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While the burden of dementia is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, there is a low rate of diagnosis and paucity of research in these regions. A major challenge to study dementia is the limited availability of standardised diagnostic tools for use in populations with linguistic and educational diversity. The objectives of the study were to develop a standardised and comprehensive neurocognitive test battery to diagnose dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to varied etiologies, across different languages and educational levels in India, to facilitate research efforts in diverse settings.
A multidisciplinary expert group formed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) collaborated towards adapting and validating a neurocognitive test battery, that is, the ICMR Neurocognitive Tool Box (ICMR-NCTB) in five Indian languages (Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam), for illiterates and literates, to standardise diagnosis of dementia and MCI in India.
Following a review of existing international and national efforts at standardising dementia diagnosis, the ICMR-NCTB was developed and adapted to the Indian setting of sociolinguistic diversity. The battery consisted of tests of cognition, behaviour, and functional activities. A uniform protocol for diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI, and dementia due to neurodegenerative diseases and stroke was followed in six centres. A systematic plan for validating the ICMR-NCTB and establishing cut-off values in a diverse multicentric cohort was developed.
A key outcome was the development of a comprehensive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of dementia and MCI due to varied etiologies, in the diverse socio-demographic setting of India.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin has the potential to reduce sinonasal morbidity in endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base surgery.
To evaluate the effects of nasal lavage with and without mupirocin after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.
A pilot randomised, controlled trial was conducted on 20 adult patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base lesions. These patients were randomly assigned to cohorts using nasal lavages with mupirocin or without mupirocin. Patients were assessed in the out-patient clinic, one week and one month after surgery, using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire and nasal endoscopy.
Patients in the mupirocin nasal lavage group had lower nasal endoscopy scores post-operatively, and a statistically significant larger difference in nasal endoscopy scores at one month compared to one week. The mupirocin nasal lavage group also showed better Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores at one month compared to the group without mupirocin.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin seems to yield better outcomes regarding patients’ symptoms and endoscopic findings.
Recent studies illustrate how machine learning (ML) can be used to bypass a core challenge of molecular modeling: the trade-off between accuracy and computational cost. Here, we assess multiple ML approaches for predicting the atomization energy of organic molecules. Our resulting models learn the difference between low-fidelity, B3LYP, and high-accuracy, G4MP2, atomization energies and predict the G4MP2 atomization energy to 0.005 eV (mean absolute error) for molecules with less than nine heavy atoms (training set of 117,232 entries, test set 13,026) and 0.012 eV for a small set of 66 molecules with between 10 and 14 heavy atoms. Our two best models, which have different accuracy/speed trade-offs, enable the efficient prediction of G4MP2-level energies for large molecules and are available through a simple web interface.
We introduce incubators as an organizational form intended to facilitate entrepreneurship. The theorizing and research on incubators have been primarily anchored in market failure perspective and carry over the assumptions about a free market economy, mostly implicitly into the empirical work. This ignores the influence of the institutional context and obscures processes that may come into play in emerging economies like India. Using Scott's model (2008) of institutional context, we argue how the institutional context provides a complementary perspective that may reveal a richer picture of incubator operation in emerging economies. We illustrate this in the case of academic incubators in India.
This article argues that gaushalas, or cow shelters, in India are mobilized as sites of Hindutva or Hindu ultranationalism, where it is a “vulnerable” Hindu Indian nation—or the “Hindu mother cow” as Mother India—who needs “sanctuary” from predatory Muslim males. Gaushalas are rendered spaces of (re)production of cows as political, religious, and economic capital, and sustained by the combined and compatible narratives of “anthropatriarchy” and Hindu patriarchy. Anthropatriarchy is framed as the human enactment of gendered oppressions upon animal bodies, and is crucial to sustaining all animal agriculture. Hindu patriarchy refers to the instrumentalization of female and feminized bodies (women, cows, “Mother India”) as “mothers” and cultural guardians of a “pure” Hindu civilization. Both patriarchies commodify bovine motherhood and breastmilk. which this article frames as a feminist issue. Through empirical research, this article demonstrates that gaushalas generally function as spaces of exploitation, incarceration, and gendered violence for the animals. The article broadens posthumanist feminist theory to illustrate how bovine bodies, akin to women's bodies, are mobilized as productive, reproductive, and symbolic capital to advance Hindu extremism and ultranationalism. It subjectifies animal bodies as landscapes of nation‐making using ecofeminism and its subfield of vegan feminism.
Objectives: Youth and young adults with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) are vulnerable to executive dysfunction; however, some patients do not demonstrate functional deficits despite showing abnormalities on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitively intact adults with MS have shown enhanced activation patterns relative to healthy controls on working memory tasks. We aim to evaluate whether cognitively preserved pediatric-onset MS patients engage compensatory recruitment strategies to facilitate age-normative performance on a task of working memory. Methods: Twenty cognitively preserved patients (mean age=18.7±2.7 years; 15 female) and 20 age- and sex-matched controls (mean age=18.5±2.9 years; 15 female) underwent neuropsychological testing and 3.0 Tesla MRI, including structural and functional acquisitions. Patterns of activation during the Alphaspan task, a working memory paradigm with two levels of executive control demand, were examined via whole-brain and region of interest (ROI) analyses. Results: Across all participants, lower accuracy and greater activation of regions implicated in working memory were observed during the high demand condition. MS patients demonstrated 0.21 s longer response time than controls. ROI analyses revealed enhanced activation for pediatric-onset MS patients relative to controls in the right middle frontal, left paracingulate, right supramarginal, and left superior parietal gyri during the low executive demand condition, over and above differences in response time. MS patients also demonstrated heightened activation in the right supramarginal gyrus in the high executive demand condition. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that pediatric-onset MS patients may engage compensatory recruitment strategies during working memory processing. (JINS, 2019, 25, 432–442)
The onset of interfacial instability in two-fluid systems using a viscous, leaky dielectric model is studied. The instability arises as a result of resonance between the parametric frequency of an imposed electric field and the system’s natural frequency. In addition to a rigorous model that uses Floquet instability analysis, where both viscous and charge effects are considered, this study also provides convincing validating experiments. In other results, it is shown that (a) the imposition of a periodic electrostatic potential acts to counter gravity and this countering effect becomes more effective if a DC voltage is also added, (b) a critical DC voltage exists at which the interface becomes unstable such that no parametric frequency is required to completely destabilize the interface and (c) the leaky dielectric model approaches a model for a perfect dielectric/perfect conductor pair as the conductivity ratio becomes large. It is also shown via experiments that parametric resonant instability using electrostatic forcing may be reliably used to estimate interfacial tension to sufficient accuracy.
The aim of this paper is to show that the spontaneous sliding of drops forming from an interfacial instability on the surface of a wall-bounded fluid film is caused by a symmetry-breaking secondary instability. As an example, we consider a water film suspended from a ceiling that drains into drops due to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Loss of symmetry is observed after the film has attained a quasi-steady state, following the buckling of the thin residual film separating two drops, whereby two extremely thin secondary troughs are generated. Instability emanates from these secondary troughs, which are very sensitive to surface curvature perturbations because drainage there is dominated by capillary pressure gradients. We have performed two types of linear stability analysis. Firstly, applying the frozen-time approximation to the quasi-steady base state and assuming exponential temporal growth, we have identified a single, asymmetric, unstable eigenmode, constituting a concerted sliding motion of the large drops and secondary troughs. Secondly, applying transient stability analysis to the time-dependent base state, we have found that the latter is unstable at all times after the residual film has buckled, and that localized pulses at the secondary troughs are most effective in triggering the aforementioned sliding eigenmode. The onset of sliding is controlled by the level of ambient noise, but, in the range studied, always occurs in the quasi-steady regime of the base state. The sliding instability is also observed in a very thin gas film underneath a liquid layer, which we have checked for physical properties encountered underneath Leidenfrost drops. In contrast, adding Marangoni stresses to the problem substantially modifies the draining mechanism and can suppress the sliding instability.
The dynamics of an interface between a thin liquid–vapour bilayer undergoing evaporation is studied. Both phases are considered to be hydrodynamically and thermally active, with momentum and thermal inertia taken into account. A reduced-order model based on the weighted-residual integral boundary layer method is used to investigate the dynamical behaviour for two cases, viz., phase change in the absence of gravity and then phase change in the presence of gravity. In the first case, it is shown that evaporative instability may cause rupture of either liquid or vapour layer depending on system parameters. Close to interfacial rupture, the disjoining pressure due to intermolecular forces results in the formation of drops (bubbles) separated by a thin film for low liquid (vapour) hold-up. Momentum inertia is shown to have a stabilizing effect, while thermal inertia has a destabilizing effect. In the second case, evaporative suppression of Rayleigh–Taylor (R–T) instability shows emergence of up to two neutral wavenumbers. Weak nonlinear analysis of these neutral wavenumbers suggests that the instability may be either supercritical or subcritical depending on the rate of evaporation. At high rates of evaporation, both neutral wavenumbers are supercritical and computations on the interface evolution lead to nonlinear saturated steady states. Momentum inertia slows down the rate of interface deformation and results in an oscillatory approach to saturation. Thermal inertia results in larger interface deformation and the saturated steady state is shifted closer to the wall. At very low evaporation rates, only one neutral wavenumber of subcritical nature exists. The nonlinear evolution of the interface in this case is then similar to pure R–T instability, exhibiting spontaneous lateral sliding as it approaches the wall.
The nonlinear evolution of an interface between a perfect conducting liquid and a perfect dielectric gas subject to periodic electrostatic forcing is studied under the long-wave approximation. It is shown that inertial thin films become unstable to finite-wavelength Faraday modes at the onset, prior to the long-wave pillaring instability reported in the lubrication limit. It is further shown that the pillaring-mode instability is subcritical in nature, with the interface approaching either the top or the bottom wall, depending on the liquid–gas holdup. On the other hand, the Faraday modes exhibit subharmonic or harmonic oscillations that nonlinearly saturate to standing waves at low forcing amplitudes. Unlike the pillaring mode, wherein the interface approaches the wall, Faraday modes may exhibit saturated standing waves when the instability is subcritical. At higher forcing amplitudes, the interface may approach either wall, again depending on the liquid–gas holdup. It is also shown that a gravitationally unstable configuration of such thin films, under the long-wave approximation, cannot be stabilized by periodic electrostatic forcing, unlike mechanical Faraday forcing. In this case, it is observed that the interface exhibits oscillatory sliding behaviour, approaching the wall in an ‘earthworm-like’ motion.
This study investigates the phenomenon of targeted energy transfer (TET) from a linear oscillator to a nonlinear attachment behaving as a nonlinear energy sink for both transient and stochastic excitations. First, the dynamics of the underlying Hamiltonian system under deterministic transient loading is studied. Assuming that the transient dynamics can be partitioned into slow and fast components, the governing equations of motion corresponding to the slow flow dynamics are derived and the behaviour of the system is analysed. Subsequently, the effect of noise on the slow flow dynamics of the system is investigated. The Itô stochastic differential equations for the noisy system are derived and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations are numerically solved to gain insights into the behaviour of the system on TET. The effects of the system parameters as well as noise intensity on the optimal regime of TET are studied. The analysis reveals that the interaction of nonlinearities and noise enhances the optimal TET regime as predicted in deterministic analysis.
Aerofoils operating in a turbulent flow generate broadband noise by scattering vorticity into sound at the leading edge. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness by which serrations, or undulations, introduced onto the leading edge, can substantially reduce broadband leading-edge noise. All of this work has focused on sinusoidal (single-wavelength) leading-edge serration profiles. In this paper, a new leading-edge serration geometry is proposed which provides significantly greater noise reductions compared to the maximum noise reductions achievable by single-wavelength serrations of the same amplitude. This is achieved through destructive interference between different parts of the aerofoil leading edge, and therefore involves a fundamentally different noise reduction mechanism from conventional single-wavelength serrations. The new leading-edge serration profiles simply comprise the superposition of two single-wavelength components of different wavelength, amplitude and phase with the objective of forming two roots that are sufficiently close together and separated in the streamwise direction. Compact sources located at these root locations then interfere, leading to less efficient radiation than single-wavelength geometries. A detailed parametric study is performed experimentally to investigate the sensitivity of the noise reductions to the profile geometry. A simple model is proposed to explain the noise reduction mechanism for these double-wavelength serration profiles and shown to be in close agreement with the measured noise reduction spectra. The study is primarily performed on flat plates in an idealized turbulent flow. The paper concludes by introducing the double-wavelength serration on a 10 % thick aerofoil, where near-identical noise reductions are obtained compared to the flat plate.
Metal–graphene composites are sought after for various applications. A hybrid light-weight foam of nickel (Ni) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), called Ni-rGO, is reported here for small molecule oxidations and thereby their sensing. Methanol oxidation and non-enzymatic glucose sensing are attempted with the Ni-rGO foam via electrocatalytically, and an enhanced methanol oxidation current density of 4.81 mA/cm2 is achieved, which is ~1.7 times higher than that of bare Ni foam. In glucose oxidation, the Ni-rGO electrode shows a better sensitivity over bare Ni foam electrode where it could detect glucose linearly over a concentration range of 10 µM to 4.5 mM with a very low detection limit of 3.6 µM. This work demonstrates the synergistic effects of metal and graphene in oxidative processes, and also shows the feasibility of scalable metal–graphene composite inks development for small molecule printable sensors and fuel cell catalysts.
A heavy-over-light configuration of a fluid bilayer may be stabilized in the presence of a phase change if the system consists of a single component. However, if the fluid is composed of a binary mixture with the more volatile component having the lower surface tension, it is known that a Marangoni instability occurs. This instability owes its origin to concentration gradients created by the phase change, even though the phase change otherwise has a stabilizing effect. In this study, it is shown via a nonlinear model under a long-wavelength approximation, that this Marangoni destabilization is insufficient to cause a rupture of the interface under practical operating conditions. Computations reveal that the stabilizing effect of the phase change dominates as the film becomes thin by reversing the direction of the Marangoni flow, thereby halting the instability and any hope of rupture.
Predictive analytics in health is a complex, transdisciplinary field requiring collaboration across diverse scientific and stakeholder groups. Pilot implementation of participatory research to foster team science in predictive analytics through a partnered-symposium and funding competition. In total, 85 stakeholders were engaged across diverse translational domains, with a significant increase in perceived importance of early inclusion of patients and communities in research. Participatory research approaches may be an effective model for engaging broad stakeholders in predictive analytics.
This article provides evidence that firm value declines when credit default swaps (CDSs) are initiated and that the effect is greater when CDS trading activity is higher. This decline, which arises from an increase in the cost of capital as opposed to a decrease in free cash flows, traces to a deterioration in the firm’s credit quality and stock liquidity. Firm value declines less when CDS trading is likely to produce incremental information, suggesting that CDS trading has informational benefits for firm value. However, the evidence does not indicate that firm value increases because CDS availability facilitates investments.