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We report the smallest case of the balloon aortic valvuloplasty via a carotid artery. A baby boy weighing 890 g suffered from a severe aortic stenosis. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty using a TMP-Ped 4-mm balloon catheter succeeded in resolving severe aortic stenosis without any complications. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty via a carotid artery can be a first-line treatment even for extremely-low-birth-weight infants.
This chapter highlights deliberation as a socio-political means of relegitimatising the postcolonial, post-conflict polity in a contractarian tradition, and explores an empirical inquiry into the case of Somaliland, the breakaway state of northern Somalia, in the short to medium term. While political philosophers have often viewed legitimacy as the entitlement of rulers to rule without coercive means, a classical school of contractarians hypothesised social contract as the source of political legitimacy. Hobbes conceptualised the social contract as emanating from individuals surrendering their rights to the mighty state for the sake of their liberties, while Locke considered it to lie between individuals and the constitutional government that saves the former's liberties from the Leviathan state. Rousseau, in turn, upheld democracy as a systemic cause for legitimation given that the elected government treats its citizens free from inequality and oppression. Extending this, Kant rationalised the monadic and dyadic cause for peace under liberal democracies. The Kantian rationale for perpetual peace has underpinned the charters of the League of Nations and the United Nations, and more recently the discourse of liberal peace. On the other hand, Weber underlined empirical reasoning for political legitimacy. His contention for legitimacy of the state which delivers public services and secures the rule of law in whatever form of regime has been pivotal in the discourse of statebuilding. The warfare which has prevailed since the end of the Cold War has conflated the discourses of liberal peace and statebuilding as the policy foundation of external intervention for peacebuilding.
The global consensus on liberal statebuilding has, however, overlooked the implications of (post)colonial historicity and culture for the legitimation problem with vertical and horizontal inequalities/differences in the non-Western context. Colonisation, in an attempt to build modern statehood in the traditional stateless societies, has effected socio-political ramifications although it is geopolitically, historically and culturally contingent. The colonisers’ introduction of indirect rule to employ the traditional leaders (e.g. kings, chiefs, elders) for the effective control of indigenous subjects formed the vertical inequality/difference between the colonial state and the colonised society at the polity level.
Terrestrial plant macrofossils from the sedimentary record of Lake Suigetsu, Japan, provide the only quasi-continuous direct atmospheric record of radiocarbon (14C) covering the last 50 ka cal BP (Bronk Ramsey et al. 2012). Since then, new high precision data have become available on U-Th dated speleothems from Hulu Cave China, covering the same time range (Cheng et al. 2018). In addition, an updated varve-based chronology has also been published for the 2006 core from Lake Suigetsu (SG06) based on extended microscopic analysis of the sediments and improved algorithms for interpolation (Schlolaut et al. 2018). Here we reanalyze the radiocarbon dataset from Suigetsu based on the new varve counting information and the constraints imposed by the speleothem data. This enables the new information on the calendar age scale of the Suigetsu dataset to be used in the construction of the consensus IntCal calibration curve. Comparison of the speleothem and plant macrofossil records provides insight into the mechanisms underlying the incorporation of carbon into different types of record and the relative strengths of different types of archive for calibration purposes.
In this article, we collectively explore the significance of engaging with theory in environmental education research. Inspired by Jackson and Mazzei’s (2011) postqualitative research methodology, each researcher provides a short sample of engaging with his/her chosen theoretical concept for one shared data source. Through our three individual theoretical engagements with a short video, we collectively demonstrate that the data may be enacted in different ways, based on the theoretical concept that is engaged. This may potentially actualise multiple different and partial realities of the researched, and by decentring the researcher, this can also rework humanist epistemologies. We suggest that non-researcher-centred and/or non-anthropocentric actualising may contribute to more sustainable relationships in environmental education and its research, not only between the researcher and the researched, but also among the researchers.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
To investigate the association between suicide death and serum cholesterol levels as measured at times close to suicide death.
We conducted a nested case-control study of 41 cases of suicide deaths and 205 matched controls with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels till 3 years before suicide death in a large cohort of Japanese workers.
Individuals in the lowest versus highest tertile/predefined category of TC in a Japanese working population had a three- to four-fold greater risk of suicide death. Each 10 mg/dl decrement of average TC was associated with an 18% increased chance of suicide death (95% confidence interval, 2–35%). Similar results were found for TC levels at each year.
These results suggest that a low serum TC level in recent past is associated with an increased risk of suicide death.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
An expert government committee in Japan decided to revise the chance of a Nankai Trough earthquake in the next 30 years from 70% to between 70 and 80% in 2017. If a mega-earthquake occurs, medical institutions in disaster regions are required to perform self-contained activities during the super-acute phase. Human damage varies depending on whether medical functions can be sustained, particularly in rural areas and isolated islands. Here we examined actual situations.
To identify the issues of a disaster medical system in rural areas and isolated islands that need solving.
Regarding disaster preparedness planning, we conducted a survey on 10 hospitals undesignated as disaster key hospitals of remote area medical care bases (survey group), and 69 hospitals designated as disaster key hospitals (control group) in three prefectures in the Tokai region (Aichi, Mie, and Shizuoka).
We received responses from four hospitals in the survey group and 52 hospitals in the control group. The hospitals in the survey group responded that they could accept 74 severe casualties and 85 moderate casualties. We identified problems such as insufficient stockpiling of fuel, water, and oxygen, and lack of a prioritized lifeline supply contract.
It was predicted that human damage would be relatively minor given smaller populations in rural areas and isolated islands in the Tokai region. However, the number of patients would exceed their acceptance capacity. Moreover, the system for sustaining infrastructure is not adequate for providing medical services. Thus, it was indicated that these regions would be isolated in terms of disaster measures. It is imperative to establish a disaster medical system in rural areas and isolated islands that lack adequate disaster medical systems to manage Nankai Trough earthquakes.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
We quantified an absolute imbalance of the medical risks and the support needs for children at each disaster-based hospital in Kanagawa immediately following the occurrence of a large earthquake by using the risk resource ratio (RRR) and need for medical resources (NMR).
The RRR and NMR of 33 disaster-based hospitals were estimated through dividing the estimated number of pediatric victims by the number of critically patients. We calculated the ratio of the NMR of each hospital.
The total number of pediatric victims in Kanagawa was estimated at 8,391. The total number of vacant beds for pediatric victims was 352. The median RRR and NMR of the total number of pediatric victims were 27 and 224. The median RRR and NMR of the number of critically ill pediatric patients were 27 and 12.
The absolute imbalance of the RRR and NMR for children in Kanagawa was quantified. This suggests that we might embark on preparedness strategies for children in advance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;13:672–676)
It is generally accepted that oceanic plate subduction has occurred along the eastern margin of Asia since about 500 Ma ago. Therefore, the Japanese Islands have a >500 Ma history of oceanic plate subduction in their geological records. In this paper, the accretionary history of the Japanese Islands is divided into six main stages based on the mode and nature of tectonic events and the temporal gaps in the development of accretionary processes. In the first stage, oceanic plate subduction and accretion started along the margin of Gondwana. After detachment of the North and South China blocks in Devonian time, accretionary complexes developed along island arcs offshore of the South and North China blocks. After the formation of back arc basins such as the Japan Sea, accretionary processes occurred only along the limited convergent margin, e.g. Nankai Trough. Detrital zircons of sandstones revealed the accretionary history of Japan. An evaluation of a comprehensive dataset on detrital zircon populations shows that the observed temporal gaps in the development of the Japanese accretionary complexes were closely related to the intensity of igneous activity in their provenance regions. Age distributions of detrital zircons in the accretionary complexes of Japan change before and after the Middle Triassic period, when the collision of the South and North China blocks occurred.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
We present studies of Long Period Variables (LPVs) in our Galaxy based on astrometric VLBI observations of H2O and SiO masers. The Galactic Miras and OH/IR stars are our main targets. For Miras, we present the distribution of the LPVs on the MK – log P plane. Galactic Miras show consistency with PLR in the LMC except for some fainter sources. Parallaxes of the LPVs determined from VLBI and Gaia are compared. There seems to be some offset.
For fabricating photovoltaic BaSi2 films with controlled carrier density and suppressed oxidation by thermal evaporation, the mechanism determining the film composition from incongruently evaporated BaSi2 must be elucidated. We investigated the effects of source premelting, substrate temperature, and thickness on the structural and electrical properties of evaporated BaSi2 films. It is found by room-temperature deposition that the vapor composition continuously changes from being Ba-rich to being Si-rich. Source premelting suppresses the deposition of Ba-rich vapor. Deposition at 600–700 °C shows that BaSi2 forms through the mutual diffusion of Ba and Si, followed by surface oxidation by residual gas. Surface oxidation can be suppressed by a-axis-oriented growth. By changing the film thickness, the optimum thickness to obtain homogeneous films with suppressed oxidation is revealed. Sufficient diffusion leads to high film resistivities and low electron densities, which demonstrates a close relationship between the film composition and the electrical properties.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.