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To examine adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet at age 9–10 years in relation to onset of breast development (thelarche) and first menstruation (menarche).
We evaluated the associations of adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet (measured by an adapted Mediterranean-like Diet Score, range 0–9) with thelarche at baseline, age at thelarche and time to menarche. Data were collected at baseline during a clinic visit, complemented with a mailed questionnaire and three 24 hour telephone dietary recalls, followed by annual follow-up questionnaires. Multivariable Poisson regression, linear regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate timing of pubertal development in relation to diet adherence.
New Jersey, USA.
Girls aged 9 or 10 years at baseline (2006–2014, n 202).
High Mediterranean-like diet adherence (score 6–9) was associated with a lower prevalence of thelarche at baseline compared with low adherence (score 0–3; prevalence ratio = 0·65, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·90). This may have been driven by consumption of fish and non-fat/low-fat dairy. Our models also suggested a later age at thelarche with higher Mediterranean-like diet adherence. Girls with higher Mediterranean-like diet adherence had significantly longer time to menarche (hazard ratio = 0·45, 95 % CI 0·28, 0·71 for high v. low adherence). Further analysis suggested this may have been driven by vegetable and non-fat/low-fat dairy consumption.
Consuming a Mediterranean-like diet may be associated with older age at thelarche and menarche. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings in other US paediatric populations and elucidate the mechanism through which Mediterranean-like diet may influence puberty timing.
From simple averaging to more sophisticated registration and restoration strategies, such as super-resolution (SR), there exist different computational techniques that use a series of images of the same object to generate enhanced images where noise and other distortions have been reduced. In this work, we provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of this enhancement for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. These images are compared in two ways, qualitatively through visual inspection in real and reciprocal space, and quantitatively, through the calculation of objective measurements, such as signal-to-noise ratio and atom column roundness. Results show that these techniques improve the quality of the images. In this paper, we use an SR methodology that allows us to take advantage of the information present in the image frames and to reliably facilitate the analysis of more difficult regions of interest in experimental images, such as surfaces and interfaces. By acquiring a series of cross-sectional experimental images of magnetite (Fe3O4) thin films (111), we have generated interpolated images using averaging and SR, and reconstructed the atomic structure of the very top surface layer that consists of a full monolayer of Fe, with topmost Fe atoms in tetrahedrally coordinated sites.
This review summarises the current literature on the role of microRNAs in presbyacusis (age-related hearing loss) and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and Embase databases were searched for primary English-language studies, published between 2000 and 2017, which investigated the role of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of presbyacusis or sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Quality of evidence was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool.
Nine of 207 identified articles, 6 of good quality, satisfied the review's inclusion criteria. In presbyacusis, microRNAs in pro-apoptotic and autophagy pathways are upregulated, while microRNAs in proliferative and differentiation pathways are downregulated. Evidence for microRNAs having an aetiological role in sudden hearing loss is limited.
A shift in microRNA expression, leading to reduced cellular activity and impaired inner-ear homeostasis, may contribute to the pathogenesis of presbyacusis.
Rates and risk factors for suicidal behaviour require updating and comparisons among mood disorders.
To identify factors associated with suicidal risk in major mood disorders.
We considered risk factors before, during and after intake assessments of 3284 adults with/without suicidal acts, overall and with bipolar disorder (BD) versus major depressive disorder (MDD), using bivariate comparisons, multivariable regression modelling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis.
Suicidal prevalence was greater in BD versus MDD: ideation, 29.2 versus 17.3%; attempts, 18.8 versus 4.78%; suicide, 1.73 versus 0.48%; attempts/suicide ratio indicated similar lethality, 10.9 versus 9.96. Suicidal acts were associated with familial BD or suicide, being divorced/unmarried, fewer children, early abuse/trauma, unemployment, younger onset, longer illness, more dysthymic or cyclothymic temperament, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance misuse, mixed features, hospital admission, percentage time unwell, less antidepressants and more antipsychotics and mood stabilisers. Logistic regression found five independent factors: hospital admission, more depression at intake, BD diagnosis, onset age ≤25 years and mixed features. These factors were more associated with suicidal acts in BD than MDD: percentage time depressed/ill, alcohol misuse, >4 pre-intake depressions, more dysthymic/cyclothymic temperament and prior abuse/trauma. ADHD and total years ill were similar in BD and MDD; other factors were more associated with MDD. By ROC analysis, area under the curve was 71.3%, with optimal sensitivity (76%) and specificity (55%) with any two factors.
Suicidal risks were high in mood disorders: ideation was highest with BD type II, attempts and suicides (especially violent) with BD type I. Several risk factors for suicidal acts differed between BD versus MDD patients.
Declaration of interest
No author or immediate family member has financial relationships with commercial entities that might appear to represent potential conflicts of interest with the information presented.
Pathogen spillover from wildlife to humans or domestic animals requires a series of conditions to align with space and time. Comparing these conditions between times and locations where spillover does and does not occur presents opportunities to understand the factors that shape spillover risk. Bovine rabies transmitted by vampire bats was first confirmed in 1911 and has since been detected across the distribution of vampire bats. However, Uruguay is an exception. Uruguay was free of bovine rabies until 2007, despite high-cattle densities, the presence of vampire bats and a strong surveillance system. To explore why Uruguay was free of bovine rabies until recently, we review the historic literature and reconstruct the conditions that would allow rabies invasion into Uruguay. We used available historical records on the abundance of livestock and wildlife, the vampire bat distribution and occurrence of rabies outbreaks, as well as environmental modifications, to propose four alternative hypotheses to explain rabies virus emergence and spillover: bat movement, viral invasion, surveillance failure and environmental changes. While future statistical modelling efforts will be required to disentangle these hypotheses, we here show how a detailed historical analysis can be used to generate testable predictions for the conditions leading to pathogen spillover.
In her study on the configuration of difference in colonial New Granada, Joanne Rappaport contends that many studies “tend to ignore how different practices of distinguishing one individual from another came into play in concrete situations,” and as a result they “end up labeling as ‘race’ something that was much more multifaceted.” Subsequently, she urges scholars to interpret colonial subjects and their identities on their own terms. This study responds to Rappaport's call by analyzing the workings of the historical concept of calidad in colonial Spanish America.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aims to identify the short and long-term associations of HTPR and presence of CYP2C19 polymorphism in the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The primary outcome of the study will be the presence of MACE including stent thrombosis, need for revascularization, acute limb ischemia events, myocardial infarction and death in relation to the presence of HTPR and CYP2C19 polymorphism. Secondary outcomes will include the prevalence of HTPR and CYP2C19 polymorphism in patients with PAD, and association with other medications including aspirin and cilostazol. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients above 21 years of age with the diagnosis of PAD using clopidogrel therapy for at least for seven days will be recruited at the University of Puerto Rico District Hospital and Cardiovascular Hospital of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 200 patients from Puertorrican, Dominican and Cuban ethnicity will be expected to be recruited. The most common comorbidities will include, coronary artery disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2. No significant distr DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The status quo as it pertains to resistance to clopidogrel in PAD patients is to improve antiplatelet resistance using antiplatelet therapy guided by platelet assays in order to reduce MACE occurrence. Although HTPR and presence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been studied on the PAD population, currently there is no gold standard test for measuring antiplatelet resistance. In that regard, this study will expect to identify the contribution that HTPR and CYP2C19 polymorphism might have on MACE in patients with PAD. In this way, the results will allow identification of abnormality parameters in HTPR and CYP2C19 testing in relation to the impact on risk of having MACE. Once the association of these variables with MACE is established, testing for clopidogrel resistance could become a potential strategy to optimize antiplatelet therapy and reduce the impact that MACE have in this population.
From their beginnings some 4,000 years ago to their decadence around 400 b.c., the Olmec people achieved a high level of sociopolitical complexity and dominated their native geographic territory, the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico. The first Olmec capital of San Lorenzo, Veracruz, was the only site in Mesoamerica that produced imposing monumental stone sculpture and architecture between 1800 and 1000 b.c. These characteristics reflect the capabilities of its centralized political system headed by hereditary rulers with divine legitimation. Key issues regarding the development of San Lorenzo Olmec culture center on subsistence and environment. The present study focuses on a portion of the landscape located immediately north of the first Olmec capital of San Lorenzo, Veracruz, that has been proposed as a key resource area during the development of the first civilization in Mesoamerica. We calculate the surface, volume, and water depth of this area based on archaeological data and a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) derived from an airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey. The expected minimum and maximum area, local minimum altitude, and the DTM of 5-m spatial resolution provide a basis for inferences regarding the characteristics of the wetland ecosystem during Olmec times. The goal is to quantify and qualify the potential of this resource zone relying on LiDAR topography. Our models validate the observations in the field and, when combined with algorithms, they confirm the archaeological conclusions. We affirm that the northern plain in Olmec times was deeper than it is today and would have been a source of abundant aquatic resources for the primary subsistence of the early Olmec society.
Three sizes of beads 1, 2 and 3 mm of chitosan and poly (vinyl alcohol) were generated and crosslinked with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. The modification was carried out using a glass reactor, in which the beads were exposed to the glow discharge plasma (GDP). The adsorption experiments were carried out in triplicate at 30 °C, 200 rpm, 72 h at different pH values in the range between 2 and 7. The concentrations of the dye in the supernatants were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The 1 mm beads with and without modification, as well as those adsorbed and without adsorbing were characterized by FTIR and SEM. A higher and constant adsorption capacity was observed using modified beads (814, 857 and 1509 mg/g for the 3, 2 and 1 mm beads, respectively). For unmodified beads the adsorption capacity decreased when the initial pH value was increased. This makes the beads modified by GDP a robust material with respect to pH variation and a good candidate to be used in the removal of synthetic dyes.
Antipsychotic drug treatment is a key component of multiple psychiatric treatment algorithms. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) have been shown to improve adherence in numerous clinical trials. Patients who can benefit from LAIs therapy can be treated with aripiprazole long acting once-monthly (AOM). However the nature of the introduction patterns of AOM is not well characterized in clinical practice.
A retrospective observational study of AOM introduction was conducted on 157 patients aged 18–75 years-old (95 males, 62 females) who were initiated on AOM treatment between January 2017 – December 2017 in two independent Mental Health Units in the autonomous region of Galicia (Spain). An analysis of the different trends in switching strategies and its adaptation to the prescribing information was carried out. Results were compared between different dose treatment plans and a comparison between inpatients and outpatients’ outcomes was also undertaken. Additional data regarding off-label use was obtained from the sample.
The sample was composed of 157 patients: 31% diagnosed of Schizophrenia (n=48), 14% Schizoaffective Disorder (n=22), 21% Delusional Disorder (n=33), 17% Bipolar Disorder (n=27), 10% Brief Psychotic Disorder (n=15), 4% Psychotic Disorder Not Specified (n=6), 2% Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (n=3), 2% Paranoid Personality Disorder (n=3). Regarding the location of the first dose administration: 44% (n=69) were administered in an Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, 44% (n=65) were administered in Mental Health Outpatient Clinics, 11% (n=18) in Psychiatric Day Hospitals and 3% (n=5), in Assertive Community Treatment Programs. 74% (n=116) of patients received an initial dose of 400mg of AOM whereas 26% (n=41) were given 300mg of AOM. The previous antipsychotic was aripiprazole orale (OA) in 61% (n=96) of the cases. The most frequent switch between LAIs was “immediate switch” and in the switch between orale antipsychotics and AOM “tapering and overlap” was found to be the most common pattern. The average dose was 20mg/day in all groups except for patients diagnosed with Delusional Disorder (15mg/day). The average duration of treatment with OA after the first dose was: 32days for patients with Schizophrenia, 23days for Delusional Disorder, 30days for Bipolar Disorder and 19days in Schizoaffective Disorder.
Our analysis identified two main patterns of drug switching, the most frequent being “tapering and overlap” in oral treatment, followed by “immediate switch” in patients treated with LAIs.
Although our patients are unlike many of those enrolled in clinical trials, the present study indicates that the predominant switching strategies conforms with the Safety Data Sheet.
Between the years of 30 b.c. to a.d. 80, during the Late Formative period, the site of Izapa was flooded by lahars associated with an explosive eruption of the San Antonio volcano (part of the Tacaná Volcanic Complex). Computer simulations suggest that hot pyroclastic flows did not impact Izapa directly, but did impact the region considerably, filling and clogging the Cahuacan and Mixcun rivers with hot debris. The material was quickly saturated by heavy rains and, as the water from the rivers overtopped the obstruction, remobilized in the form of a hot mixture of mud and water known as a lahar (or flood of volcanic origin), which flowed down through the piedmont zone along the Cahuacan, Mixcun-Suchiate, and Izapa rivers. At Izapa, the flood took the form of a 6-m catastrophic wave of mud and water that likely destroyed crops and caused many causalities, surrounding the architectural mounds at Izapa with a muddy landscape. The floods also dramatically affected the rivers downstream, undoubtedly wreaking serious damage to the transport and trade of goods along the coast.
Izapa is famous for its monumental architecture and extensive corpus of carved stelae dated to the Late Formative Guillén phase (300–100 cal b.c.). The site was first established, however, as the capital of a kingdom during the second half of the Middle Formative period (750–300 cal b.c.). Little is known of the first centuries of the site's occupation or how this early kingdom coalesced with Izapa as its capital. In 2012, the Izapa Regional Settlement Project (IRSP) excavated 21 test units and ran 10 radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates in order to begin correcting this lacuna. These excavations were the first at the site to screen soil matrices and recover artifact samples that can be quantitatively analyzed.
We undertook excavations in areas north and south of Group B, the original center of Izapa. This work dates the northern expansion of the site's main platform (under Mound 30a) to the Terminal Formative Itstapa phase (cal a.d. 100–300) that resulted in a doubling of the platform's size. Further, we documented that there were three distinct construction episodes in the Terminal Formative expansion and that a central staircase and ramp were built of stone during the second episode. Buried below the Terminal Formative platform expansion was a white clay surface built during the Escalón phase (750–500 cal b.c.) and used through to Guillén times. At the long, linear Mound 62 that defines the eastern edge of Izapa's site core, we documented two episodes of Guillén-phase monumental construction. Buried below this construction fill at Mound 62, a hearth feature and stone alignment are dated to the late Middle Formative based on radiocarbon assays and the results of ceramic analysis. Excavations at Mound 72 and 73 documented that Izapa's E-Group (newly recognized with lidar [light detection and ranging] data) was established in the late Middle Formative period and then significantly augmented during the Guillén phase. The architectural program at Izapa saw its apogee during the Late Formative period, but was first established during the preceding centuries of the Middle Formative. Ten new AMS dates confirm the dating of the Escalón, Frontera, and Guillén phases to 750–100 cal b.c.
Ceramic analysis allowed us to differentiate quantitatively between midden deposits and construction fill through the site's occupation and to recognize domestic versus public spaces during the first centuries of the Izapa kingdom's coalescence. We identify late Middle Formative period middens based on the high density of ceramics in addition to good surface preservation of sherds and a lack of temporal mixing of types. The designation of high-artifact density middens contrasts with the contents of Late and Terminal Formative construction fill with lower ceramic sherd densities and mixing of temporally diagnostic types. Off-mound contexts (where construction fill was mined) had even lower ceramic densities than construction fill and the sherds were very eroded. Analysis of ceramic remains from late Middle Formative period midden deposits also allowed us to infer differences in public and domestic areas of the site during the first centuries of its occupation. Formal and metric variables from these ceramic assemblages identify dish-to-jar ratios that differentiate domestic contexts (with an assortment of vessel forms) from more publically oriented areas of the site (with more serving dishes). The differential distribution of rim diameters of fancy and plain dishes allows us to identify areas of Izapa where domestic activities predominate and indicate that more publically oriented feasting practices occurred at the site center near the main pyramid (Mound 30a) during the late Middle Formative period.
Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria parasitize pinniped pups in various locations worldwide. Four species have been described, two of which parasitize pinniped pups in the southern hemisphere: Uncinaria hamiltoni parasitizes Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis from the South American coast, and Uncinaria sanguinis parasitizes Neophoca cinerea from the Australian coast. However, their geographical ranges and host specificity are unknown. Uncinaria spp. are morphologically similar, but molecular analyses have allowed the recognition of new species in the genus Uncinaria. We used nuclear genetic markers (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA) and a mitochondrial genetic marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Uncinaria spp. parasitizing A. australis and O. flavescens from South American coasts (Atlantic and Pacific coasts). We compared our sequences with published Uncinaria sequences. A Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis was also used to delimit species, and principal component analysis was used to compare morphometry among Uncinaria specimens. Parasites were sampled from A. australis from Peru (12°S), southern Chile (42°S), and the Uruguayan coast, and from O. flavescens from northern Chile (24°S) and the Uruguayan coast. Morphometric differences were observed between Uncinaria specimens from both South American coasts and between Uncinaria specimens from A. australis in Peru and southern Chile. Phylogenetic and GMYC analyses suggest that south-eastern Pacific otariid species harbour U. hamiltoni and an undescribed putative species of Uncinaria. However, more samples from A. australis and O. flavescens are necessary to understand the phylogenetic patterns of Uncinaria spp. across the South Pacific.
This work presents the synthesis and characterization of TiO2 nanotubes (NTT) with chitosan (CS). In a first stage, electrochemical anodization of titanium foils was used to generate NTT in a membrane-type arrangement. From these experiments, suitable experimental conditions were selected. In a second stage, the synthesized NTT were detached from the titanium foils by sonication. In the third stage, the detached NTT were dispersed in an acid solution containing CS in various concentrations. Finally, the nanotubes-chitosan (NTT/CS) samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR). Our results showed that the NTT presented very regular tube morphology with -OH and Ti-O- functional groups on the surface. The interaction of NTT and chitosan was enhanced by increasing the time of contact during the synthesis of the titanium composites.