reported conduct problems in middle childhood. There was also a second pathway from sustained maternal depression (in infancy and toddlerhood) to early childhood conduct problems. These findings demonstrated how processes of risk and resilience collectively contributed to children's early onset conduct problems.
The mental health and social functioning of millions of forcibly displaced individuals worldwide represents a key public health priority for host governments. This is the first longitudinal study with a representative sample to examine the impact of interpersonal trust and psychological symptoms on community engagement in refugees.
Participants were 1894 resettled refugees, assessed within 6 months of receiving a permanent visa in Australia, and again 2–3 years later. Variables measured included post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression/anxiety symptoms, interpersonal trust and engagement with refugees’ own and other communities.
A multilevel path analysis was conducted, with the final model evidencing good fit (Comparative Fit Index = 0.97, Tucker–Lewis Index = 0.89, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.05, Standardized Root-Mean-Square-Residual = 0.05). Findings revealed that high levels of depression symptoms were associated with lower subsequent engagement with refugees’ own communities. In contrast, low levels of interpersonal trust were associated with lower engagement with the host community over the same timeframe.
Findings point to differential pathways to social engagement in the medium-term post-resettlement. Results indicate that depression symptoms are linked to reduced engagement with one's own community, while interpersonal trust is implicated in engagement with the broader community in the host country. These findings have potentially important implications for policy and clinical practice, suggesting that clinical and support services should target psychological symptoms and interpersonal processes when fostering positive adaptation in resettled refugees.
Although emergency service personnel experience markedly elevated the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are no rigorously conducted trials for PTSD in this population. This study assessed the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for PTSD in emergency service personnel, and examined if brief exposure (CBT-B) to trauma memories is no less efficacious as prolonged exposure (CBT-L).
One hundred emergency service personnel with PTSD were randomised to either immediate CBT-L, CBT-B or wait-list (WL). Following post-treatment assessment, WL participants were randomised to an active treatment. Participants randomised to CBT-L or CBT-B were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Both CBT conditions involved 12 weekly individual sessions comprising education, CBT skills building, imaginal exposure, in vivo exposure, cognitive restructuring and relapse prevention. Imaginal exposure occurred for 40 min per session in CBT-L and for 10 min in CBT-B.
At post-treatment, participants in WL had smaller reductions in PTSD severity (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale), depression, maladaptive appraisals about oneself and the world, and smaller improvements on psychological and social quality of life than CBT-L and CBT-B. There were no differences between CBT-L and CBT-B at follow-up on primary or secondary outcome measures but both CBT-L and CBT-B had large baseline to follow-up effect sizes for reduction of PTSD symptoms.
This study highlights that CBT, which can include either long or brief imaginal exposure, is efficacious in reducing PTSD in emergency service personnel.
We have previously shown that the minor alleles of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2758331 are both associated with improved transplant-free survival after surgery for CHD in infants, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesised that one or both of these minor alleles are associated with better systemic ventricular function, resulting in improved survival.
This study is a follow-up analysis of 422 non-syndromic CHD patients who underwent neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Echocardiographic reports were reviewed. Systemic ventricular function was subjectively categorised as normal, or as mildly, moderately, or severely depressed. The change in function was calculated as the change from the preoperative study to the last available study. Stepwise linear regression, adjusting for covariates, was performed for the outcome of change in ventricular function. Model comparison was performed using Akaike’s information criterion. Only variables that improved the model prediction of change in systemic ventricular function were retained in the final model.
Genetic and echocardiographic data were available for 335/422 subjects (79%). Of them, 33 (9.9%) developed worse systemic ventricular function during a mean follow-up period of 13.5 years. After covariate adjustment, the presence of the VEGFA minor allele was associated with preserved ventricular function (p=0.011).
These data support the hypothesis that the mechanism by which the VEGFA single-nucleotide polymorphism rs833069 minor allele improves survival may be the preservation of ventricular function. Further studies are needed to validate this genotype–phenotype association and to determine whether this mechanism is related to increased vascular endothelial growth factor production.
Prolonged separation from parental support is a risk factor for psychopathology. This study assessed the impact of brief separation from parents during childhood trauma on adult attachment tendencies and post-traumatic stress.
Children (n = 806) exposed to a major Australian bushfire disaster in 1983 and matched controls (n = 725) were assessed in the aftermath of the fires (mean age 7–8 years) via parent reports of trauma exposure and separation from parents during the fires. Participants (n = 500) were subsequently assessed 28 years after initial assessment on the Experiences in Close Relationships scale to assess attachment security, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was assessed using the PTSD checklist.
Being separated from parents was significantly related to having an avoidant attachment style as an adult (B = −3.69, s.e. = 1.48, β = −0.23, p = 0.013). Avoidant attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.31, p = 0.045), avoidance (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p = 0.001) and numbing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.30, p < 0.001) symptoms. Anxious attachment was associated with re-experiencing (B = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.18, p = 0.001), numbing (B = 0.03, β = 0.30, s.e. = 0.01, p < 0.001) and arousal (B = 0.04, s.e. = 0.01, β = 0.43, p < 0.001) symptoms.
These findings demonstrate that brief separation from attachments during childhood trauma can have long-lasting effects on one's attachment security, and that this can be associated with adult post-traumatic psychopathology.
The majority of survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
To synthesise empirical findings for psychological interventions for children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs affected by mass violence.
Randomised controlled trials with children and adolescents with symptoms of PTSD and/or depression in LMICs were identified. Overall, 21812 records were found through July 2016 in the Medline, PsycINFO and PILOTS databases; 21 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed according to recommended guidelines.
Twenty-one studies were included. Active treatments for PTSD yielded large pre-treatment to post-treatment changes (g = 1.15) and a medium controlled effect size (g = 0.57). Effect sizes were similar at follow-up. Active treatments for depression produced small to medium effect sizes. Finally, after adjustment for publication bias, the imputed uncontrolled and controlled effect sizes for PTSD were medium and small respectively.
Psychological interventions may be effective in treating paediatric PTSD in LMICs. It appears that more targeted approaches are needed for depressive responses.
College students are young, have little or no history of voting, and are residentially mobile, which makes them a population in great need of registering to vote. Universities have a civic, pedagogical, and legal obligation to register their students to vote. In 2006, we conducted a controlled experiment across 16 college campuses to test the efficacy of classroom presentations to increase voter registration. The 25,256 students across more than 1,026 classrooms were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a control group receiving no presentation; (2) a presentation by a professor; and (3) a presentation by a student volunteer. Verifying registration and voter turnout from a national voter database, we found that both types of presentations increased overall registration by 6 percentage points and turnout rates by approximately 2.6 percentage points. These results demonstrated that universities can take simple steps to engage their students in politics.
Although perceived social support is thought to be a strong predictor of psychological outcomes following trauma exposure, the temporal relationship between perceived positive and negative social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been empirically established. This study investigated the temporal sequencing of perceived positive social support, perceived negative social support, and PTSD symptoms in the 6 years following trauma exposure among survivors of traumatic injury.
Participants were 1132 trauma survivors initially assessed upon admission to one of four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Australia after experiencing a traumatic injury. Participants were followed up at 3 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 6 years after the traumatic event.
Latent difference score analyses revealed that greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent increases in perceived negative social support at each time-point. Greater severity of PTSD symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in perceived positive social support between 3 and 12 months. High levels of perceived positive or negative social support did not predict subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms at any time-point.
Results highlight the impact of PTSD symptoms on subsequent perceived social support, regardless of the type of support provided. The finding that perceived social support does not influence subsequent PTSD symptoms is novel, and indicates that the relationship between PTSD and perceived social support may be unidirectional.
Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) surveyed in post-conflict Timor-Leste.
The survey sites included an urban administrative area (suco) in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste and a rural village located an hour's drive away. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess conflict related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, persisting preoccupations with injustice, symptoms of grief, psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and PTSD symptoms.
We tested a series of structural equation models, the final comprehensive model, which included indices of grief symptoms and injustice, producing a good fit. Locating grief symptoms as the endpoint of the model produced a non-converging model. In the final model, strong associations were evident between grief and injustice (β = 0.34, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01) and grief and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01). The sense of injustice exerted a considerable effect on PTSD symptoms (β = 0.13, s.e. = 0.03, p < 0.01). In addition, multiple indirect paths were evident, most involving grief and a sense of injustice, attesting to the complex inter-relationship of these factors in contributing to PTSD symptoms.
Our findings support an expanded model of PTSD symptoms relevant to post-conflict populations, in which grief symptoms and a sense of injustice play pivotal roles. The model supports the importance of a focus on loss, grief and a sense of injustice in conducting trauma-focused psychotherapies for PTSD amongst populations exposed to mass conflict and violence. Further research is needed to identify the precise mechanisms whereby grief symptoms and the sense of injustice impact on PTSD symptoms.
This study reports data from teachers in regular classrooms about their experiences of inclusion for 143 young children with disabilities. Children were recruited from early intervention programs and their experiences were tracked across 3 years, from a Preparatory year to Year 2 of school. Children's teachers rated the appropriateness of the child's placement in their classroom as high to very high. However, most teachers rated the resources and supports available to support inclusion as only adequate. Teachers perceived a range of benefits for the child, peers, and themselves from inclusion but also identified significant challenges, including time pressures and increased responsibilities, as well as various behavioural and developmental concerns that had an impact on all children's learning. Challenges identified deserve continued attention for successful inclusive practice.
In order to encouragee broad participation in deliberative forums, it is important to understand how people from politically less powerful groups perceive the deliberative experience and how discussion group composition affects their experiences. Using data from 27 deliberative polls from 2004, we examine how four individual characteristics (sex, age, race, and education) and randomly assigned small group composition predict participants’ attitudes about the deliberative experience. We find evidence that women, young people, non-whites, and those without college degree generally evaluate the experience positively, but find no evidence for the argument that including more people from these groups would lead to more positive deliberation experience for participants from the groups. That is, there is no interaction between minority status and group composition in predicting participants’ evaluation of the deliberation process.
The impact of globalisation in the last 20 years has led to an overwhelming increase in the use of English as the medium through which many business people get their work done. As a result, the linguistic landscape within which we now operate as researchers and teachers has changed both rapidly and beyond all recognition. In the discussion below, I will outline a research agenda for English as a lingua franca (ELF) in business communication of relevance for scholars and practitioners with an interest in teaching language. I will discuss three main areas of enquiry, which are: (1) the further development of the existing theory concerning the use of English in business and how this impacts language teaching, including the role played by native speakers of English, (2) the influence of culture and context on the production and interpretation of English in business contexts, and (3) the extension of our existing understanding of the use of English in business contexts in order to take increasingly advanced levels of proficiency into account, as well as developing an understanding of what constitutes professional communicative competence in business. For each of these key areas I will suggest a number of tasks which could help to give substance to our research in the future.
Traumatic injuries affect millions of patients each year, and resulting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) significantly contributes to subsequent impairment.
To map the distinctive long-term trajectories of PTSD responses over 6 years by using latent growth mixture modelling.
Randomly selected injury patients (n = 1084) admitted to four hospitals around Australia were assessed in hospital, and at 3, 12, 24 and 72 months. Lifetime psychiatric history and current PTSD severity and functioning were assessed.
Five trajectories of PTSD response were noted across the 6 years: (a) chronic (4%), (b) recovery (6%), (c) worsening/recovery (8%), (d) worsening (10%) and (e) resilient (73%). A poorer trajectory was predicted by female gender, recent life stressors, presence of mild traumatic brain injury and admission to intensive care unit.
These findings demonstrate the long-term PTSD effects that can occur following traumatic injury. The different trajectories highlight that monitoring a subset of patients over time is probably a more accurate means of identifying PTSD rather than relying on factors that can be assessed during hospital admission.
The latent structure of the proposed ICD-11 post-traumatic stress
disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not been explored.
To investigate the latent structure of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD
Confirmatory factor analyses using data from structured clinical
interviews administered to injury patients (n = 613) 6
years post-trauma. Measures of disability and psychological quality of
life (QoL) were also administered.
Although the three-factor model implied by the ICD-11 diagnostic criteria
fit the data well, a two-factor model provided equivalent, if not
superior, fit. Whereas diagnostic criteria based on this two-factor model
resulted in an increase in PTSD point prevalence (5.1%
v. 3.4%; z = 2.32,
P<0.05), they identified individuals with similar
levels of disability (P = 0.933) and QoL
(P = 0.591) to those identified by the ICD-11
Consistent with theorised reciprocal relationships between
re-experiencing and avoidance in PTSD, these findings support an
alternative diagnostic algorithm requiring at least two of any of the
four re-experiencing/avoidance symptoms and at least one of the two