Human brucellosis occurs when humans ingest or contact Brucella spp. from shedding animals or contaminated environments and food. In Georgia animal and human brucellosis is endemic, but the epidemiology has not been fully characterized. A case-control study was conducted in 2010 to identify risk factors for human brucellosis. Using multivariable logistic regression, the following risk factors were identified: animal-related work [odds ratio (OR) 77·8, 90% confidence interval (CI) 4·7–1278], non-animal-related work (OR 12·7, 90% CI 1·1–149), being unemployed or a pensioner (OR 13·1, 90% CI 1·7, 101), sheep ownership (OR 19·3, 90% CI 5·1–72·6), making dairy products (OR 12·4, 90% CI 1·4–113), living in eastern Georgia (Kakheti) (OR 278·1, 90% CI 9·5–8100), and being aged >44 years (OR 9·3, 90% CI 1·02–84·4). Education of at-risk groups about risk factors and control of disease in sheep may reduce the human disease risk. This is the first study of its kind in Georgia since the collapse of the Soviet Union.