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We study exact sequences of finite tensor categories of the form Rep G → 𝒞 → 𝒟, where G is a finite group. We show that, under suitable assumptions, there exists a group Γ and mutual actions by permutations ⊳ : Γ × G → G and ⊲ : Γ × G→ Γ that make (G, Γ) into matched pair of groups endowed with a natural crossed action on 𝒟 such that 𝒞 is equivalent to a certain associated crossed extension 𝒟(G,Γ) of 𝒟. Dually, we show that an exact sequence of finite tensor categories VecG → 𝒞 → 𝒟 induces an Aut(G)-grading on 𝒞 whose neutral homogeneous component is a (Z(G), Γ)-crossed extension of a tensor subcategory of 𝒟. As an application we prove that such extensions 𝒞 of 𝒟 are weakly group-theoretical fusion categories if and only if 𝒟 is a weakly group-theoretical fusion category. In particular, we conclude that every semisolvable semisimple Hopf algebra is weakly group-theoretical.
Some 25 years after the world wide web was born at the CERN (http://home.web.cern.ch/topics/birth-web) in Geneva in 1993, it should come as no wonder that most of the information we process today is produced and used in digital form. Capable of reproducing most of the pre-existing information carriers such as texts, pictures, sounds and films, the digital format is progressively replacing many of the former media. This process implies there will be profound changes in the daily practices of both scholars in the field of humanities and information professionals.
Understanding changes induced by the influence of digital media within professional practices remains a critical task. As Michel de Certeau reminds us, there is more to learn about the evolution of scientific disciplines through the analysis of the conditions of their production than through their scientific outputs (1975, 65). This chapter proposes to shed light on the current changes of practices within the humanities and to outline several recommendations for a closer collaboration between humanities scholars and information professionals in order to achieve a thoughtful use of digital media.
The first part of the chapter introduces the digital humanities, a field of practices situated at the crossroads between information sciences and the humanities, which has experienced a rapid growth in the past few years. It discusses the origins and scope of digital humanities, as well as the question of its definition. The close association between digital humanities and information sciences is also highlighted.
The second part shifts the focus from digital practices to professional collaborations and analyses the evolving relationship between researchers and information professionals under the influence of digital information systems. Recent changes in the use of libraries and archives are discussed, drawing from recent surveys about information practices among humanities scholars.
Finally, in the third part are recommendations on how to improve this relationship in a digital environment. It draws on previous points in order to propose some ways to introduce a closer collaboration between information professionals and humanities scholars within the context of the digital information landscape. In particular, it advocates the benefits of enhancing the visibility of documentary mediations in online environments.
It is known that tungsten oxide may be reacted with selenium sources to form WSe2 but literature reports include processing steps that involve high temperatures, reducing atmospheres, and/or oxidative pre-treatments of tungsten oxide. In this work, we report a non-vacuum process for the fabrication of compositionally high quality WSe2 thin films via the selenization of tungsten oxide under milder conditions. Tungsten source materials were various hydrated WO3 and WO2.9 compounds that were prepared using chemical solution techniques. Resulting films were selenized using a two-stage heating profile (250 °C for 15 minutes and 550 °C for 30 minutes) under a static argon atmosphere. Effects of the starting tungsten oxide phase on WSe2 formation after single and double selenization cycles were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After two selenization cycles, hydrated WO3 was converted to (002)-oriented WSe2 that exhibits well-resolved peaks for E12g and A1g phonon modes. Only a single selenization cycle was required to convert amorphous WO2.9 to WSe2. All selenizations in this work were achieved in non-reducing atmospheres and at lower temperatures and shorter times than any non-laser-assisted processes reported for WO3-to-WSe2 conversions.
We evaluated the extent to which providing training and technical assistance to early childcare centre (ECC) directors, faculty and staff in the implementation of evidence-based nutrition strategies improved the nutrition contexts, policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse, low-income children in Broward County, Florida, USA. The nutrition strategies targeted snack and beverage policies and practices, consistent with Caring for Our Children National Standards.
We used the nutrition observation and document review portions of the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) instrument to observe ECC as part of a one-group pre-test/post-test evaluation design.
ECC located within areas of high rates of poverty, diabetes, minority representation and unhealthy food index in Broward County, Florida, USA.
Eighteen ECC enrolled, mean 112·9 (sd 53·4) children aged 2–5 years; 12·3 (sd 7·2) staff members; and 10·2 (sd 4·6) children per staff member at each centre.
We found significant improvements in centres’ overall nutrition contexts, as measured by total EPAO nutrition scores (P=0·01). ECC made specific significant gains within written nutrition policies (P=0·03) and nutrition training and education (P=0·01).
Our findings support training ECC directors, faculty and staff in evidence-based nutrition strategies to improve the nutrition policies and practices of ECC serving racially and ethnically diverse children from low-income families. The intervention resulted in improvements in some nutrition policies and practices, but not others. There remains a need to further develop the evaluation base involving the effectiveness of policy and practice interventions within ECC serving children in high-need areas.
During oestrus, fattening female pigs are more prone to lameness, fractures and wounds due to mounting and agonistic behaviours of penmates. This study assessed the effect of sexual maturity on the behaviour and welfare of heavy female pigs slaughtered at 36 weeks of age (180±10 kg) for dry-cured ham production. An immunocastrated control group was used for comparison. In all, 56 15-week-old female pigs, individually identifiable by back tattoos were equally distributed among four pens. All animals from two pens were subject to a three-dose immunocastration schedule at 16, 20 and 32 weeks of age. Skin lesions and behaviours were assessed at 18, 23, 28, 33 and 36 weeks of age. A blood sample was collected at 20, 24, 28 and 32 weeks of age for assessing health/stress parameters and GnRH antibodies. At slaughter, ovaries were weighed, measured and histologically examined; stomachs, carcasses and lungs were scored for lesions and a further blood sample was taken. Immunocastrated pigs did not significantly differ from controls in growth rate, feed efficiency and slaughter performances (lung score, gastric score, backfat thickness). However, they showed a lower frequency of aggressive interactions at 33 and 36 weeks, lower front lesions at 28 weeks, but higher at 30 weeks; a lower haptoglobin level at 28 weeks, a lower level of cortisol and back lesions at slaughter (36 weeks). These findings suggest a low, yet not negligible, impact of sexual maturity on the welfare of heavy female pigs.
We determined the hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence and detection rate in commercial swine herds in Italy's utmost pig-rich area, and assessed HEV seropositivity risk in humans as a function of occupational exposure to pigs, diet, foreign travel, medical history and hunting activities. During 2011–2014, 2700 sera from 300 swine herds were tested for anti-HEV IgG. HEV RNA was searched in 959 faecal pools from HEV-seropositive herds and in liver/bile/muscle samples from 179 pigs from HEV-positive herds. A cohort study of HEV seropositivity in swine workers (n = 149) was also performed using two comparison groups of people unexposed to swine: omnivores (n = 121) and vegetarians/vegans (n = 115). Herd-level seroprevalence was 75·6% and was highest in farrow-to-feeder herds (81·6%). Twenty-six out of 105 (24·8%) herds had HEV-positive faecal samples (25 HEV-3, one HEV-4). Only one bile sample tested positive. HEV seropositivity was 12·3% in swine workers, 0·9% in omnivores and 3·0% in vegetarians/vegans. Factors significantly associated with HEV seropositivity were occupational exposure to pigs, travel to Africa and increased swine workers’ age. We concluded that HEV is widespread in Italian swine herds and HEV-4 circulation is alarming given its pathogenicity, with those occupationally exposed to pigs being at increased risk of HEV seropositivity.
Many heterogeneous and flat two dimensional (2D) materials with finite band gap have been researched for its suitability in exotic applications. For instance, zinc oxide (ZnO) with honey comb structure has optimum band gap that makes it eligible for opto-electronic applications. Recently, our research group have found that pyrene based tetratopic ligands (PTL) are suitable for functionalizing ZnO nanorods. In this study, neat and defective 2D ZnO layer is functionalized with different pyrene based ligands with various functional groups. First principles calculations are done and the degree of affinity of pyrene ligands towards neat and defective ZnO sheets is compared.
We report preliminary results relative to a balloon-borne search for the large-scale anisotropy carried out in 1980 by means of two far infrared photometers centered at 400 and 1100 microns. While these results are consistent with those obtained in an earlier flight, the second, shorter wavelength channel included in the 1980 work provides interesting insights into the influence of galactic dust on such far infrared observations.
We present the current activity of the Arcetri group in the field of water masers. This is mainly represented by observations with the Medicina radiotelescope, whose main outcome has been the compilation of the Arcetri Catalog and the study of time variability of selected sources. The Arcetri Catalog update reports the results of the observations carried out from January 1993 to April 2000 on a sample of 300 sources. The global properties of the complete Arcetri Catalog (including Comoretto et al. 1990, and Brand et al. 1994) are discussed. Of the 1013 sources, 937 have an IRAS counterpart within 1 arcmin from the nominal position of the maser. We establish a classification scheme based on the IRAS flux densities which allows to distinguish between water masers associated with star forming regions and late-type stars. The time variability study shows a large variety of behaviors. Generally more luminous sources present less variable emission and spectral components over a wider velocity range.
In this work, we study active particles with prescribed surface velocities in non-Newtonian fluids. We employ the reciprocal theorem to obtain the velocity of an active spherical particle with an arbitrary axisymmetric slip velocity in an otherwise quiescent second-order fluid. We then determine how the motion of a diffusiophoretic Janus particle is affected by complex fluid rheology, namely viscoelasticity and shear-thinning viscosity, compared to a Newtonian fluid, assuming a fixed slip velocity. We find that a Janus particle may go faster or slower in a viscoelastic fluid, but is always slower in a shear-thinning fluid as compared to a Newtonian fluid.
This study was aimed at comparing in-field parameters and remote sensing NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) by both satellite (SAT) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for the assessment of early nitrogen (N) status and prediction of yield in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Six increasing N rates, i.e., 0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg N ha−1 were applied, half at tillering and half at shooting. Thus, when the crop N status was monitored between the two N applications, consecutive N treatments differentiated from each other by just 20 kg N ha−1. The following in-field and remote sensed parameters were compared as indicators of crop vegetative and N status: plant N% (w:w) concentration; crop N uptake (Nupt); ratio between transmitted and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PARt/PARi); leaf SPAD values, an indirect index for chlorophyll content; SAT and UAV derived NDVI. As reliable indicators of wheat N availability, in-field parameters were ranked as follows: PARt/PARi ≅ Nupt > SPAD ≅ N%. The PARt/PARi, Nupt and SPAD resulted quite strongly correlated to each other. At all crop stages, the NDVI was strongly correlated with PARt/PARi and Nupt. It is of relevance that NDVI correlated quite strongly to in-field parameters and grain yield at shooting, i.e., before the second N application, when the N rate can still be adjusted. The SAT and UAV NDVIs were strongly correlated to each other, which means they can be used alternatively depending on the context.
Modern research makes frequent use of animal models, that is, organisms raised and bred experimentally in order to help the understanding of biological and chemical processes affecting organisms or whole environments. The development of flexible, reprogrammable and modular systems that may help the automatic production of ‘not-easy-to-keep’ species is important for scientific purposes and for such aquaculture needs as the production of alive foods, the culture of small larvae and the test of new culture procedures. For this reason, we planned and built a programmable experimental system adaptable to the culture of various aquatic organisms, at different developmental stages. The system is based on culture cylinders contained into operational tanks connected to water conditioning tanks. A programmable central processor unit controls the operations, that is, water changes, temperature, light irradiance, the opening and closure of valves for the discharge of unused foods, water circulation and filtration and disinfection systems, according to the information received by various probes. Various devices may be set to modify water circulation and water changes to fulfil the needs of given organisms, to avoid damage of delicate structures, improve feeding performances and reduce the risk of movements over the water surface. The results obtained indicate that the system is effective in the production of shrimp larvae, being able to produce Hippolyte inermis post-larvae with low mortality as compared with the standard operation procedures followed by human operators. Therefore, the patented prototype described in the present study is a possible solution to automate and simplify the rearing of small invertebrates in the laboratory and in production plants.
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the differences in the risks of union dissolution between cohabitors and non-cohabitors in Uganda have converged over time using event history data. Data were collected in 2013 from 1200 women in central Uganda using retrospective methods. Of these, 839 provided information on three types of first union: women who married directly (without first cohabiting), those who married following cohabitation and those who were still cohabiting. The data were analysed using decrement lifetable analysis. Though the analysis indicated a small difference in the timing of first union dissolution for women who married directly, no evidence was found that the difference in the risk of union dissolution between cohabitors and non-cohabitors had converged over the 9-year period following first union. Women’s union/marriage status, number of living children in a union, parental union status and birth cohort were found to significantly influence the timing of union dissolution. Overall, the rate of union dissolution was fairly high, regardless of type of union.
Maximum time-to-rescue has been studied accurately for many earthquakes in the years 1985-2004. No study is available for historical quakes.
This study aimed to evaluate long-term survivors (from the fifth day after the quake) of the Messina-Reggio Calabria earthquake (1908; Italy), which is considered, historically, to be the worst seismic event in Europe.
Accurate readings of 11 national newspapers from the fifth day after the quake looking for rescued persons and transferring, to an ad hoc form, all data relating to each rescued person.
The maximum time-to rescue was 20 days. There were 225 survivors, among them 51 children (22.6 %). For 23 out 225 rescued persons, there was evidence of availability of foods and drinkable fluids while under the rubble.
The maximum time-to-rescue under the debris following this historical earthquake far exceeds that of all other quakes that occurred in the years 1985-2004. The long survival under debris was probably due to the lack of an order to stop search and rescue. Recent strategies reducing the time for search and rescue carry the risk of missing survivors.
De SantoNG, BisacciaC, De SantoLS. Maximum Time-to-Rescue After the 1908 Messina-Reggio Calabria Earthquake was 20 Days: Hints for Disaster Planning?Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):249–252.
WSe2 films have been fabricated using a low-temperature, two-step method involving the reaction of W(CO)6 and elemental selenium in refluxing (110 °C) toluene to form a nanocrystalline precursor consisting of amorphous tungsten and trigonal crystalline selenium. Drop cast or airbrush-deposited films of this precursor were annealed in an argon atmosphere using a two-step temperature ramp (250 °C for 15 min followed by 550 °C for 30 min). Raman and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization as well as the measured bandgaps of the resulting films are consistent with (002)-oriented WSe2 and are compared to the characterization of films produced via selenization of sputtered tungsten films in closed quartz tubes at 875 °C.
The first results of an optical method for measuring radiocarbon concentrations, based on mid-infrared laser spectroscopy of a carbon dioxide gas sample, are presented with the theoretical bases explained in detail. The first measurements on modern and highly enriched samples show the extreme linearity of this technique over more than 5 decades. An intercomparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is performed both for modern and 14C-dead samples, assessing the almost perfect agreement of their respectively measured concentration values. The main features of our technique are compared with liquid scintillation counting (LSC) and AMS, and future developments of the current setup are discussed.
The development of medical school courses on medical responses for disaster victims has been deemed largely inadequate. To address this gap, a 2-week elective course on Terror Medicine (a field related to Disaster and Emergency Medicine) has been designed for fourth year students at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School in Newark, New Jersey (USA). This elective is part of an overall curricular plan to broaden exposure to topics related to Terror Medicine throughout the undergraduate medical education.
A course on Terror Medicine necessarily includes key aspects of Disaster and Emergency Medicine, though the converse is not the case. Courses on Disaster Medicine may not address features distinctively associated with a terror attack. Thus, a terror-related focus not only assures attention to this important subject but to accidental or naturally occurring incidents as well.
The course, implemented in 2014, uses a variety of teaching modalities including lectures, videos, and tabletop and hands-on simulation exercises. The subject matter includes biological and chemical terrorism, disaster management, mechanisms of injury, and psychiatry. This report outlines the elective’s goals and objectives, describes the course syllabus, and presents outcomes based on student evaluations of the initial iterations of the elective offering.
All students rated the course as “excellent” or “very good.” Evaluations included enthusiastic comments about the content, methods of instruction, and especially the value of the simulation exercises. Students also reported finding the course novel and engaging.
An elective course on Terror Medicine, as described, is shown to be feasible and successful. The student participants found the content relevant to their education and the manner of instruction effective. This course may serve as a model for other medical schools contemplating the expansion or inclusion of Terror Medicine-related topics in their curriculum.
ColeLA, NatalB, FoxA, CooperA, KennedyCA, ConnellND, SugalskiG, KulkarniM, FeravoloM, LambaS. A Course on Terror Medicine: Content and Evaluations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(1):98–101.
It may be assumed that increased public awareness of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) together with the availability of efficacious treatment will result in diagnostic evaluation at earlier stages of cognitive decline and diagnosis of dementia due to AD at earlier stages.
All persons that were examined at a university based memory clinic, in Germany, between 1985 and 2009 were included.
In the 3,951 persons identified, linear regression analysis revealed a positive association between Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and year of initial examination (yearIE) (β = 0.266; p < 0.001). In the 1,821 patients diagnosed with dementia due to AD, a positive association between MMSE score and yearIE (β = 0.230; p < 0.001) was revealed. MMSE scores were higher (β = 0.195; p < 0.001) after the introduction of cholinesterase inhibitors in Germany in 1997.
Diagnostic evaluation of individuals occurred at progressively earlier stages of cognitive decline. Dementia due to AD was diagnosed at progressively earlier stages, and this trend was associated with the availability of efficacious treatment. This is the first study on changes in patient referral and diagnosis based on a continuous 25 years period.