To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Decadence, that flowering of a mannered literary style in France during the Second Empire, and last two decades of the nineteenth century in Britain, holds an endless fascination. Yet the ambiguity of the term 'decadence' and the challenges of identifying its practitioners makes grasping its contours difficult. From the obsession with Classical cultures, to the responses to the HIV/AIDS crisis of the 1980s and 1990s, this book offers one of the most comprehensive histories of literary Decadence. The essays here interrogate and expand the formal, geographical, and temporal frameworks for understanding Decadent literature, while offering a renewed focus on the role played by women writers. Featuring essays by leading scholars on sexuality, politics, science, translation, the New Woman, Russian and Spanish American Decadence, the influence of Decadence on cinema and much more, it is essential reading for all those interested in the literature of the 1890s and Oscar Wilde.
During the nineteenth century and especially after the Civil War, scores of black abolitionists like Frederick Douglass, Moses Roper and Ellen Craft travelled to England, Ireland, Scotland, and parts of rural Wales to educate the public on slavery. By sharing their oratorical, visual, and literary testimony to transatlantic audiences, African American activists galvanised the antislavery movement, which had severe consequences for former slaveholders, pro-slavery defenders, white racists, and ignorant publics. Their journeys highlighted not only their death-defying escapes from bondage but also their desire to speak out against slavery and white supremacy on foreign soil. Hannah-Rose Murray explores the radical transatlantic journeys formerly enslaved individuals made to the British Isles, and what light they shed on our understanding of the abolitionist movement. She uncovers the reasons why activists visited certain locations, how they adapted to the local political and social climate, and what impact their activism had on British society.
To disrupt cycles of health inequity, traceable to dietary inequities in the earliest stages of life, public health interventions should target improving nutritional wellbeing in preconception/pregnancy environments. This requires a deep engagement with pregnant/postpartum people (PPP) and their communities (including their health and social care providers, HSCP). We sought to understand the factors that influence diet during pregnancy from the perspectives of PPP and HSCP, and to outline intervention priorities.
We carried out thematic network analyses of transcripts from ten focus group discussions (FGD) and one stakeholder engagement meeting with PPP and HSCP in a Canadian city. Identified themes were developed into conceptual maps, highlighting local priorities for pregnancy nutrition and intervention development.
FGD and the stakeholder meeting were run in predominantly lower socioeconomic position (SEP) neighbourhoods in the sociodemographically diverse city of Hamilton, Canada.
All local, comprising twenty-two lower SEP PPP and forty-three HSCP.
Salient themes were resilience, resources, relationships and the embodied experience of pregnancy. Both PPP and HSCP underscored that socioeconomic-political forces operating at multiple levels largely determined the availability of individual and relational resources constraining diet during pregnancy. Intervention proposals focused on cultivating individual and community resilience to improve early-life nutritional environments. Participants called for better-integrated services, greater income supports and strengthened support programmes.
Hamilton stakeholders foregrounded social determinants of inequity as main factors influencing pregnancy diet. They further indicated a need to develop interventions that build resilience and redistribute resources at multiple levels, from the household to the state.
The association between childhood adversity (CA) and psychosis has been extensively investigated in recent years. An increasing body of research has also focused on the mediating or moderating role of biological and psychological mechanisms, as well as other risk factors that might account for the link between CA and psychosis. We conducted a systematic search of the PsychINFO, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Science databases for original articles investigating the role of genetic vulnerabilities, environmental factors, psychological and psychopathological mechanisms in the association between CA and psychosis up to August 2019. We included studies with individuals at different stages of the psychosis continuum, from subclinical psychotic experiences to diagnosed disorders. From the 28 944 records identified, a total of 121 studies were included in this review. Only 26% of the studies identified met the criteria for methodological robustness. Overall, the current evidence suggests that CA may be associated with psychosis largely independently of genetic vulnerabilities. More consistent and robust evidence supports interaction between early and recent adversities, as well as the mediating role of attachment and mood symptoms, which is suggestive of an affective pathway between CA and psychosis across the continuum from subclinical experiences to diagnosable disorder. This review highlighted numerous methodological issues with the existing literature, including selection bias, heterogeneity of measurement instruments utilised, and lack of control for potential confounders. Future research should address these limitations to more accurately estimate mediation and moderation effects on the CA-psychosis association to inform the development of preventive interventions.
There is a need to develop feeding strategies to prevent the adverse effect of concentrate feeding in high-performance horses fed energy-dense diets aiming to maintain their health and welfare. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of a VistaEQ product containing 4% live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), with activity 5 × 108 colony-forming unit/g and fed 2 g/pony per day, on faecal microbial populations when supplemented with high-starch and high-fibre diets using Illumina next generation sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The four treatments were allocated to eight mature Welsh section A pony geldings enrolled in a 4-period × 8 animal crossover design. Each 19-day experimental period consisted of an 18-day adaptation phase and a single collection day, followed by a 7-day wash out period. After DNA extraction from faeces and library preparation, α-diversity and linear discriminant analysis effect size were performed using 16S metagenomics pipeline in Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME™) and Galaxy/Hutlab. Differences between the groups were considered significant when linear discriminant analysis score was >2 corresponding to P < 0.05. The present study showed that S. cerevisiae used was able to induce positive changes in the equine microbiota when supplemented to a high-fibre diet: it increased relative abundance (RA) of Lachnospiraceae and Dehalobacteriaceae family members associated with a healthy core microbiome. Yeast supplementation also increased the RA of fibrolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus) when fed with a high-fibre diet and reduced the RA of lactate producing bacteria (Streptococcus) when a high-starch diet was fed. In addition, yeast increased the RA of acetic, succinic acid producing bacterial family (Succinivibrionaceae) and butyrate producing bacterial genus (Roseburia) when fed with high-starch and high-fibre diets, respectively. VistaEQ supplementation to equine diets can be potentially used to prevent acidosis and increase fibre digestibility. It may help to meet the energy requirements of performance horses while maintaining gut health.
There is a great deal of information about the management of the airway during many different scenarios, but very little of that information addresses the management of the airway during a mass casualty event following a disaster.
Following a major disaster from which a large number of casualties result, a community’s ability to rescue, triage, transport, evaluate, and treat these casualties quickly and effectively leads to the best possible outcome. The best outcomes occur if treatment is judiciously applied within the “golden hour,” the 60 minutes following the injury to the patient.
Fibre is essential to maintain healthy gut; however, energy demands of performance horses can be too high to be met by forages alone. Yeast may support the function of cellulolytic bacteria to digest fibre. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of an oral supplement (VistaEQ) containing 4% live yeast on the in vitro and in vivo digestibility of high-starch (HS) and high-fibre diets (HF). Eight ponies were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design consisting of 4- × 19-day periods and four diets: HF, HF + yeast (HFY), HS and HS + yeast (HSY). In vivo apparent digestibility (AD) was estimated using total collection technique, and faecal particle size was measured using NASCO digestive analyser. Faeces from the ponies were subsequently used as an inoculum in ANKOM RF gas production system to assess fermentation kinetics in vitro. Each module contained 1 g of feed substrate DM in the following combinations: 50% grass hay and 50% alfalfa (HF_50 : 50) or concentrate (HS_50 : 50), and 75% grass hay and 25% alfalfa (HF_75 : 25) or concentrate (HS_75 : 25) with or without yeast. Yeast was able to induce more gas production from HF_75 : 25, HS_75 : 25 and HF_50 : 50 feed substrates incubated with respective faecal inoculum base. Yeast did not affect pH in vitro when the substrates were incubated in 50 : 50 ratio, while the pH was higher for HF_75 : 25 incubated with correspondent faecal inoculum compared to HS_75 : 25 and HSY_75 : 25. Yeast had no effects on ADF and CP AD of either diet. Yeast addition increased DM (HF: 0.2%, HS: 0.4%), organic matter (HF: 0.7%, HS: 1.3%), NDF (HF: 0.5%, HS: 1.5%), total detergent fibre (HF: 0.7%; HS: 0.4%) (P < 0.05) and also tended to increase hemicellulose AD (HF: 0.9%, HS: 1.2%) (P < 0.10). Faecal pH in vivo was higher for both HF diets compared to HS diet without yeast supplementation (P < 0.001, HF and HFY: 6.8; HS: 6.6, HSY: 6.7). However, no difference was observed in faecal pH when HSY was compared to both HF diets. Yeast had no effect on the size of the faecal particles (P > 0.05). Yeast increased in vitro gas production, suggesting more energy could be extracted from the feed, and the in vivo AD of some of the nutrients when HF and HS diets were fed.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown could be considered a ‘perfect storm’ for increases in emotional distress. Such increases can only be identified by studies that use data collected before and during the pandemic. Longitudinal data are also needed to examine (1) the roles of previous distress and stressors in emotional distress during the pandemic and (2) how COVID-19-related stressors and coping strategies are associated with emotional distress when pre-pandemic distress is accounted for.
Data came from a cohort study (N = 768). Emotional distress (perceived stress, internalizing symptoms, and anger), COVID-19-related stressors, and coping strategies were measured during the pandemic/lockdown when participants were aged 22. Previous distress and stressors were measured before COVID-19 (at age 20).
On average, participants showed increased levels of perceived stress and anger (but not internalizing symptoms) during the pandemic compared to before. Pre-COVID-19 emotional distress was the strongest predictor of during-pandemic emotional distress, followed by during-pandemic economic and psychosocial stressors (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions) and hopelessness, and pre-pandemic social stressors (e.g. bullying victimization and stressful life events). Most health risks to self or loved ones due to COVID-19 were not uniquely associated with emotional distress in final models. Coping strategies associated with reduced distress included keeping a daily routine, physical activity, and positive reappraisal/reframing.
In our community sample, pre-pandemic distress, secondary consequences of the pandemic (e.g. lifestyle and economic disruptions), and pre-pandemic social stressors were more consistently associated with young adults' emotional distress than COVID-19-related health risk exposures.
The timing of the Neanderthal-associated Middle Palaeolithic demise and a possible overlap with anatomically modern humans (AMH) in some regions of Eurasia continues to be debated. The Iberian Peninsula is considered a possible refuge zone for the last Neanderthals, but the chronology of the later Middle Palaeolithic record has undergone revision and has increased the debate on the timing of Neanderthal extinction. Here we report on a study of the 5-m-thick archaeological stratigraphy of the Cardina-Salto do Boi, an open-air site located in inland Iberia, from which optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages were obtained for Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations preserved in overbank alluvial deposits. Geomorphology, archaeostratigraphy, stone-tool evolution, and OSL dating support the persistence of Neanderthals after 41 ka in central Iberia; the transition between the Middle Palaeolithic material culture and the AMH-associated Aurignacian blade and bladelet production is estimated to lie between 34.0 ± 2.0 ka and 38.4 ± 1.9 ka. Our results demonstrate that investigations focusing on different geomorphological situations are necessary to overcome the current limitations of the evidence and to establish more consistent models for Neanderthal disappearance and AMH expansion in the Iberian Peninsula.
Effective application of the high-voltage electron microscope to a wide variety of biological studies has been restricted by the radiation sensitivity of biological systems. The problem of radiation damage has been recognized as a serious factor influencing the amount of information attainable from biological specimens in electron microscopy at conventional voltages around 100 kV. The problem proves to be even more severe at higher voltages around 1 MV. In this range, the problem is the relatively low sensitivity of the existing recording media, which entails inordinately long exposures that give rise to severe radiation damage. This low sensitivity arises from the small linear energy transfer for fast electrons. Few developable grains are created in the emulsion per electron, while most of the energy of the electrons is wasted in the film base.
The role of the endolymphatic sac (ELS) in the pathogenesis of endolymphatic hydrops (ELH) or Meniere's disease is considered of great importance. An experimental model of ELH, the histopathologic correlate of Meniere's disease, has been utilized to study the effect of excess endolymph and endolymphatic hypertension on the inner ear of the lemon shark (Negation brevirostris). This study investigates the changes which occur to the ELS when the ELH is produced either by cautery of the external endolymphatic duct (ELD) orifice or by ligature of the external ELD after 6 weeks to 6 months postoperatively. All specimens (n = 4 normal n = 6 cautery hydrops, n = 4 ligature hydrops) were routinely prepared for SEM by the critical point method of Smith and Finke and photographed at 20 KV on a Cambridge Stereoscan Mark II. The normal intermediate portion of the ELS shows multiple rugae or folds and true villi (Fig. 1) to increase surface area for the resorbtion of endolymph.
The n-alkyl amines cleave the ester link in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and release ethylene glycol and the amine soluble N, N'dialkyl terephthalamide. Earlier work suggests that ethylamine is more selective in attack than methylamine in that regions of low structural order are attacked more rapidly than are crystalline areas. Findings similar to those described above and reported elsewhere have also been found in the present studies for treatments with a higher homologue, n-propylamine, in the neat condition.
Unit cohesion may protect service member mental health by mitigating effects of combat exposure; however, questions remain about the origins of potential stress-buffering effects. We examined buffering effects associated with two forms of unit cohesion (peer-oriented horizontal cohesion and subordinate-leader vertical cohesion) defined as either individual-level or aggregated unit-level variables.
Longitudinal survey data from US Army soldiers who deployed to Afghanistan in 2012 were analyzed using mixed-effects regression. Models evaluated individual- and unit-level interaction effects of combat exposure and cohesion during deployment on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation reported at 3 months post-deployment (model n's = 6684 to 6826). Given the small effective sample size (k = 89), the significance of unit-level interactions was evaluated at a 90% confidence level.
At the individual-level, buffering effects of horizontal cohesion were found for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.11, 95% CI (−0.18 to −0.04), p < 0.01] and depressive symptoms [B = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.10 to −0.01), p < 0.05]; while a buffering effect of vertical cohesion was observed for PTSD symptoms only [B = −0.03, 95% CI (−0.06 to −0.0001), p < 0.05]. At the unit-level, buffering effects of horizontal (but not vertical) cohesion were observed for PTSD symptoms [B = −0.91, 90% CI (−1.70 to −0.11), p = 0.06], depressive symptoms [B = −0.83, 90% CI (−1.24 to −0.41), p < 0.01], and suicidal ideation [B = −0.32, 90% CI (−0.62 to −0.01), p = 0.08].
Policies and interventions that enhance horizontal cohesion may protect combat-exposed units against post-deployment mental health problems. Efforts to support individual soldiers who report low levels of horizontal or vertical cohesion may also yield mental health benefits.
In a poll (ReImagineEdu, 2016) looking at the digital profile of nearly 1,000 learners, it was reported that 78% of students worry about digital technologies distracting them from study. In attempting to contribute to this emerging debate (Aaron & Lipton, 2018), this article investigates the experiences, perceptions and awareness of undergraduate language learners (n = 215, over a 3-year period) of the distractive nature of technology and the discerned impact upon their own student language learning and performance. The study is based on data gathered from university language students engaged in a specific language technology module. The module, interalia, sought to develop awareness of the time spent online by participants while using a number of resources. A mixed-methods approach was employed to conduct this research where qualitative and quantitative data emerged respectively from individual student blogs, reflective reports of their blogging experiences, group interviews and questionnaires. Our outcomes reveal a severe lack of student awareness on the final amount of time they spent online, this being due to a number of factors. However, there is some awareness and perception on their part of how heavily disruptive technology can be for their language learning. Our final conclusions include several recommendations and propose a deictic critical digital literacy for dealing with such distractions – we are calling this a strategic agentive literacy.
It remains poorly understood how negative symptoms are experienced in the daily lives of individuals in the early stages of psychosis. We aimed to investigate whether altered affective experience, anhedonia, social anhedonia, and asociality were more pronounced in individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis (ARMS) and individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP) than in controls.
We used the experience sampling methodology (ESM) to assess negative symptoms, as they occurred in the daily life of 51 individuals with FEP and 46 ARMS, compared with 53 controls.
Multilevel linear regression analyses showed no overall evidence for a blunting of affective experience. There was some evidence for anhedonia in FEP but not in ARMS, as shown by a smaller increase of positive affect (BΔat−risk v. FEP = 0.08, p = 0.006) as the pleasantness of activities increased. Against our expectations, no evidence was found for greater social anhedonia in any group. FEP were more often alone (57%) than ARMS (38%) and controls (35%) but appraisals of the social situation did not point to asociality.
Overall, altered affective experience, anhedonia, social anhedonia and asociality seem to play less of a role in the daily life of individuals in the early stages of psychosis than previously assumed. With the experience of affect and pleasure in daily life being largely intact, changing social situations and appraisals thereof should be further investigated to prevent development or deterioration of negative symptoms.
We examined demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of a large cohort (n = 368) of adults with dissociative seizures (DS) recruited to the CODES randomised controlled trial (RCT) and explored differences associated with age at onset of DS, gender, and DS semiology.
Prior to randomisation within the CODES RCT, we collected demographic and clinical data on 368 participants. We assessed psychiatric comorbidity using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and a screening measure of personality disorder and measured anxiety, depression, psychological distress, somatic symptom burden, emotional expression, functional impact of DS, avoidance behaviour, and quality of life. We undertook comparisons based on reported age at DS onset (<40 v. ⩾40), gender (male v. female), and DS semiology (predominantly hyperkinetic v. hypokinetic).
Our cohort was predominantly female (72%) and characterised by high levels of socio-economic deprivation. Two-thirds had predominantly hyperkinetic DS. Of the total, 69% had ⩾1 comorbid M.I.N.I. diagnosis (median number = 2), with agoraphobia being the most common concurrent diagnosis. Clinical levels of distress were reported by 86% and characteristics associated with maladaptive personality traits by 60%. Moderate-to-severe functional impairment, high levels of somatic symptoms, and impaired quality of life were also reported. Women had a younger age at DS onset than men.
Our study highlights the burden of psychopathology and socio-economic deprivation in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients with DS. The lack of clear differences based on gender, DS semiology and age at onset suggests these factors do not add substantially to the heterogeneity of the cohort.
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a critical public health issue. In Bohol, Philippines, we found a high tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive prevalence (weighted prevalence = 6.4%) among 5476 children (<15 years) from 184 villages, with geographically isolated communities having prevalence as high as 29%. Therefore, we conducted a geospatial and hot spot analysis to examine the association between villages with high TST-positive prevalence (⩾6.5%) and access to medical care (distance (in kilometres and minutes of travel time) to the municipal Rural Health Units (RHU)), access to healthcare resources (distance to Provincial Health Office (PHO)) and socioeconomic determinants of health. Hot spot analysis revealed significant clusters of TST-positive prevalence in villages farthest from the PHO. Based on univariate analysis, the following variables associated with high prevalence were included in the multivariate model: minutes of travel time to the PHO, distance to the PHO, island villages and total deprivation based on socioeconomic indicators. In the final model, only distance to PHO in minutes was significant (P = 0.005). When evaluated further, greater than 1-hour drive significantly increased risk for TST-positivity (P = 0.003). Distance to healthcare resources likely increases the risk of TB transmission within the community. Expanding TB control efforts to geographically isolated areas is critical.