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This study analyzes the variables that influence international competitiveness, both in industrialized and developing countries. Based on rich archival resources, the study explains the intense international competition between European and North American publishers in pursuing Latin American book markets throughout the course of the First Global Economy. The case of Spain provides an opportunity to study the patterns of the internationalization process of a nonleading country and compare them with the strategies developed by German, U.S., French, and British companies. This research sheds light on the importance of social networks and national cultural influences in the internationalization of this singular industry.
This document proposes a control scheme for delayed bilateral teleoperation of a mobile robot, which it is sought to achieve a coordination of the master device position with the slave mobile robot velocity, and at the same time synchronize the force exerted by the operator with force applied by the environment over the mobile robot. This approach allows the operator to improve the sensitive perception of the remote environment in which the robot navigates while he generates commands to control the mobile robot motion. In this paper, variable and asymmetrical communication time delays are taken into account, as well as a non-passive model of the human operator, for which a novel model is proposed that has a more general structure than the typical ones used to date in the teleoperation field. Furthermore, based on the theoretical analysis presented, the state of convergence in the stationary response is obtained. In addition, an experimental performance evaluation is carried out, where the position–velocity error, force error and the time to complete the task are evaluated. In the tests, a human operator commands a remote mobile robot to push objects of different weight while he perceives the weight of each object through the force feedback system. As an outcome, the theoretical and practical results obtained allow concluding that a satisfactory trade-off between stability and transparency is reached.
Personality characteristics such as extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness are relevant for alcohol use during adolescence. In addition, having friends who use alcohol is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent alcohol consumption and its negative outcomes. The selection model posits that friends display similar alcohol consumption when their friendships are formed on the basis of common characteristics as, among others, personality. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the mediation role of peers in the association between the five-factor model of personality and adolescent alcohol use in two cultures. One hundred and twenty Scottish and 221 Spanish respondents, all aged 12-15 years, answered the Alcohol Intake Scale (AIS). Adolescents were asked about the alcohol used at the weekend and also about the alcohol consumed by their friends. Scottish adolescents’ personality was measured by the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO–PI–3). The Junior Spanish version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (JS NEO) was used to assess personality in the Spanish sample. Low agreeableness and low conscientiousness correlated with own alcohol quantity in both countries. We performed an independent structural equation modeling for each country. Extraversion (β = .205, p < .05) and low agreeableness (β = –.196, p < .01) for Scottish adolescents, and low conscientiousness (β = –.175, p < .05) for Spanish youths, predicted alcohol use through peer alcohol consumption at weekends. These findings support the relevance of personality traits and peer affiliation in relation to alcohol consumption in adolescence.
This article explores the long-term effects of foreign direct investment on the human capital development of host economies, based on the historical analysis of the Spanish operations of four leading American firms: ITT, J. Walter Thompson, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and John Deere. Our research shows that the training and working practices of these companies had a positive impact on the Spanish subsidiaries in terms of technological upgrading and managerial development. However, the local context was also relevant, through mandatory agreements that empowered local partners from the start and the availability of locally educated professionals eager to absorb new knowledge.
Intrathalline phycobiont diversity was investigated in a rosette-forming lichen, Parmotrema pseudotinctorum, using a combination of Sanger sequencing, 454-pyrosequencing, conventional light and confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 39 thalli sampled in five Canary Island populations were investigated. Three novel lineages of lichen phycobionts were detected, all being inferred within the Trebouxia clade G. The most abundant phycobiont lineage, occurring in all lichen populations investigated, is described here as Trebouxia crespoana sp. nov. This species produces spherical to pyriform cells possessing a crenulate chloroplast with lobes elongated at their ends, and one corticola-type pyrenoid with very thin, unbranched tubules of curved profile. Trebouxia crespoana is clearly distinguished from all other Trebouxia species by a characteristic cap-like cell wall thickening produced on one side of vegetative cells, and the larger size of vegetative cells that reach 21(–26) µm in diameter.
Multicaloric materials show thermal changes that can be driven simultaneously or sequentially by more than one type of external field. The use of more than one driving field can induce larger thermal changes, with smaller field magnitudes, over wider ranges of operating temperature, and can also eliminate hysteresis in one control parameter by transferring it to another. The thermodynamics behind multicaloric effects is well established, but only a small number of multicaloric materials have been experimentally studied to date. Here, we describe the fundamentals of multicaloric effects and discuss the performance of representative multicaloric materials. Exploiting multicaloric effects could aid the future development of cooling devices, where key challenges include energy efficiency and the span of the operating temperature.
For more than a century, humankind has achieved refrigeration by exploiting volatile gases that harm the environment when released to the atmosphere. More recently, the observation of electrocaloric effects in commercial multilayer capacitors has inspired the possibility of environmentally friendly cooling. In this article, we describe electrocaloric effects in multilayer capacitors for cooling applications, compare the electrocaloric performance of existing multilayer capacitors, and discuss the improvements required for practical cooling devices.
Lichen thalli represent the most conspicuous examples of fungal-algal interactions. Studies that describe phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based mainly on Sanger sequencing. In some lichen species, this technique could underestimate the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgae. In this study different multi-tool approaches were applied to two lichen taxa, Circinaria hispida and Flavoparmelia soredians, to detect algal coexistence. Here, we combined Sanger sequencing, a specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer, 454-pyrosequencing, phycobiont isolation and ultrastructural characterization. Furthermore, we compared pyrenoid ultrastructural features of lichenized phycobionts with microalgae isolated in culture. An improved methodology was used to isolate and propagate phycobionts which, in combination with fast genetic identification, resulted in a considerable reduction in time and cost to complete the process. This isolation method, coupled with a specific PCR primer, allowed for the detection of coexisting algae in C. hispida (four Trebouxia lineages). 454-pyrosequencing detected only a fraction of such diversity, while Sanger sequencing identified only the primary phycobiont. Ultrastructural features of the isolated algae were observed by transmission electron microscopy; the maintenance of the pyrenoid characteristics suggested the existence of different Trebouxia lineages. In F. soredians a single Trebouxia lineage was identified using all these approaches.
In cases of lichens with algal coexistence, a combination of different molecular and ultrastructural approaches may be required to reveal the underlying algal diversity within a single thallus. The approach proposed in this study provides information about the relationship between molecular and ultrastructural data, and represents an improvement in the delimitation of taxonomic features which is needed to recognize intrathalline Trebouxia diversity.
Greater London has a vibrant food scene comprising of many different types of urban and peri-urban ‘short food supply chains’ (SFSCs). This paper reports on exploratory research, which used examples of SFSCs from London to build a more detailed understanding of different types of urban SFSC and their relative performance compared to each other. To do this, we undertook a participatory sustainability impact assessment (SIA) in which local food system stakeholders were asked to rank the perceived impacts of five different urban and peri-urban SFSCs compared with the current ‘mainstream’ food supply system (defined as supermarkets retailing mass-produced, standardized food products). The SFSCs ranked were: (1) urban gardening (self-supply), (2) urban gardening (commercial), (3) community supported agriculture (CSA), (4) direct sale (on-farm) and (5) direct sale (off-farm). Results from the SIA showed that CSAs were regarded as delivering the highest overall social, economic and environmental benefits, followed by urban gardening (commercial), urban gardening (self-supply) and direct sales (off-farm). The lowest overall rating was for the supply chain direct sales (on-farm). All five SFSCs were ranked highest on the social aspects of sustainability. Following the participatory SIA of perceived sustainability, we next developed a questionnaire in order to test the feasibility of measuring the specific (rather than ‘perceived’) impacts of an urban SFSC. We applied the test at a community-led local food market in South London, where we conducted face-to-face interviews with all market stallholders (18 respondents) and a random sample of consumers (51 respondents). Results from the community-led market were similar to those acquired at the SIA workshop, with greater agreement about the social benefits of the market, compared with economic and environmental impacts. The results also suggest that producers underestimated consumers’ willingness to share the risks that the producers face and we identify this as an important aspect for future research. The paper concludes with reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the SIA methodology.
With 30 threatened species (14 categorized as Critically Endangered and 16 as Endangered, sensu IUCN), Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its centre of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic species. We present a conservation framework for the 14 Critically Endangered species, found in Cuba, Haiti or the Dominican Republic. Only two species (C. jimenezii, C. montana) occur in more than one country (Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Immediate threats include oil drilling and nickel mining, intrusion of saline water into soil, urban and agricultural development, low population recruitment, uncontrolled fires, interspecific hybridization, and unsustainable ethnobotanical practices. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. borhidiana, C. crinita ssp. crinita, C. leonis and C. spissa are not conserved in protected areas. Coccothrinax bermudezii, C. jimenezii, C. leonis and C. nipensis are not part of ex situ collections. Based on results from a conservation project targeting C. jimenezii, we recommend international cooperation between the three range states to implement integrative conservation management plans, plant exploration initiatives, taxonomic revisions, outreach, and fundraising. The ultimate aim of this review is to provide baseline information that will develop conservation synergy among relevant parties working on Coccothrinax conservation in Cuba, Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Such collaborations could also benefit through partnerships with botanists working in other countries.
Competition and cooperation are two somewhat opposed strategies for interpersonal social interaction that help us to achieve both individual and shared goals. The main aim of this study was to explore which type of social interaction (cooperative or competitive) is more stressful in a face-to-face same-sex dyad in healthy young participants (n = 178), considering outcome obtained in these tasks (positive or negative) and sex as moderating variables, and performance of the task alone as a control condition. Salivary cortisol (Csal) was measured in one sample obtained before task and four obtained after the task (+0, +15, +30 and +45 minutes after). Anxiety-state was assessed before and immediately after the task. Participants who cooperated and obtained negative outcomes had higher Csal levels than those who worked alone with negative outcomes in all periods after the task (p = .008, ηp2 = .058 and p = .033, ηp2 = .031, respectively). Moreover, those who cooperated showed higher mean self-reported state anxiety levels than the rest of the participants (p = .013, ηp2 = .051 and p < .001, ηp2 = .530, respectively). Our study indicates that cooperation between strangers in face-to-face dyads is highly stressful, more so than competing or working alone. These results should be taken into account for understanding situations of social stress and can be generalized to situations in which subjects cooperate or must decide between cooperating and competing to attain a goal.
In this short response, we offer some additional context to the appointment of government officials as World Trade Organization (WTO) panelists, some information on the role of the Secretariat and areas of cross-fertilization.
The Involvement of Panel Members Working for Government
Pauwelyn emphasizes that a significant proportion of WTO panel members have a substantial government background. His numbers indicate that for the period 1995-2014, 88 percent of WTO panelists had worked a minimum of “three years in government as diplomats, negotiators, bureaucrats, ministers and so on.” However, if we look at whether the panelists are employed by governments, either as diplomats or trade specialists, at the time of their appointment as WTO panelists, the figure changes dramatically: only about 50 percent of WTO panelists are employed in government at the time of their nomination. In accordance with Article 8.9 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), the procedural rules applicable to WTO dispute settlement proceedings, panelists serve in their individual capacities and not as government representatives.
The summer of 2014 saw several campaigns to name the dead of Gaza. This article aims to explore these initiatives through the idea of the ‘human’; understood both in terms of grievability, as a life that matters, and as a ‘litigious name’ employed by subaltern groups to make political demands. My argument in this article is that politically not all attempts at nomination are equivalent and that a distinction needs to be drawn between those carried out on behalf of the ‘ungrievable’ and those engaged in by them. Only the latter enables a critical politics of the human potentially capable of transforming the prevailing order of grievability in order to make their lives count. After exploring the interventions that occurred in Gaza in 2014, I turn to how the Western (and Israeli) media represent international deaths to consider what that reveals about the differential valuation of human life. To help make my case I elaborate the idea of an order of grievability. I then explore various attempts by others to name Gaza’s dead, and the limitations of their ensuing politics, before finally examining the activities of Humanize Palestine as an example of a more radical, critical politics of the human.
Caring for an offspring diagnosed with a psychological chronic disorder is used in research as a model of chronic stress. Indeed, it is usually associated with disturbances in the salivary cortisol (Csal) levels of the caregiver. An imbalance between salivary testosterone (Tsal) and Csal levels is a marker of proneness to social aggression. Given this, we aimed to establish whether the salivary testosterone/cortisol (Tsal/Csal) ratio response to acute stress could be employed as a marker of proneness to anger in informal caregivers of offspring with autism spectrum (ASD). Tsal/Csal ratio and anger responses to a set of different cognitive tasks as well as anger trait and expression were compared in these informal caregivers and controls. Caregivers, particularly those of offspring with ASD, had higher Tsal/Csal ratios than controls in response to acute stress, concretely after the stress in the case of fathers (p = .05) and before stress when analyzing mothers (p = .05). Moreover, ASD fathers and mothers obtained higher magnitude of the T/C ratio response to stress (p = .03 and p =.04, respectively), anger state (p = .02 and p = .02, respectively) and expression scores (p = .05 and p = .05, respectively) than controls. Finally, high Tsal/Csal ratio levels and response to stress were significantly associated with high anger feelings increases (p < .01 and p < .001, respectively), trait (p < .001 and p > .05, respectively) and expression (p < .05 and p > .05, respectively) in caregivers.
This Research Communication reports interferences related to the administration of ivermectin in lactating dairy goats on the response of microbial tests for screening antibiotics in milk. Twenty-eight Murciano-Granadina goats, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae, were treated with a subcutaneous injection of ivermectin (200 µg/kg b.w.). To prevent re-infestation, a second dose was applied 7 d later. Individual milk samples were collected, daily, up to 15 d post-treatment. Milk samples were analysed by microbial inhibitor tests (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100) and ivermectin residues were quantified by HPLC. A large number of positive results were obtained for all microbial tests, especially on the first day after treatment (BRT MRL = 46·4%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 14·3%; and Eclipse 100 = 17·8%). However, the highest concentration of drug residues in milk (24·3 ng/ml) was detected on the tenth day after treatment, when positive outcomes were relatively lower (BRT MRL = 17·8%; Delvotest SP-NT MCS = 10·7%; and Eclipse 100 = 7·4%). Results herein suggest that factors related to the ivermectin treatment other than drug residues in milk, or alterations produced by the parasitic disease itself affecting the immune response of animals, could be the cause of false-positive results in microbial tests. It can be concluded that the application of ivermectin in dairy goats infested with sarcoptes mange during lactation produces persistent drug residues in milk, and could also cause false-positive results in microbial inhibitor tests for screening antibiotics.
Submicron-sized poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) stabilised with bovine serum albumin (BSA) are dual radiolabelled using gamma emitters with different energy spectra incorporated into the core and coating. PLGA core is labelled by encapsulation of 111In-doped iron oxide NPs inside PLGA-NPs during NP preparation, while the BSA coating is labelled by electrophilic substitution using 125I. After intravenous administration into rats, energy-discriminant single-photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) resolved each radioisotope independently. Imaging revealed different fates for the core and coating, with a fraction of the two radionuclides co-localising in the liver and lungs for long periods of time after administration, suggesting that NPs are stable in these organs. The general methodology reported here represents an excellent alternative for visualising the degradation process of multi-labelled NPs in vivo and can be extended to a wide range of engineered NPs.