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Using the panel data of 89 economies from 1995–2012, this study examines the major drivers of agricultural emissions while considering affluence, energy intensity, agriculture value added and economic integration. We find long-run cointegration among the variables. Furthermore, our empirical results based on a dynamic fixed effects autoregressive distributed lag model show that the increases in income and economic integration – proxied by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) – are the major contributors to higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture in the short run. Additionally, the increases in income, agriculture value added and energy consumption are the major drivers of agricultural emissions in the long run. Notably, trade openness and FDI inflows have significantly negative effects on GHG emissions from agriculture in the long run. These results apply to methane and nitrous oxide emissions. The empirical findings vary across three subsamples of countries at different development stages.
This paper addresses the issue of monitoring spatial environmental phenomena of interest utilizing information collected by a network of mobile, wireless, and noisy sensors that can take discrete measurements as they navigate through the environment. It is proposed to employ Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) represented on an irregular discrete lattice by using the stochastic partial differential equations method to model the physical spatial field. It then derives a GMRF-based approach to effectively predict the field at unmeasured locations, given available observations, in both centralized and distributed manners. Furthermore, a novel but efficient optimality criterion is then proposed to design centralized and distributed adaptive sampling strategies for the mobile robotic sensors to find the most informative sampling paths in taking future measurements. By taking advantage of conditional independence property in the GMRF, the adaptive sampling optimization problem is proven to be resolved in a deterministic time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is compared and demonstrated using pre-published data sets with appealing results.
To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.
Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.
All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.
The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61–0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.
MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
This paper considers the diapycnal transport of passive tracers during a Kelvin–Helmholtz mixing event. Numerical simulations of a traditional Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) configuration of a stratified shear flow are extended to include layers of passive tracer at different locations relative to the shear layer. The evolution of the tracers during the simulation is followed and is analysed using different theoretical approaches. One is to consider the evolution via the distribution in density–tracer space which clearly reveals how the tracers are redistributed across isopycnals by the mixing driven by the growing and saturating KH billow. The shape of the distribution places constraints on the redistribution of the tracer and, for this problem of symmetrically stratified shear, it is shown that the distribution typically tends to a compact form, with significant regions that are nearly linear. The redistribution across isopycnals is also considered via a diffusion equation for the tracer relative to coordinates based on the geometry of density surfaces. The equation is a generalisation of an equation previously derived for transport of density in these coordinates and includes an extra eddy term that arises because there is variation of the tracer along density surfaces. Under certain circumstances and at later stages of the flow, the eddy term can be neglected, and the evolution of the mean tracer profile can be adequately represented using a simple diffusion equation where diffusivity is defined as the effective diffusivity of density, scaled by the molecular diffusion of the tracer.
To characterize the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline variants in women from south-west Poland and west Ukraine affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in these regions is currently mainly limited to founder mutations.
Unrelated women affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer from Poland (n = 337) and Ukraine (n = 123) were screened by targeted sequencing. Excluded from targeted sequencing were 34 Polish women who had previously been identified as carrying a founder mutation in BRCA1. No prior testing had been conducted among the Ukrainian women. Thus, this study screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the germline DNA of 426 women in total.
We identified 31 and 18 women as carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. We observed five BRCA1 and eight BRCA2 P/LP variants (13/337, 3.9%) in the Polish women. Combined with the 34/337 (10.1%) founder variants identified prior to this study, the overall P/LP variant frequency in the Polish women was thus 14% (47/337). Among the Ukrainian women, 16/123 (13%) women were identified as carrying a founder mutation and 20/123 (16.3%) were found to carry non-founder P/LP variants (10 in BRCA1 and 10 in BRCA2).
These results indicate that genetic testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Poland and Ukraine should not be limited to founder mutations. Extended testing will enhance risk stratification and management for these women and their families.
This paper reports on laboratory and field experimental results for controlled robotic manipulators operating on moving platforms with unmodeled dynamics. The aim is to validate theoretical predictions for the dependence on control parameters of an adaptive control strategy. In addition, the results provide insight into different discretizations of the continuous-time formulation, suggesting the most suitable discretization scheme for hardware implementation. The second set of experimental results, obtained from an implementation of the control framework for synchronization and consensus in networks of robotic manipulators, similarly validate theoretical predictions on the sensitivity to network communication delays.
A classic comedy cliché is a man slipping on a banana peel, with audiences laughing as he struggles and falls again. From Shakespeare to the Three Stooges to modern sitcoms, slapstick comedy has had such a prominent place in entertainment that scholars have scratched their heads to understand why and how we seemingly enjoy the pain of others. Some propose that laughter is a way to release pent-up tension, while others suggest that laughter is a response to the incongruity inherent in comedy (Peacock, 2014). But how can we explain these feelings, derived from someone’s misfortune, in contexts such as the workplace, where such humor or pleasure are considered inappropriate?
While many nations are struggling to slow the transmission rate of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Vietnam has seen no new locally acquired cases since April 16. After implementing 22 d of nationwide social distancing, on April 23, the government of Vietnam announced the easing of social distancing measures. This allows the country to restart its socio-economic activities in a gradual, prudent manner. Domestic tourism and exports of agricultural and anti-COVID-19 medical products take priority over the other sectors in this postpandemic economic recovery. Importantly, the country needs to stay vigilant on the fight against the disease to prevent a possibility of another outbreak.
The aim of this study was to assess strengths and challenges experienced by HIV/STD providers in providing care during the response to Hurricane Sandy (Sandy) in New York State, and their recommendations for future preparedness.
A mixed methods approach, including a focus group (n = 3), interviews (n = 3), and survey (n = 31) of HIV/STD providers, was used. Key words identified by means of open coding methodology from collected data were organized into strengths, challenges, and recommendations and then grouped into federal and study-associated preparedness capabilities.
Key words were organized into 81 strengths (38.8%), 73 challenges (34.9%), and 55 recommendations (26.3%). Services most interrupted during Sandy were related to HIV/STD outreach and education. While providers reported challenges with external agency communication, the ability to still connect clients to needed resources was reported as a strength. Strengthening partnerships with federal, state, and local agencies was among the major recommendations made by these providers.
This study presents unique information about challenges experienced by HIV/STD providers in providing services during a natural disaster and the use of national public health emergency preparedness capabilities to address and overcome those challenges. Lessons learned and recommendations regarding inter-agency communications emerged as an important priority during a natural disaster to minimize or reduce service interruption.
To describe the pattern of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during 2 nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 with regard to the possibility of airborne transmission.
Contact investigations with active case finding were used to assess the pattern of spread from 2 COVID-19 index patients.
A community hospital and university medical center in the United States, in February and March, 2020, early in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Two index patients and 421 exposed health care workers.
Exposed staff were identified by analyzing the EMR and conducting active case finding in combination with structured interviews. Staff were tested for COVID-19 by obtaining oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens, with RT-PCR testing to detect SARS-CoV-2.
Two separate index patients were admitted in February and March 2020, without initial suspicion for COVID-19 and without contact or droplet precautions in place; both patients underwent several aerosol generating procedures in this context. A total of 421 health care workers were exposed in total, and the results of the case contact investigations identified 8 secondary infections in health care workers. In all 8 cases, the staff had close contact with the index patients without sufficient personal protective equipment. Importantly, despite multiple aerosol generating procedures, there was no evidence of airborne transmission.
These observations suggest that, at least in a healthcare setting, a majority of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is likely to take place during close contact with infected patients through respiratory droplets, rather than by long-distance airborne transmission.
There is a need for accurate, inexpensive and field-friendly methods to assess body composition in children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a promising approach; however, there have been limited validation and use among young children in resource-poor settings. We aim to develop and validate population-specific prediction equations for estimating total fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM) and percentage body fat (PBF) in Vietnamese children (4–7 years) using reactance and resistance from BIA, anthropometric variables and demographic information. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 120 children. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BIA and anthropometry. To develop prediction equations, we split all data into development (70 %) and validation datasets (30 %). The model performance was evaluated using predicted residual error sum of squares, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and R2. We identified a top performing model with the least number of parameters (age, sex, weight and resistance index or resistance and height), low RMSE (FM 0·70, FFM 0·74, PBF 3·10), low MAE (FM 0·55, FFM 0·62, PBF 2·49), high R2 (FM 0·95, FFM 0·92, PBF 0·82) and the least difference between predicted values and actual values from DXA (FM 0·03 kg or 0·01 sd, FFM 0·06 kg or 0·02 sd, PBF 0·27 % or 0·04 sd). In conclusion, we developed the first valid and highly predictive equations to estimate FM, FFM and PBF in Vietnamese children using BIA. These findings have important implications for future research on the double burden of disease and risks associated with overweight and obesity in young children.
The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop technologies that are best able to serve humanity. This will require advancements that go beyond the basic components of general intelligence. The term “intelligence” does not best represent the technological needs of advancing society, because it is “wisdom”, rather than intelligence, that is associated with greater well-being, happiness, health, and perhaps even longevity of the individual and the society. Thus, the future need in technology is for artificial wisdom (AW).
We examine the constructs of human intelligence and human wisdom in terms of their basic components, neurobiology, and relationship to aging, based on published empirical literature. We review the development of AI as inspired and driven by the model of human intelligence, and consider possible governing principles for AW that would enable humans to develop computers which can operationally utilize wise principles and result in wise acts. We review relevant examples of current efforts to develop such wise technologies.
AW systems will be based on developmental models of the neurobiology of human wisdom. These AW systems need to be able to a) learn from experience and self-correct; b) exhibit compassionate, unbiased, and ethical behaviors; and c) discern human emotions and help the human users to regulate their emotions and make wise decisions.
A close collaboration among computer scientists, neuroscientists, mental health experts, and ethicists is necessary for developing AW technologies, which will emulate the qualities of wise humans and thus serve the greatest benefit to humanity. Just as human intelligence and AI have helped further the understanding and usefulness of each other, human wisdom and AW can aid in promoting each other’s growth
Laboratory-based characterization and traceback of Clostridium butyricum isolates linked to outbreak cases of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in a hospital in China.
In total, 37 samples were collected during the NEC outbreak. Classical bacteriological methods were applied to isolate and identify Clostridium spp. Meanwhile, 24 samples collected after an outbreak were similarly tested. All Clostridium isolates were identified to species level as either C. butyricum or C. sporogenes. These isolates were subsequently subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Genomic DNA was purified from 2 representative C. butyricum isolates and sequenced to completion.
Of 37 samples collected during the NEC outbreak, 17 (45.95%) were positive for Clostridium spp. One species, C. butyricum, was cultured from 10 samples. Another species cultured from 2 other samples was identified as C. sporogenes. Both of these species were cocultured from 5 samples. Pulsotyping showed that the 15 C. butyricum and the 7 C. sporogenes isolates produced indistinguishable DNA profiles. No NEC cases were reported after disinfection following the outbreak, and all samples collected after the outbreak were negative for Clostridium spp. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) indicated that sialidase, hemolysin, and enterotoxin virulence factors were located on the chromosomes of 2 C. butyricum isolates.
The outbreak of NEC was epidemiologically linked to C. butyricum contamination within the hospital. This is the first report of an NEC outbreak associated with C. butyricum infection in China.