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Disagreement is a ubiquitous feature of human life, and philosophers have dutifully attended to it. One important question related to disagreement is epistemological: How does a rational person change her beliefs (if at all) in light of disagreement from others? The typical methodology for answering this question is to endorse a steadfast or conciliatory disagreement norm (and not both) on a priori grounds and selected intuitive cases. In this paper, I argue that this methodology is misguided. Instead, a thoroughgoingly Bayesian strategy is what's needed. Such a strategy provides conciliatory norms in appropriate cases and steadfast norms in appropriate cases. I argue, further, that the few extant efforts to address disagreement in the Bayesian spirit are laudable but uncompelling. A modelling, rather than a functional, approach gets us the right norms and is highly general, allowing the epistemologist to deal with (1) multiple epistemic interlocutors, (2) epistemic superiors and inferiors (i.e. not just epistemic peers), and (3) dependence between interlocutors.
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is being used to measure the elemental composition of fish tissues. The elemental data are then subjected to pattern recognition procedures in an attempt to discriminate fish stocks.
Decision-makers need readily accessible tools to understand the potential impacts of alternative policies on forest cover and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to develop effective policies to meet national and international targets for biodiversity conservation, sustainable development and climate change mitigation. Land change modelling can support policy decisions by demonstrating potential impacts of policies on future deforestation and GHG emissions. We modelled land change to explore the potential impacts of expert-informed scenarios on deforestation and GHG emissions, specifically CO2 emissions, in the Ankeniheny–Zahamena Corridor in eastern Madagascar. We considered four scenarios: business as usual; effective conservation of protected areas; investment in infrastructure; and agricultural intensification. Our results highlight that effective forest conservation could deliver substantial emissions reductions, while infrastructure development will likely cause forest loss in new areas. Agricultural intensification could prevent additional forest loss if it reduced the need to clear more land while improving food security. Our study demonstrates how available land change modelling tools and scenario analyses can inform land-use policies, helping countries reconcile economic development with forest conservation and climate change mitigation commitments.
This paper describes three case examples from a recent trial of family intervention specifically designed for people of African-Caribbean descent. These examples, told from the therapists’ perspectives, highlight key components of the intervention and issues that arose in working with this client group. Findings from the study suggest that it is possible to engage this client-group in family therapy similar to traditional evidenced-based family interventions, although as illustrated in the paper, it is important that therapists pay attention to themes that are likely to be particularly pertinent for this group, including experiences of discrimination and mistrust of services. The use of Family Support Members, consisting of members of the person's care team or volunteers recruited from the community, may also help support people to engage in therapy in the absence of biological relatives.
It has been suggested that cattle have a greater ability to digest fibrous feeds and a lower ability to digest non-fibrous feeds than sheep (Mc Donald et al., 1995). This statement applies mainly to forages and few direct comparisons have been conducted using concentrate ingredients. The digestibility of concentrate ingredients may be influenced by the level of consumption since an increase in intake of a complete diet resulted in a decrease in digestibility (El Khidir and Vestergaard Thomsen, 1983). The aims of this study were (a) to determine the effect of level of consumption by cattle and (b) to examine the effect of animal species (sheep and cattle) on the digestibility of concentrate ingredients.
Important differences exist between various databases in the digestibility of ruminant feed ingredients (INRA, 1989; MAFF, 1992). The objective of this experiment was to measure the digestibility of some the more important ruminant feed ingredients and the variation associated with them.
Nutrient profiling (NP) is a method for evaluating the healthfulness of foods. Although many NP models exist, most have not been validated. This study aimed to examine the content and construct/convergent validity of five models from different regions: Australia/New Zealand (FSANZ), France (Nutri-Score), Canada (HCST), Europe (EURO) and Americas (PAHO). Using data from the 2013 UofT Food Label Information Program (n15342 foods/beverages), construct/convergent validity was assessed by comparing the classifications of foods determined by each model to a previously validated model, which served as the reference (Ofcom). The parameters assessed included associations (Cochran–Armitage trend test), agreement (κ statistic) and discordant classifications (McNemar’s test). Analyses were conducted across all foods and by food category. On the basis of the nutrients/components considered by each model, all models exhibited moderate content validity. Although positive associations were observed between each model and Ofcom (all Ptrend<0·001), agreement with Ofcom was ‘near perfect’ for FSANZ (κ=0·89) and Nutri-Score (κ=0·83), ‘moderate’ for EURO (κ=0·54) and ‘fair’ for PAHO (κ=0·28) and HCST (κ=0·26). There were discordant classifications with Ofcom for 5·3 % (FSANZ), 8·3 % (Nutri-Score), 22·0 % (EURO), 33·4 % (PAHO) and 37·0 % (HCST) of foods (all P<0·001). Construct/convergent validity was confirmed between FSANZ and Nutri-Score v. Ofcom, and to a lesser extent between EURO v. Ofcom. Numerous incongruencies with Ofcom were identified for HCST and PAHO, which highlights the importance of examining classifications across food categories, the level at which differences between models become apparent. These results may be informative for regulators seeking to adapt and validate existing models for use in country-specific applications.
Background: A one-to-one cognitive behavioural therapy intervention targeting worry significantly reduces both worry and persecutory delusions (Freeman et al., 2015). Aim: To adapt this intervention for group delivery and conduct a feasibility trial within routine clinical practice. Method: Thirteen participants were randomized to a weekly 8-session worry intervention group (n = 7) or wait-list control (n = 6). Results: All but one participant completed measures at all time points. Participants attended an average of six therapy sessions. Conclusions: Recruitment, retention and therapy uptake were feasible. Observed treatment effects were in the expected direction, but may be diluted compared with one-to-one interventions.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The TL1 Team approach aims to train translational investigators capable of tackling complex and multifaceted diseases, such as hypertension, by beginning multidisciplinary, team-based training early in their graduate programs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leanne Dumeny is a graduate student in Genetics and Genomics studying how pharmacogenomics can be applied to improve clinical care and cardiovascular outcomes. Chu Hsiao is a graduate student in Anthropology studying how sociocultural experiences become biologically embodied. Both are in the Ph.D. phase of M.D.-Ph.D. training. Joining the seemingly disparate but complementary fields of anthropology and genomics facilitates understanding of the intersection between socially driven experiences and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. Understanding both social determinants, such as racial discrimination, and biological determinants, such as genetics, is important because an interplay of gene-environment interactions influences many complex diseases. Rarely can 1 individual, or 1 discipline, tackle all the perspectives necessary to answer these types of complex questions. The TL1 Team curriculum teaches students to navigate the spectrum of translational research as a team, reflect on disciplinary limitations, and embrace collaborative research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This team project will investigate the relationship between racial discrimination and genetics using a large epidemiological cohort of African Americans in Mississippi. The data request application is currently under review. By the project’s end, the team anticipates their investigation will reveal novel associations between racial discrimination, genetic polymorphisms, and nocturnal blood pressure measurements. The investigators will have gained experience obtaining and analyzing large external data sets, working in diverse team settings, collaborating across state-lines, and publishing articles. Through this team approach, the students will also understand the barriers to working in multidisciplinary groups, and develop a foundation for approaching future collaborations. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: By joining anthropology with genomics, it becomes possible to understand the intersection between socially driven experiences of racial discrimination and genetics on nocturnal blood pressure. The successful training of this first cohort of team-applicants to the TL1 funding mechanism can impact how graduate education will be structured and could reframe graduate education to emphasize a team-based approach.
Risk assessment instruments have become a preferred means for predicting
future aggression, claiming to predict long-term aggression risk.
To investigate the predictive value over 12 months and 4 years of two
commonly applied instruments (Historical, Clinical and Risk Management -
20 (HCR-20) and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG)).
Participants were adult male psychiatric patients detained in a high
secure hospital. All had a diagnosis of personality disorder. The focus
was on aggression in hospital.
The actuarial risk assessment (VRAG) was generally performing better than
the structured risk assessment (HCR-20), although neither approach
performed particularly well overall. Any value in their predictive
potential appeared focused on the longer time period under study (4
years) and was specific to certain types of aggression.
The value of these instruments for assessing aggression in hospital among
patients with personality disorder in a high secure psychiatric setting
Higher dry matter intakes (DMI) have been reported in dairy cows fed maize silage than in dairy cows fed grass silage. The objective of this experiment was to investigate this phenomenon by the measurement of digestibility and the determination of rumen outflow rates for both forages. The response in milk production of late lactation dairy cows to grass or maize silage was also measured.
Fourteen late lactation multiparous dairy cows (n = 7) were fed diets containing either grass silage (GS) (DM: 197g/kg; pH: 4.05; NDF: 642g/kg DM) or high starch maize silage (MS) (DM: 339g/kg; pH: 3.94; starch: 360g/kg DM; NDF: 442g/kg DM) ad-libitum plus 4kgs/hd/day of a dairy concentrate (233g CP/kg DM). Urea (460g N/kg DM) was used as a source of degradable protein (10g/kg DM) for the MS diet which also included straw (40g/kg DM). Dietary NDF equalled 542 and 423g/kg DM for the GS and MS diet.
Maternal stress has been linked to low birth weight in newborns. One potential pathway involves epigenetic changes at candidate genes that may mediate the effects of prenatal maternal stress on birth weight. This relationship has been documented in stress-related genes, such as NR3C1. There is less literature exploring the effect of stress on growth-related genes. IGF1 and IGF2 have been implicated in fetal growth and development, though via different mechanisms as IGF2 is under imprinting control. In this study, we tested for associations between prenatal stress, methylation of IGF1 and IGF2, and birth weight. A total of 24 mother–newborn dyads in the Democratic Republic of Congo were enrolled. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with mothers at delivery to gather culturally relevant war-related and chronic stressors. DNA methylation data were generated from maternal venous, cord blood and placental tissue samples. Multivariate regressions were used to test for associations between stress measures, DNA methylation and birth weight in each of the three tissue types. We found an association between IGF2 methylation in maternal blood and birth weight. Previous literature on the relationship between IGF2 methylation and birth weight has focused on methylation at known differentially methylated regions in cord blood or placental samples. Our findings indicate there may be links between the maternal epigenome and low birth weight that rely on mechanisms outside known imprinting pathways. It thus may be important to consider the effect of maternal exposures and epigenetic profiles on birth weight even in the setting of maternally imprinted genes such as IGF2.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) was published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013. We discuss the important differences between DSM-IV and DSM-5 with particular relevance to child and adolescent psychiatry. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are discussed in detail, as well as a summary of other changes in DSM-5 relevant to child and adolescent psychiatry. The discussion is supported by a review of relevant literature.