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The objective of this study was to examine the association of different personality traits on severity of addiction indexes and patterns of drug use level, in a sample of adolescent psychiatric patients with Substance Use Disorders (SUD), based on the dimensional model of Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) of the MMPI-A.
The Teen Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI), the MMPI-A, and an inventory of drug use pattern were administered to 73 psychiatric patients (M=16.0, SD=1.18 years old; 51% male).
Rho Spearman correlations showed significant associations between Disconstraint (DISC) and T-ASI indexes of drug and social problems (rho= .342, p= .003, and rho= .320, p= .006) and also between DISC in relation to level of cannabis use and other drugs than cocaine and amphetamines (rho= .334, p= .004, and rho= .274, p= .023). The dimension of Psychoticism (PSYC) and Aggressiveness (AGGR) showed slight association with cannabis use (rho= .236, p= .045, and rho= .247, p= .035). The Negative emotionality (NEGE) and Introversion (INTR) showed a moderate association with the T-ASI index of psychiatric problems (rho= .265, p=0.023, and rho=.256, p= .029) but not with drug problems.
The DISC trait could represent a good indicator of risk for drug related problems. High scores in PSYC and AGGR are slightly associated to increase level of cannabis use. While psychiatric complaints are associated with NEGE and INTR traits.
The use of psychiatric services has been associated with a wide range of clinical variables. However, information about the impact of adolescent personality pathology related to hospital admissions is limited.
To analyze the different combination of personality pathology associated to variables of psychiatric hospital admissions (number of admissions, total of days spent as psychiatric inpatient, average of days for admission, and number of admissions in a day care hospital).
The ICD-10 and DSM-IV modules of the semi-structured interview IPDE (International Personality Disorders Examination) were administered, in a sample of 107 adolescent psychiatric patients (M=15.8, SD=0.8 years old; age rank 15-17; 79% female).
Personality pathology group identified by the IPDE showed significantly higher number (p< .001) of psychiatric admissions (M=1.48) than no personality pathology group (M=0.57), but not significant higher number of admissions in a day care hospital. Psychotic patients showed the highest rate of admissions (M=2.88). In present sample, between 30% and 38% of all hospital admitted patients showed a Cluster B personality disorder (PD).The users of psychiatric inpatient services with a complex PD (two o more PD from different clusters) presents in average: 2-2.5 admissions, 34-53 total days spent as psychiatric inpatient, and 11-16 days on each admission.
Patients with psychotic disorders or complex PD were the highest users of inpatients services, but not of day care hospital admissions.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Maladie mentale et équilibre précaire, conditions de détention, réalisation du projet de soin, appréhension du placement en foyer, stigmatisation : ces facettes singulières s’expriment simultanément dans la prise en soin des patients Suisses détenus sous mesure pénale à des fins de placement institutionnel. Le malade psychique incarcéré sous article 59 du Code pénal suisse (20 % des détenus) voit sa peine suspendue au profit d’une incarcération dont la fin dépend, entre autres, de l’évolution du malade sur les critères de reconnaissance de la maladie et ceux de la dangerosité liée à la pathologie. Cette activité naissante (2012) s’adresse en premier lieu aux patients les plus démunis face aux changements (psychose, retard mental), le trouble psychique induisant souvent des mises en échec du patient face aux attentes de l’univers carcéral, incontournable pour accéder à la sortie. Cet accompagnement se veut lier des univers séparés par les murs, les prisons, les hôpitaux psychiatriques et les foyers et accompagner le détenu psychique à retrouver sa place dans la société. En s’appuyant notamment sur le concept de transition décrit par Meleis, et sur la gestion de situations complexes par la méthode de case management, cette liaison accompagne autant les soignants prenant en soin que les patients écroués soumis à cette complexité. Cette activité se trouve à la croisée du monde pénal et psychiatrique, soumis aux enjeux sociétaux actuels et majeurs en Suisse, la place du patient-détenu est un questionnement perpétuel pour eux comme pour nous, soignants. L’équipe actuelle se compose d’un infirmier case-manager de liaison et d’un psychiatre responsable du secteur psychiatrique dans une prison de haute sécurité ; l’activité se porte sur une mise en sens du parcours et du vécu auprès des patients, de coordination pour la cohérence des soins d’un milieu à l’autre.
Les personnes incarcérées présentent plus de problèmes de santé mentale que la population générale. L’environnement carcéral en soi peut provoquer des troubles mentaux et un haut niveau de stress mais, pour beaucoup de détenus, les troubles mentaux étaient préexistants à l’incarcération. Actuellement, les soins dispensés dans les prisons sont au centre d’enjeux sociopolitiques importants, ils représentent une opportunité d’améliorer la santé mentale des personnes incarcérées. Le but de cette étude est de constater la santé mentale des personnes incarcérées ainsi que leur perception du stress et d’explorer les relations entre leur santé mentale, leur perception du stress et leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques. Cette étude descriptive exploratoire a inclus 40 personnes incarcérées en détention avant jugement dans une prison préventive de Suisse selon une méthode d’échantillonnage non probabiliste par convenance. Les trois instruments utilisés afin de collecter les données sont l’échelle HoNOS-Secure-F, l’échelle du stress perçu et un questionnaire sociodémographique. Les résultats montrent que les domaines obtenant les scores les plus élevés au niveau de la santé mentale concernent les problèmes sociaux et les troubles du comportement. Les détenus présentant la plus mauvaise santé mentale sont incarcérés pour des délits relatifs aux mœurs. Les détenus souffrant d’antécédents psychiatriques présentent plus de problèmes sociaux durant leur détention. Les détenus souffrant de troubles liés à la consommation de substances ainsi que de troubles cognitifs ont la fréquence la plus élevée d’incarcérations. Dans cette étude, la santé mentale est associée de manière statistiquement significative avec le stress perçu. Les résultats de cette étude, discutés d’après le modèle conceptuel pour la promotion de la santé mentale et la prévention des troubles mentaux permettent de constater que les personnes incarcérées présentent un cumul de facteurs de risque pour la santé mentale, alors que les facteurs protecteurs de la santé mentale sont peu présents en milieu carcéral.
Pragmatic abilities play a crucial role in daily functioning and have been suggested to be impaired in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patterns of such deficits at the onset of the illness still needs to be elucidated.
To outline pragmatic abilities in the first episode of psychosis (FEP).
To evaluate pragmatic verbal performance and its relationship with pre-frontal abilities in FEP subjects recruited in a large randomized multi-center controlled study (GET UP).
58 FEP (mean age±SD:34±9 years; 46% males) and 58 1:1 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed on the metaphor and idiom comprehension subtask of the MEC Protocol and with WCST. A PAF Analysis with Promax rotation of open (=spontaneous explanations) and closed (=multiple choice) metaphors/idioms and WCST variables was conducted.
A 3-factor latent structure emerged in both groups but partially different patterns emerged. As for FEP, open metaphor/idiom explanations loaded into Factor 1 (Self-generated inferences); Factor 2 (Feedback-generated inferences) was loaded by WCST perseverative errors and by closed metaphor explanations. Finally, closed metaphors/idioms loaded into Factor 3 (Inhibition). As for HC, Factor 1 was similarly loaded but explained less variance; Factor 2 was qualitatively different (Reasoning, self+feedback-generated inferences), being loaded by the WCST number of categories and by open metaphors/idioms. Factor 3 was loaded by closed metaphors.
Findings suggest a shared underlying cognitive construct in self-generating perceptual inferences both for verbal pragmatics and pre-frontal skills in HC and patients, while a failure to integrate different sources of perceptual evidence is found only in FEP.
Poly-victims are described as subjects who experience extremely high levels of victimization. This condition is regularly associated with wide psychopathological distress. Children and adolescents are special risk collective for this type of victimization.
To describe and analyze more frequents mental health problems in adolescents with different levels of victimization.
A community sample of 895 adolescents (M = 15.7; SD = 1.3 years old) was subdivided into several groups taking as reference the number of victimizations suffered in the last year, obtained from the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. Resulting groups were as follows: those adolescents presenting no type of victimization, the group below average, a group above average and the group of poly-victimized adolescents. Mental health problems were identified with the Youth Self Report, analyzing specifically the DSM syndrome scales.
The group of poly-victimized adolescents presented more significant (p<.05) affective, anxious symptomatology with attention and behavior problems, post-traumatic and obssesive compulsive disturbances, even after Bonferroni's post-hoc contrast regarding the other groups. On the other hand, somatic and oppositional defiant problems were perceived with same intensity between the group above average and the poly-victimized group in front of the groups below victimizations average.
Poly-victimization in adolescents is associated to larger symptomatology patterns and mental health problems development.
Study of mental disorders phenomenology is a field increasingly developing. The Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a methodology that allows to capture mental microprocesses fluctuations in the moment they happen.
To explain the development of an application based on EMA methodology by using smartphones, for assessing several criteria of autism spectrum disorders in adolescents with Asperger syndrome.
The application assesses several contexts among them situational, personal contact, interests fields, communicative interaction, satisfaction level, and feelings. Additionally, it is applied a cognitive (WISC-IV) and psychopathological (ADOS-G, CBCL, STAI, CDI) assessment.
Preliminary results suggest that adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome present a response rate of about 90%. They tend to spend more time with parents and tuthors taking care of them. They present anxiety peaks when they live together with groups of three or more persons. The activity mostly registered in their everyday life is resting. Besides, they regularly have a feeling that they understand the others and that are understood by the others when they communicate orally.
The Ecological Momentary Assessment can be a methodology very useful for understanding the daily dynamics of persons with Asperger syndrome. It is not intrusive and is very useful for the contents that provides to the clinician or researcher.
The presence of comorbid personality pathology with other psychiatric disorders, imposes a worse prognosis in the development of therapeutic intervention. Additionally, this construct is usually related to stigma effect in clinical settings. Information about this effect, associated with psychiatric disorders in adolescence, is limited and little recognized.
The clinical diagnosis of personality disorder in adolescence tends to be conservative and unspecific.
To examine the prevalence of personality disorder, and the involvement of stigma effect in adolescents with Axis I psychiatric disorders.
A sample of 100 patients with psychiatric disorders (M = 15.8, SD = 0.9 years, range 15-17, 70% women), were assessed and diagnosed for personality disorders in a mental health public centre.
The prevalence of PD identified by clinicians (12%), differs from the prevalence identified by the semi-structured interview (34–37%) showing a greater number (p < .001) of people affected. In the present sample most of the cases identified by clinicians are related to personality disorders (PD) not otherwise specified, while with the implementation of semi-structured interviews, most of the sample met criteria for Cluster B PDs. Additionally, 11% of the sample has dimensional pathological features (probable PD) without complying categorically the criteria for a full PD.
In clinical settings, a considerable proportion of adolescents with psychopathology meet features for PD, although few of them have a confirmed clinical diagnosis. Considerations about impact of the stigma are discussed.
Bipolar disorder (BD) commonly co-occurs with anxiety disorders (AD) and this comorbidity has been associated to worse clinical outcomes in BD patients. However frequency and clinical outcomes data might be biased once some of them had been originated from acutely ill bipolar patients as well as those in remission.
To assess AD in bipolar sample in order to know if this frequency vary according illness phase and identify possible clinical outcomes related to this comorbidity.
A population of 355 outpatients with bipolar I disorder were evaluated using structured instruments (SCID). The sample was split into four groups considering the illness phase and the presence of AD: euthymic without AD (euthymic/non- AD); euthymic with AD (euthimic/AD); non-euthymic without AD (non-euthymic/non-AD) and non-euthymic with AD (noneuthymic/ AD) groups. Clinical and socio-demographics differences between the groups were compared through bivariate analysis.
There was a progressive and significantly increasing in some worst clinical outcomes frequency, such as rapid cycling, suicide attempts, substance and alcohol use disorders, history of antidepressant use and decreased scores in all domains of QoL, from control group (euthymic /non-AD) through out intermediate group (non-euthymic/non-AD) until the group most affected (non-euthymic/AD). Both euthymic/non-AD and euthimic/AD groups did not differ.
We identified a group of severe bipolar patients that have worse clinical outcomes, and among them, the anxiety comorbidity. But, contrary to what has been stated, AD appears to be related with poor bipolar prognosis only when other severity clinical factors are presents.
Several studies have reported that immigrant adolescents suffer high rates of victimization. Polyvictimization was established as a well predictor of mental health problems. Many authors have highlighted the need to study immigrant adolescents’ community as they were immersed in a stressful process.
The aim is to assess multiple types of victimization (polyvictimization) and mental health problems among immigrants (first and second generation) in comparison to native adolescents.
The sample was composed of 296 adolescents (62.2% girls) aged 13-18 (M = 15.63; SD = 1.19) in Catalonia. Participants were distributed in three groups: native (50%), first (34%) and second (16%) generation immigrants. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Youth Self Report were used to assess victimization experiences during the last year and psychological distress, respectively.
Immigrant and native adolescents were comparable in average of total victimizations and in different types of victimization. Nevertheless, significant differences were shown among first immigrant generation and natives in relation to child maltreatment (p = .005). Significant associations were found between multiple kinds of victimization and mental health problems. However, for first immigrant generation who had experienced multiple victimizations were more associated with internalizing symptoms, while victimized native adolescents were more associated with externalizing symptoms.
Results emphasized the importance to assess victimization experiences which were suffered by adolescents, and also suggested that polyvictimization will be associated differently depend on the migration status group of the adolescents with mental health problems.
Often, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can present deficits for acquiring superior level of theory of mind (ToM) in the detection of false beliefs o blunder situations. The objective of this study is to assess 51 subjects with a primary education level (18 with ASD compared to 33 control subjects) comparing ToM level by using the test of Faux Pas test by Baron-Cohen et al. (1999) in two groups divided in 2 layers by age of 7 and 11 years. Results showed significant differences in this construct (ToM) between control group and ASD group only at the age of 11 years (z-score = 2.26; P = .023), but not at the age of 7 years (z-score = 1.89; P = .062). This suggests that ToM's superior capacity acquires greater expression and maturity towards late childhood, just before transition to adolescence stage.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Bullying at school and victimization problems in adolescence have a negative impact in personal identity development specifically in mental health field.
To analyze coping profiles used in a communitarian adolescents sample in relation to victimization among peers and controlling the other victimization subtypes.
From Barcelona Metropolitan area, 1031 adolescents between 12 and 20 years old participated (37.5% boys; 15.7% foreigners). The different coping strategies were assessed with adolescent coping orientation for problem experiences test and the victimization types with juvenile victimization questionnaire.
A 46.2% of adolescents suffered a victimization event by peers in the last year. As victimization level by peers advance, it presents an increase of unproductive coping strategies (P < .001; d-Cohen = 0.92). Regularly women score higher than men in low and moderate victimization groups (P < .05). However, when it reaches the highest expression (higher risk profile), unproductive strategies use in both genders is very similar and significant differences disappear. The results show that avoidant coping type is associated with a higher rate of victimization by peers. Positive relationship between previous victimization in other areas and peer victimization rate was found.
It is of high importance to develop and strengthen coping psychoeducation programs centered in solving this problem and struggling against victimization consequences by peers in adolescence. Due to that, increase of this victimization type is very related to the use of unproductive strategies use and therefore a coping by avoiding the problem.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In preceding chapters, we provided a detailed review of the research and practice of four common, evidence-based psychotherapy approaches for older adults: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), and brief dynamic psychotherapy (BDP). However, many other psychological treatments exist and are of potential interest to the clinician treating older adults. These include all the varieties of cognitive and behavioral therapies; third-wave cognitive behavioral treatments such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT); mindfulness-based approaches such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR); combined approaches such as those used to treat substance use disorders in the elderly that involve cognitive and behavioral strategies, motivational interviewing, and a 12-step approach; treatments with unique proposed mechanisms, including life review and reminiscence therapies (RT); and treatments for unique conditions such as complicated grief. In addition, numerous other psychosocial/nonpharmacologic treatments do not act directly on psychological processes but are also of interest to the clinician; these include music and art therapy and even garden therapy.
Reducing saturated fat (SFA) intake can lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and thereby cardiovascular disease (CVD) but there are no brief interventions sufficiently scalable to achieve this. The Primary Care Shopping Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention (PC-SHOP) study developed and tested a behavioural intervention to provide health professional (HP) advice alone or in combination with personalised feedback on food shopping, which was delivered using a bespoke tool that created a nutritional profile of the grocery shopping based on loyalty card data from the UK largest supermarket.
Participants with raised LDL-cholesterol were randomly allocated to one of three groups: ‘No Intervention’ (n = 17), ‘Brief Support’ (BS, n = 48), ‘Brief Support plus Shopping Feedback’ (BSSF, n = 48). BS consisted of a 10-minute consultation with a nurse to inform and motivate participants to reduce their SFA intake. The BSSF group received brief support as well as personalised feedback on the SFA content of their grocery shopping including lower SFA swaps. The primary outcome was the between-group difference in the change between baseline and 3 months in SFA intake (% total energy intake) adjusted for baseline SFA intake and GP practice. The trial was powered to detect a reduction in SFA of 3% (SD3).
There was no evidence of a difference between the groups. Changes in SFA intake from baseline to follow-up were: -0.7% (SD3.5) in BS, -0.9% (SD3.6) in BSSF and -0.1% (SD3.3) with no intervention. Compared to no intervention, the adjusted difference in SFA intake was -0.33%; 95%CI -2.11, 1.44 with BS and -0.11%; 95%CI -1.92, 1.69 with BSSF. There was no significant difference in total energy intake (BS: -152kcal; 95%CI -513, 209; BSSF: -152kcal; 95%CI -516, 211); body weight (BS: -1.0 kg; 95%CI -2.5, 0.5; BSSF: -0.6 kg 95%CI -2.1, 1.0); or LDL-cholesterol (BS: -0.15mmol/L; 95%CI -0.47, 0.16; BSSF: -0.04mmol/L; 95%CI -0.28, 0.36) compared to no intervention.
This trial shows that it is feasible to deliver brief advice in primary care to encourage reductions in SFA intake and we have developed a system to provide personalised advice to encourage healthier choices using supermarket loyalty data. This small trial showed no evidence of large benefits but we are unable to exclude more modest benefits. Even a reduction of 1% in SFA intake when replaced by polyunsaturated fat may reduce CVD incidence by 8%, suggesting that a larger trial to assess whether benefits of this size may occur is now warranted.
COVID-19 has had a profound impact on migrants and refugees the world over. Their pre-existing vulnerabilities were immediately exacerbated as national health systems were often overwhelmed and many disease control measures were either inaccessible to them or had disproportionate socio-economic effects. But migrants and refugees have also been framed as prima facie causes for the transboundary spread of the virus, and public health exception and derogation clauses in both national and international refugee and human rights instruments have been used to block their entry, suspend asylum processing, or trigger deportations. Taking the example of Brazil as a point of departure, the present contribution argues that (for at least some states) the appearance of the virus seems to have served as a legal carte blanche for fundamentally reconfiguring or closing down border regimes. More specifically, we argue that the strategic mainstreaming of global health regulations into border regimes points to the emergence of a “pandemic law” that encroaches upon already fragile transnational legal regime complexes, with the potential to upend or hollow out existing frameworks for migrant and refugee protection.
To compare functional endoscopic sinus surgery with a combined approach (functional endoscopic sinus surgery plus Caldwell–Luc procedure) for the treatment of paediatric antrochoanal polyp, in terms of antrochoanal polyp recurrence and safety.
This retrospective case series comprises 27 paediatric patients with recurrent antrochoanal polyp, treated from January 2010 to January 2018.
The average age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 10.4 ± 2.49 years. The recurrence rate after functional endoscopic sinus surgery alone was 72.9 per cent, compared with 12.5 per cent after functional endoscopic sinus surgery plus the Caldwell–Luc procedure (p < 0.00001). No complications were reported during surgery or follow up.
The correct identification of the origin of the antrochoanal polyp and an adequate returning of maxillary ventilation by widening the ostium can prevent recurrences. Although functional endoscopic sinus surgery continues to be the ‘gold standard’ for antrochoanal polyp treatment, in cases of revision surgery, a combined approach could ensure the complete removal of the polyp through the two openings.
Introduction: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) most commonly occurs in non-monitored areas, where we observed a 10min delay before defibrillation (Phase I). Nurses (RNs) and respiratory therapists (RTs) cannot legally use Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) during IHCA without a medical directive. We sought to evaluate IHCA outcomes following usual implementation (Phase II) vs. a Theory-Based educational program (Phase III) allowing RNs and RTs to use AEDs during IHCA. Methods: We completed a pragmatic before-after study of consecutive IHCA. We used ICD-10 codes to identify potentially eligible cases and included IHCA cases for which resuscitation was attempted. We obtained consensus on all data definitions before initiation of standardized-piloted data extraction by trained investigators. Phase I (Jan.2012-Aug.2013) consisted of baseline data. We implemented the AED medical directive in Phase II (Sept.2013-Aug.2016) using usual implementation strategies. In Phase III (Sept.2016-Dec.2017) we added an educational video informed by key constructs from a Theory of Planned Behavior survey. We report univariate comparisons of Utstein IHCA outcomes using 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: There were 753 IHCA for which resuscitation was attempted with the following similar characteristics (Phase I n = 195; II n = 372; III n = 186): median age 68, 60.0% male, 79.3% witnessed, 29.7% non-monitored medical ward, 23.9% cardiac cause, 47.9% initial rhythm of pulseless electrical activity and 27.2% ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia (VF/VT). Comparing Phases I, II and III: an AED was used 0 times (0.0%), 21 times (5.6%), 15 times (8.1%); time to 1st rhythm analysis was 6min, 3min, 1min; and time to 1st shock was 10min, 10min and 7min. Comparing Phases I and III: time to 1st shock decreased by 3min (95%CI -7; 1), sustained ROSC increased from 29.7% to 33.3% (AD3.6%; 95%CI -10.8; 17.8), and survival to discharge increased from 24.6% to 25.8% (AD1.2%; 95%CI -7.5; 9.9). In the VF/VT subgroup, time to first shock decreased from 9 to 3 min (AD-6min; 95%CI -12; 0) and survival increased from 23.1% to 38.7% (AD15.6%; 95%CI -4.3; 35.4). Conclusion: The implementation of a medical directive allowing for AED use by RNs and RRTs successfully improved key outcomes for IHCA victims, particularly following the Theory-Based education video. The expansion of this project to other hospitals and health care professionals could significantly impact survival for VF/VT patients.
The present commentary contains a clear and simple guide designed to identify ultra-processed foods. It responds to the growing interest in ultra-processed foods among policy makers, academic researchers, health professionals, journalists and consumers concerned to devise policies, investigate dietary patterns, advise people, prepare media coverage, and when buying food and checking labels in shops or at home. Ultra-processed foods are defined within the NOVA classification system, which groups foods according to the extent and purpose of industrial processing. Processes enabling the manufacture of ultra-processed foods include the fractioning of whole foods into substances, chemical modifications of these substances, assembly of unmodified and modified food substances, frequent use of cosmetic additives and sophisticated packaging. Processes and ingredients used to manufacture ultra-processed foods are designed to create highly profitable (low-cost ingredients, long shelf-life, emphatic branding), convenient (ready-to-consume), hyper-palatable products liable to displace all other NOVA food groups, notably unprocessed or minimally processed foods. A practical way to identify an ultra-processed product is to check to see if its list of ingredients contains at least one item characteristic of the NOVA ultra-processed food group, which is to say, either food substances never or rarely used in kitchens (such as high-fructose corn syrup, hydrogenated or interesterified oils, and hydrolysed proteins), or classes of additives designed to make the final product palatable or more appealing (such as flavours, flavour enhancers, colours, emulsifiers, emulsifying salts, sweeteners, thickeners, and anti-foaming, bulking, carbonating, foaming, gelling and glazing agents).
Disordered iron oxide thin-films synthesized from grain-oriented iron foils were grown on both glass and Si (100) n-type substrates by vacuum evaporation followed by thermal oxidation at low temperatures. Defects such as vacancies formation has been studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Raman Spectroscopy. The kinetic of oxidation as a function of surface parameters was investigated by AFM studies. The vibrational modes (bands) connected with the vacancies formation and magnetic ordering into the iron oxide structure were validated by Raman spectroscopy. Space-charge effects can be influenced by discontinuous growth of iron oxide and correlated with their structure parameters. Finally, the disordered iron oxide will be useful for the next generation of adaptive oxide devices.