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Coastal archaeology is vulnerable to climate change, making the development of new techniques for the rapid recovery of information from the most threatened sites essential. The authors report a systematic kayak survey of a Chesapeake Bay sub-estuary undertaken during the winter months, when low tides and reduced vegetation maximise the visibility of archaeological material. Locations in the vulnerable intertidal zone were targeted for survey. Data were collected for 24 archaeological sites, illuminating local settlement chronology. This technique could be used for the survey of endangered coastal archaeology in other regions of the world.
This trial compared weight loss outcomes over 14-weeks in women showing low or high satiety responsiveness [low or high satiety phenotype (LSP, HSP)] measured by a standardized protocol. Food preferences and energy intake after low and high energy density (LED, HED) meals were also assessed. Ninety-six women (n = 52 analysed; 41.24 ± 12.54 years; 34.02 ± 3.58 kg/m2) engaged in one of two weight loss programs underwent LED and HED laboratory-test days during weeks 3 and 12. Preferences for LED and HED-foods (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire) and ad libitum evening meal and snack energy intake (EI) were assessed in response to equi-caloric LED- and HED-breakfasts and lunches. Weekly questionnaires assessed control over eating and ease of adherence to the program. Satiety quotients based on subjective fullness ratings post-LED and HED breakfasts determined LSP (n=26) and HSP (n=26) by tertile splits. Results showed that the LSP lost less weight and had smaller reductions in waist circumference compared to HSP. The LSP showed greater preferences for HED-foods, and under HED-conditions, consumed more snacks (kcal) compared to HSP. Snack EI did not differ under LED-conditions. LSP reported less control over eating and reported more difficulty with program adherence. In conclusion, low satiety responsiveness is detrimental for weight loss. LED meals can improve self-regulation of EI in the LSP, which may be beneficial for longer-term weight control.
The opportunity to comment on Jacqueline Mowbray’s discussion of Julius Stone is doubly welcome. Not only does it afford me the opportunity to engage in a set of scholarly issues that have long interested me at the intersection of law and history, but it has also exposed me to a fascinating figure, Stone, about whom I knew precious little. Stone’s life story is, on my very basic reading, one of intriguing tensions: exclusion and high attainment, a sweeping catholicity of mind and a certain rigidity of disposition, and a keen concern for the fate of minorities alongside a surprising tone-deafness to the plight of one in particular. Mowbray skillfully teases out another defining tension: Stone’s commitment to the ideal of objectivity, borne of the outsider’s perspective, and his recognition, resulting from his commitment to cross-cultural analysis, of the inescapability of a measure of relativism in scholarly inquiry.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Targeting potent anti-cancer therapeutics to solid tumors is best accomplished by first avoiding recognition and uptake by the immune system and second by limiting the biodistribution of the drug to the tumor. We have achieved these objectives by binding tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) to the surface of 30 nm pegylated colloidal gold particles. Pegylation of the gold nanoparticles is accomplished by binding thiolated polyethylene glycol in between the TNF molecules on the surface of the gold nanoparticles. This formulation is termed CYT-6091 (Aurimune). The liver or spleen (the RES) take-up little or no drug 6 hr after CYT-6091 is injected into mice, and TNF levels in the tumors increase over this time period (in contrast to decreasing levels of TNF seen in healthy tissues). Electron micrographs also show gold nanoparticles in the tumors, but few or no particles in healthy tissue. By getting more TNF to the tumors, CYT-6091 is both safer and more effective in causing tumor regression in mice. CYT-6091 has also been given to dogs with naturally occurring cancers. Most notably in both dogs with cancer and in healthy rabbits, CYT-6091 caused fever, but did not induce hypotension. Historically, hypotension has been the dose-limiting toxicity for TNF and the primary reason for its failure in human clinical trials. For human testing, the manufacturing of CYT-6091 was successfully scaled-up and produced under cGMP. CYT-6091 is currently being tested in end-stage disease cancer patients in an NCI sponsored Phase I clinical trial.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is one of the most robust and widespread techniques used for in-situ monitoring during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Thus, all MBE systems have an electron gun allowing additional electron-beam stimulated in-situ characterizations. At WVU we are developing two such techniques, spectral analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) in wide bandgap semiconductors and reflection high-energy electron diffraction-total reflection angle x-ray spectroscopy (RHEED-TRAXS) for in-situ composition monitoring and control.A pressing issue remaining for epitaxial growth is real-time compositional control to a high level of accuracy. For many materials, such as multi-element nitrides and oxides with unity sticking coefficients, it would be extremely beneficial to monitor the composition to a fraction of a monolayer. This technique needs to be both element-specific and surface-sensitive. RHEED-TRAXS is a leading contender as such a technique. The electron beam from a RHEED gun impinges on the sample at a small angle of incidence approximately equal to the critical angle for x-ray reflection. This geometry ensures that the measurement is extremely surface sensitive. This technique can be used to obtain both structural information, via RHEED, and chemical information, via x-ray detection. We are currently developing a compact RHEED-TRAXS using a state-of-the-art Si P-intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiode technology. We have used this system to investigate Ga and In coverage during the growth of GaN, and have observed Ga bi-layer evolution during growth, Mg destabilization of the Ga wetting layer, and significant In surface segregation. We are also investigating the in-situ, real-time composition measurements in complex oxide systems such as YMnO3 with promising initial results.In-situ cathodoluminescence (CL) occurring during RHEED is a strong candidate to determine the growth temperature and alloy composition for wide bandgap semiconductors. CL is easily detected up to and beyond typical growth temperatures for GaN and InGaN, accurately and reproducibly determining sample temperature during growth. Room CL measurement at room temperature can also be used as a means to check the quality of the substrate by comparing intensities of the GaN band edge energy peak and defect peaks. We have performed a detailed study of the factors influencing high temperature CL, and find the reproducibility of CL data and ability for fast CL scanning provide strong advantages for use in the growth of GaN films. CL could also be observed during growth using a ccd camera. This could be used to see temperature inhomogenaities, and potentially to map alloy composition fluctuations. Using tunable narrow bandpass optical filters, we can obtain a spatial/spectral map of sample CL. We will present CL images of samples at differing temperatures.This work was supported by the AFOSR MURI F49620-03-1-0330 and by ONR Grant N00014-02-1-0974.
Background: Sotos syndrome is a genetic condition caused by NSD1 alterations, characterized by overgrowth, macrocephaly, dysmorphic features, and learning disability. Approximately half of children with Sotos syndrome develop seizures. We investigated the spectrum of seizure phenotypes in these patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from clinics and referral from support groups. Those withclinical or genetic diagnosis of Sotos syndrome and seizures were included. Phenotyping data was collected via structured clinical interview and medical chart review. Results: 25 patients with typical Sotos syndrome features were included. Of 14 tested patients, 64% (n=9) had NSD1 alterations. Most had developmental impairment (80%, n=20) and neuropsychiatric comorbidities (68%, n=17). Seizure onset was variable (2 months to 12 years). Febrile and absence seizures were the most frequent types (64%, n=16). Afebrile generalized tonicclonic (40%, n=10) and atonic (24%, n=6) seizures followed. Most patients (60%, n=15) had multiple seizure types. The majority (72%, n=18) was controlled on a single antiepileptic, or none; 4% (n=1) remained refractory to antiepileptics. Conclusions: The seizure phenotype in Sotos syndrome most commonly involves febrile convulsions or absence seizures. Afebrile tonic-clonic or atonic seizures may also occur. Seizures are typically well-controlled with antiepileptics. The rate of developmental impairment and neuropsychiatric comorbidities is high.
Background: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the brain, and represent the most common cause of medication-resistant focal epilepsy in children and adults. Recent studies have shown that somatic mutations (i.e. mutations arising in the embryo) in mTOR pathway genes underlie some FCD cases. Specific therapies targeting the mTOR pathway are available. However, testing for somatic mTOR pathway mutations in FCD tissue is not performed on a clinical basis, and the contribution of such mutations to the pathogenesis of FCD remains unknown. Aim: To investigate the feasibility of screening for somatic mutations in resected FCD tissue and determine the proportion and spatial distribution of FCDs which are due to low-level somatic mTOR pathway mutations. Methods: We performed ultra-deep sequencing of 13 mTOR pathway genes using a custom HaloPlexHS target enrichment kit (Agilent Technologies) in 16 resected histologically-confirmed FCD specimens. Results: We identified causal variants in 62.5% (10/16) of patients at an alternate allele frequency of 0.75–33.7%. The spatial mutation frequency correlated with the FCD lesion’s size and severity. Conclusions: Screening FCD tissue using a custom panel results in a high yield, and should be considered clinically given the important potential implications regarding surgical resection, medical management and genetic counselling.
Male-biased sex ratios have been observed in multiple small-scale societies. Although intentional and systematic female-biased mortality has been posited as an explanation, there is often a lack of ethnographic evidence of systematic female neglect and/or infanticide. The Agta, a foraging population from the Philippines, have a skewed sex ratio of 1.29 (129 males per 100 females) aged 15 years or under. We hypothesised that this skew was not caused by greater female deaths, but due to an adaptive response, where more males were produced at birth in reaction to high male-biased extrinsic mortality. To test this hypothesis we utilise census, childcare and mortality data from 915 Agta. The Agta's sex ratio is significantly male-biased in the <1 (n = 48, 2:1) and 1–5 year (n = 170, 1.39:1) age cohorts; however, we find no evidence of systematic female neglect in patterns of childcare. Furthermore, the sex ratio decreases over cohorts, becoming balanced by the end of the juvenile period, owing to significantly higher male mortality. Taken together, these results are not supportive of female infanticide or neglect, and instead suggest an adaptive mechanism, acting in utero as a response to male-biased juvenile mortality, following Fisherian principles of equalising parental investment.
We collected dietary records over the course of nine months to comprehensively characterize the consumption patterns of Malagasy people living in remote rainforest areas of north-eastern Madagascar.
The present study was a prospective longitudinal cohort study to estimate dietary diversity and nutrient intake for a suite of macronutrients, micronutrients and vitamins for 152 randomly selected households in two communities.
Madagascar, with over 25 million people living in an area the size of France, faces a multitude of nutritional challenges. Micronutrient-poor staples, especially rice, roots and tubers, comprise nearly 80 % of the Malagasy diet by weight. The remaining dietary components (including wild foods and animal-source foods) are critical for nutrition. We focus our study in north-eastern Madagascar, characterized by access to rainforest, rice paddies and local agriculture.
We enrolled men, women and children of both sexes and all ages in a randomized sample of households in two communities.
Although the Household Dietary Diversity Score and Food Consumption Score reflect high dietary diversity, the Minimum Dietary Diversity–Women indicator suggests poor micronutrient adequacy. The food intake data confirm a mixed nutritional picture. We found that the median individual consumed less than 50 % of his/her age/sex-specific Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamins A, B12, D and E, and Ca, and less than 100 % of his/her EAR for energy, riboflavin, folate and Na.
Malnutrition in remote communities of north-eastern Madagascar is pervasive and multidimensional, indicating an urgent need for comprehensive public health and development interventions focused on providing nutritional security.
Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) are contemporaneous with 11 of the 18 largest Phanerozoic extinction events, but the magnitude and selectivity of their paleoecological impact remains disputed. OAEs are associated with abrupt, rapid warming and increased CO2 flux to the atmosphere; thus, insights from this study may clarify the impact of current anthropogenic climate change on the biosphere. We investigated the influence of the Late Cretaceous Bonarelli event (OAE2; Cenomanian/Turonian stage boundary; ~94 Ma) on generic- and species-level molluscan diversity, extinction rates, and ecological turnover. Cenomanian/Turonian results were compared with changes across all Cretaceous stage boundaries, some of which are coincident with less severe OAEs. We found increased generic turnover, but not species-level turnover, associated with several Cretaceous OAEs. The absence of a species-level pattern may reflect species occurrence data that are too temporally coarse to robustly detect patterns. Five hypotheses of ecological selectivity relating anoxia to survivorship were tested across stage boundaries with respect to faunality, mobility, and diet using generalized linear models. Interestingly, benthic taxa were consistently selected against throughout the Cretaceous regardless of the presence or absence of OAEs. These results suggest that: (1) the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary (OAE2) was associated with a decline in molluscan diversity and increase in extinction rate that were significantly more severe than Cretaceous background levels; and (2) no differential ecological selectivity was associated with OAE-related diversity declines among the variables tested here.