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A growing number of studies have tested the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and the unintendedness of pregnancy or birth, and most have suggested that unintendedness of pregnancy is a cause of IPV. However, about nine in every ten women face violence after delivering their first baby. This study examined the effects of the intendedness of births on physical IPV using data from the National Family Health Survey (2015–16). The multivariate logistic regression model analysis found that, compared with women with no unwanted births (2.9%), physical IPV was higher among those women who had unwanted births (6.9%, p<0.001), followed by those who had mistimed births (4.4 %, p<0.001), even after adjusting for several women’s individual and socioeconomic characteristics. Thus, the reduction of women with mistimed and unwanted births could reduce physical IPV in India. The study highlights the unfinished agenda of family planning in the country and argues for the need to integrate family planning and Reproductive, Maternal and Child Health Care (RMNCH) services to yield multi-sectoral outcomes, including the elimination of IPV.
We are interested in understanding how socially desirable traits like sympathy, reciprocity, and fairness can survive in environments that include aggressive and exploitative agents. Social scientists have long theorized about ingrained motivational factors as explanations for departures from self-seeking behaviors by human subjects. Some of these factors, namely reciprocity, have also been studied extensively in the context of agent systems as tools for promoting cooperation and improving social welfare in stable societies. In this paper, we evaluate how other factors like sympathy and parity can be used by agents to seek out cooperation possibilities while avoiding exploitation traps in more dynamic societies. We evaluate the relative effectiveness of agents influenced by different social considerations when they can change who they interact with in their environment using both an experimental framework and a predictive analysis. Such rewiring of social networks not only allows possibly vulnerable agents to avoid exploitation but also allows them to form gainful coalitions to leverage mutually beneficial cooperation, thereby significantly increasing social welfare.
Little is known about the household economic costs associated with mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders in low- and middle-income countries.
To assess the association between MNS disorders and household education, consumption, production, assets and financial coping strategies in Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda.
We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional household survey in one district in each country, comparing the economic circumstances of households with an MNS disorder (alcohol-use disorder, depression, epilepsy or psychosis) (n = 2339) and control households (n = 1982).
Despite some heterogeneity between MNS disorder groups and countries, households with a member with an MNS disorder had generally lower levels of adult education; lower housing standards, total household income, effective income and non-health consumption; less asset-based wealth; higher healthcare expenditure; and greater use of deleterious financial coping strategies.
Households living with a member who has an MNS disorder constitute an economically vulnerable group who are susceptible to chronic poverty and intergenerational poverty transmission.
Declaration of interest
D.C. is a staff member of the World Health Organization. The authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication and they do not necessarily represent the decisions, policy or views of the World Health Organization.
Insurance companies often follow highly correlated investment strategies. As major investors in corporate bonds, their investment commonalities subject investors to fire sale risk when regulatory restrictions prompt widespread divestment of a bond following a rating downgrade. Reflective of fire sale risk, the clustering of insurance companies in a bond has significant explanatory power for yield spreads, controlling for liquidity, credit risk, and other factors. The effect of insurer clustering on bond yield spreads is more evident for bonds held to a greater extent by capital-constrained insurance companies, those with ratings closer to National Association of Insurance Commissioners risk categories with larger capital requirements, and during the financial crisis.
Overconfident CEOs/senior executives tend to have excessively positive views of their own skills and their company’s future performance. We hypothesize that overconfident managers are more likely to engage in reckless or intentional actions/disclosures that give rise to securities class actions (SCAs). Empirical evidence is supportive: Overconfident CEOs/senior executives increase SCA likelihood, though litigation risk is ameliorated through improved governance, such as following the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002. Post-SCA, companies are less likely to hire an overconfident CEO. Following an SCA, overconfident CEOs appear to moderate behavior and to reduce their litigation risk.
Historically, batteries with lithium metal anodes have been a hazard, as the lithium becomes rough and eventually finely divided during cycling. The promise of higher energy density, however, continues to drive the search for novel approaches to manage this light and reactive material. Significant improvement has been achieved by designing new liquid-electrolyte compositions and interface barriers to stabilize the lithium in traditional batteries, but it is clear that solid-state batteries ensure a higher level of safety and perhaps higher energy density and lifetimes. The materials challenge then is to fabricate a cost-effective solid electrolyte that effectively maintains lithium as a dense uniform metal layer. This article describes the ideal cycling behavior of lithium and progress toward this goal of a solid electrolyte using glassy, ceramic, polymer, and composite electrolytes, as well as the challenges that continue to arise toward long-term, high-rate, and efficient cycling of lithium metal.
The flow of heat in materials is generally perceived to be a slow process and, therefore, pump-probe techniques originally developed for ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopy are not an obvious source of technologies for advances in thermal-property measurements. Nevertheless, over the past 18 years, the work of approximately 30 dedicated students and postdoctoral researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) into a nearly universal, high-throughput tool for measuring the thermal conductivity of materials and the thermal conductance of materials interfaces. This article illustrates the utility of TDTR and surveys current topics in the science of heat conduction in materials with recent examples drawn from high-thermal-conductivity crystals of cubic boron phosphide and boron arsenide, structure–property relationships for thermal conductivity of amorphous polymers, and thermal conductivity switching in liquid-crystal networks.
Solid-state batteries are considered the holy grail of next-generation battery technology, meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy storage that is affordable and safe, with high energy density and long cycle life. Materials and interfaces play a critical role for their eventual success and mass commercialization. This issue of MRS Bulletin focuses on the current state of the art of solid-state electrolytes and device architectures and provides a perspective into the various materials and interfacial challenges that limit its performance and stability.
Solid inorganic and polymeric electrolytes have the potential to enable rechargeable batteries with higher energy densities, compared to current lithium-ion technology, which uses liquid electrolyte. Inorganic materials such as ceramics and glasses conduct lithium ions well, but they are brittle, which makes incorporation into a battery difficult. Polymers have the flexibility for facile use in a battery, but their transport properties tend to be inferior to inorganics. Thus, there is growing interest in composite electrolytes with inorganic and organic phases in intimate contact. This article begins with a discussion of ion transport in single-phase electrolytes. A dimensionless number (the Newman number) is presented for quantifying the efficacy of electrolytes. An effective medium framework for predicting transport properties of composite electrolytes containing only one conducting phase is then presented. The opportunities and challenges presented by composite electrolytes containing two conducting phases are addressed. Finally, the importance and status of reaction kinetics at the interfaces between solid electrolytes and electrodes are covered, using a lithium-metal electrode as an example.