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Thermal processing steps in the production of packaged integrated circuits can lead to thermomechanical stresses. Additionally, the process of bonding wires to contact pads can lead to strain fields attributable to these. Synchrotron x-ray topography has been applied to packaged EEPROM Si ICs in order to produce maps of the strain fields induced by such processing steps. This technique allows for depth-resolved mapping with resolutions currently in the region of 5–10 μm throughout the entire mapping volume.
Large area transmission and section topographs of semi-insulating gallium arsenide wafers grown by the gradient freeze technique are made with synchrotron radiation at HASYLAB in Hamburg and at ESRF in Grenoble. Several high-resolution images including stereo pairs are obtained on the same film at a time. A typical dislocation line is an arc of a circle which starts from one surface and ends at the same surface. From the disappearance of the dislocation image and using the g · b = 0 criterion it is concluded that the Burgers vector b of the most common dislocations is parallel to 〈110〉. Rather large volumes of the wafer are dislocation-free. Section topographs of epitaxial wafers show defects and strain fields at the interface between an n-type substrate and the epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. The results are compared with those obtained from detector performance measurements.
Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography techniques, in section and large-area transmission modes, have been applied to the evaluation of ELOG GaN on A12O3. Using the openings in 100 nm thick SiO2 windows, a new GaN growth took place, which resulted in typical overgrowth thicknesses of 6.8 μm. Measurements on the recorded Laue patterns indicate that the misorientation of GaN with respect to the sapphire substrate (excluding a 30° rotation between them) varies considerably along various crystalline directions, reaching a maximum of a ∼0.66° rotation of the (0001) plane about the [01•1] axis. This is ∼3% smaller than the misorientation measured in the non-ELOG reference, which reached a maximum of 0.68°. This misorientation varies measurably as the stripe or window dimensions are changed. The quality of the ELOG epilayers is improved when compared to the non- ELOG samples, though some local deviations from lattice coherence were observed. Long range and large-scale (order of 100 μm long) strain structures were observed in all multi quantum well epilayers.
Synchrotron x-ray topographs of GaAs epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) samples are made both in transmission and reflection geometries. The topographs show that the bending of the ELO layers is visible in most geometries. A simulation of the topographic images is implemented taking into account only the orientational contrast. Simulated back reflection section topographs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The shape of the lattice planes in an ELO layer is calculated using the simulation data and compared to the measured surface profile of the same ELO stripe.
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