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Marine n-3 PUFA exert beneficial effects that might inhibit atherosclerosis and reduce vascular disease. Previous studies have, however, reported conflicting results and here we have summarised the early history and the most recent findings from follow-up studies and randomised clinical trials investigating marine n-3 PUFA in relation to the risk of atherosclerotic CVD. Most follow-up studies have suggested that the intake of marine n-3 PUFA may be associated with a lower risk of CVD. Recent studies have also shown that it is important to focus on substitution issues and dietary patterns. Further, the use of gold standard biomarkers of fatty acid exposure such as adipose tissue should be encouraged. Findings from clinical supplemental trials have shown conflicting results and findings from previous meta-analyses and guidelines have generally not supported the use of fish oil supplements for the prevention of CVD. However, a recent meta-analysis including three recent large clinical trials with fish oil supplements reported a moderate beneficial effect on cardiovascular endpoints. Interestingly, results from a large clinical trial (REDUCE-IT) have suggested that supplementation with a high dose of purified EPA ethyl ester for 4⋅9 years significantly and markedly reduced the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with CVD and mild hypertriglyceridaemia; findings that need to be confirmed. While it seems appropriate to recommend consumption of fish, particular fatty fish for prevention of CVD, an effect of fish oil supplements is probably at best marginal perhaps apart from patients with hypertriglyceridaemia.
Residential mobility during upbringing, and especially adolescence, is associated with multiple negative mental health outcomes. However, whether associations are confounded by unmeasured familial factors, including genetic liability, is unclear.
We used a population-based case–cohort study to assess whether polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression were associated with mobility from ages 10–14 years, and whether PRS and parental history of mental disorder together explained associations between mobility and each disorder.
Information on cases (n = 4207 schizophrenia, n = 1402 bipolar disorder, n = 18 215 major depression) and a random population sample (n = 17 582), born 1981–1997, was linked between Danish civil and psychiatric registries. Genome-wide data were obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank and PRSs were calculated based on results of separate, large meta-analyses.
PRSs for schizophrenia and major depression were weakly associated with moving once (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.16; and odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17, respectively), but not twice or three or more times. Mobility was positively associated with each disorder, with more moves associated with greater risk. Adjustment for PRS produced slight reductions in the magnitude of associations. Adjustment for PRS and parental history of mental disorder together reduced estimates by 5–11%. In fully adjusted models mobility was associated with all three disorders; hazard ratios ranged from 1.33 (95% CI 1.08–1.62; one move and bipolar disorder) to 3.05 (95% CI 1.92–4.86; three or more moves and bipolar disorder).
Associations of mobility with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression do not appear to be attributable to genetic liability as measured here. Potential familial confounding of mobility associations may be predominantly environmental in nature.
In order to reduce the time spent on tolerance analysis, it is necessary to correctly identify and prioritize the key characteristics of the product. For multiple-state mechanisms, a systematic procedure for doing this is lacking. We present a new complexity metric for multiple-state mechanisms based on the product behavior, describing the impact of geometrical variation. The sequence of the structural state transitions is linked to the product composition, enabling a clear prioritization of variation-critical states and interfaces. The approach is applied on an industrial case and verified based on a comparison with the company-specified priority tolerance calculations.
Proactive integrated weed management (IWM) is critically needed in no-till production to reduce the intensity of selection pressure for herbicide-resistant weeds. Reducing the density of emerged weed populations and the number of larger individuals within the population at the time of herbicide application are two practical management objectives when integrating cover crops as a complementary tactic in herbicide-based production systems. We examined the following demographic questions related to the effects of alternative cover-cropping tactics following small grain harvest on preplant, burndown management of horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.) in no-till commodity-grain production: (1) Do cover crops differentially affect E. canadensis density and size inequality at the time of herbicide exposure? (2) Which cover crop response traits are drivers of E. canadensis suppression at time of herbicide exposure? Interannual variation in growing conditions (study year) and intra-annual variation in soil fertility (low vs. high nitrogen) were the primary drivers of cover crop response traits and significantly affected E. canadensis density at the time of herbicide exposure. In comparison to the fallow control, cover crop treatments reduced E. canadensis density 52% to 86% at the time of a preplant, burndown application. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) alone or in combination with forage radish (Raphanus sativus L.) provided the most consistent E. canadensis suppression. Fall and spring cover crop biomass production was negatively correlated with E. canadensis density at the preplant burndown application timing. Our results also show that winter-hardy cover crops reduce the size inequality of E. canadensis populations at the time of herbicide exposure by reducing the number of large individuals within the population. Finally, we advocate for advancement in our understanding of complementarity between cover crop– and herbicide-based management tactics in no-till systems to facilitate development of proactive, herbicide-resistant management strategies.
The contents of a pit located in the centre of a large communal structure at Asiab in the central Zagros mountains provides rare evidence for ritual food practices during the Early Neolithic (~9660–9300 cal. bc). This pit contained the skulls of at least 19 wild boars carefully placed inside and subsequently sealed. Antler from red deer and the skull of a brown bear were also concealed within the pit. The boars included both male and female animals varying in age and some of the larger canines were deliberately removed. Such a unique collection of remains is unlikely to be the result of day-to-day activities; instead, this represents a group of ritually interred bones. This new evidence strengthens views that activities reinforcing social cohesion were important as human society was approaching a juncture leading towards agricultural subsistence strategies.
It has been reported that foetal death follows a seasonal pattern. Influenza virus infection has been postulated as one possible contributor to this seasonal variation. This ecological study explored the temporal association between the influenza activity and the frequency of foetal death. Time series analysis was conducted using weekly influenza-like illness consultation proportions from the Danish sentinel surveillance system and weekly proportions of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths from hospital registers from 1994 to 2009. The association was examined in an autoregressive (AR) integrated (I) moving average (MA) model and subsequently analysed with cross-correlation functions. Our findings confirmed the well-known seasonality in influenza, but also seasonality in spontaneous abortion. No clear pattern of seasonality was found for stillbirths, although the analysis exposed dependency between observations. One final AR integrated MA model was identified for the influenza-like illness (ILI) series. We found no statistically significant relationship between weekly influenza-like illness consultation proportions and weekly spontaneous abortion proportions (five lags: P = 0.52; 11 lags: P = 0.91) or weekly stillbirths (five lags: P = 0.93; 11 lags: P = 0.40). Exposure to circulating influenza during pregnancy was not associated with rates of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths. Seasonal variations in spontaneous abortion were confirmed and this phenomenon needs further investigation.
A bicuspid aortic valve is not only a common congenital heart defect but also an enigmatic condition that can cause a large spectrum of diseases, such as aortic valve stenosis and severe heart failure in newborns whereas aortic dissection in adults. On the contrary, a bicuspid aortic valve can also occur with normal function throughout life and never need treatment. Numerous genetic mechanisms are involved in the abnormal cellular functions that may cause abnormal development of the aortic valve during early foetal life. As several chromosomal disorders are also associated with a bicuspid valve, there does not appear to be an apparent common trigger to the abnormal development of the aortic valve. The clinical care of the bicuspid aortic valve patient has been changed by a significant body of evidence that has improved the understanding of the natural history of the disease, including when to best intervene with valve replacement and when to provide prophylactic aortic root surgery. Moreover, as bicuspid valve disease is also part of various syndromes, we can identify high-risk patients in whom a bicuspid valve is much more unfavourable than in the normal population. This review provides an overview of all aspects of the bicuspid aortic valve condition and gives an updated perspective on issues from pathophysiology to clinical care of bicuspid aortic valve disease and associated aortic disease in asymptomatic, symptomatic, and pregnant patients, as well as our viewpoint on population screening.
This special issue of Nordic Journal of Linguistics is dedicated to the emerging field of forensic linguistics. There are competing definitions and delimitations of this term but here we will use it to refer to the investigation and elucidation of language evidence in a legal context. This includes the scrutiny of language data from different stages of the legal process, ranging from emergency calls to police interviews and courtroom interaction, as well as expert assessment and witness testimony in cases where the meaning or authorship of texts or utterances are questioned. While the analysis of authentic case data is often preferred or even required, access to such highly sensitive data types is naturally restricted by legal and ethical boundaries. An increasing amount of studies therefore employ experimental designs to test hypotheses and improve methodologies.
To explore determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) during autumn in young, Caucasian children not consuming vitamin D-fortified foods or supplements, and explore differences in sun behaviours between pre-school and school children.
In September–October, s-25(OH)D was measured by LC–MS/MS; physical activity, sun behaviours and vitamin D intake were assessed with questionnaires.
Baseline data from the ODIN Junior trial at 55°N.
Children aged 4–8 years (n 130), of whom 96% gave blood samples.
Physical activity and sun behaviours are associated with s-25(OH)D in young children. Identifying factors influencing autumn s-25(OH)D is relevant to optimize levels before sun exposure diminishes. Strategies to reduce risk of inadequacy should consider risk of skin cancer and sunburn, and could include fortification and/or vitamin D supplementation.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.
To test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset of bipolar disorder.
We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991. Individuals were followed from their sixteenth birthday or from January 1995 to their first clinical contact for bipolar disorder or until December 2012. We calculated incidence rates per 10 000 person-years and tested the effects of prior diagnoses on the risk of bipolar disorder in survival models.
Over 37 394 865 person-years follow-up, 9250 onsets of bipolar disorder occurred. The incidence rate of bipolar disorder was 2.17 (95% CI 2.12–2.19) in individuals with no prior diagnosis of ADHD or anxiety, 23.86 (95% CI 19.98–27.75) in individuals with a prior diagnosis of ADHD only, 26.05 (95% CI 24.47–27.62) in individuals with a prior diagnosis of anxiety only and 66.16 (95% CI 44.83–87.47) in those with prior diagnoses of both ADHD and anxiety. The combination of ADHD and anxiety increased the risk of bipolar disorder 30-fold (95% CI 21.66–41.40) compared with those with no prior ADHD or anxiety.
Early manifestations of both internalising and externalising psychopathology indicate liability to bipolar disorder. The combination of ADHD and anxiety is associated with a very high risk of bipolar disorder.
Marteilia refringens causes marteiliosis in oysters, mussels and other bivalve molluscs. This parasite previously comprised two species, M. refringens and Marteilia maurini, which were synonymized in 2007 and subsequently referred to as M. refringens ‘O-type’ and ‘M-type’. O-type has caused mass mortalities of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. We used high throughput sequencing and histology to intensively screen flat oysters and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the UK, Sweden and Norway for infection by both types and to generate multi-gene datasets to clarify their genetic distinctiveness. Mussels from the UK, Norway and Sweden were more frequently polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for M-type (75/849) than oysters (11/542). We did not detect O-type in any northern European samples, and no histology-confirmed Marteilia-infected oysters were found in the UK, Norway and Sweden, even where co-habiting mussels were infected by the M-type. The two genetic lineages within ‘M. refringens’ are robustly distinguishable at species level. We therefore formally define them as separate species: M. refringens (previously O-type) and Marteilia pararefringens sp. nov. (M-type). We designed and tested new Marteilia-specific PCR primers amplifying from the 3’ end of the 18S rRNA gene through to the 5.8S gene, which specifically amplified the target region from both tissue and environmental samples.
The article examines the introduction of English as a corporate language in a Danish consultancy company from a critical angle. Based on analyses of language policy documents and interviews with language policy makers in the company, we investigate the underlying assumptions of the policy-making process, and explore how the language policy functions as a means of exerting power beyond the domain of language. The article shows how the language policy is heavily influenced by the language ideology of English as the natural language in global business as well as by neoliberal ideals of international expansion. Drawing on the notion of language commodification, the article investigates how the language policy reconfigures the social space of the organisation. The analysis shows that while the language policy aims to change the company culture towards a more ‘global mindset’, it also effects social change by legitimising certain types of employees while marginalising others. (Language policy, social change, English as a corporate language, language ideologies, linguistic market, language commodification)*
Realistic flight vehicles for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere are commonly similar to blunted cones. The main reason for blunting a cone is to mitigate high heat loads at the nose. Another reason for blunting the cone is to delay boundary-layer transition. It is commonly understood that the second mode is damped in flow over a cone as the nose radius is increased. This is thought to lead to the delay in transition. Here, a blunted cone at a realistic reentry trajectory point with significant real-gas effects is studied. It is shown, using linear stability theory and direct numerical simulation, that there exist multiple unstable modal instabilities in the boundary layer. One of these modal instabilities is called the supersonic mode, as its phase velocity is supersonic relative to the flow velocity at the edge of the boundary layer. Its growth rate is found to increase with increasing nose radius until a certain nose radius is reached. After this radius, any further increase in nose radius decreases its growth rate. There is adequate agreement between theory and direct numerical simulation for the growth rate, phase velocity and eigenfunction of the supersonic mode. At the reentry conditions tested, the supersonic mode is more likely the cause of boundary-layer transition than the second mode for blunted cones with a small wall-temperature ratio. Initial parametric studies confirm that a decrease in wall temperature amplifies the supersonic mode. Also, the supersonic mode’s growth rate is shown to be a maximum when its phase velocity is aligned with the flow velocity.
Several gold deposits hosted mainly by Variscan granites and Precambrian to Palaeozoic metasediments occur in the northwestern part of Portugal. Most of these deposits were mined by the Romans (in the period I BC to II AD) as open pits and surface galleries. The Castromil-Serra da Quinta gold deposit is an important example of such a mined site; it occurs in the Dúrico-Beirã Au province located in the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ) in the western branch of European Variscan belt, mainly on the eastern flank of the Valongo anticline. Open pits and underground galleries at Castromil-Serra da Quinta exploited the gossan formed from the weathering of primary mineralization. The gossan is composed essentially of goethite, scorodite and clay minerals. A recent drilling campaign at Castromil-Serra da Quinta has provided samples of the primary mineralization below the oxidation level. Different modes of gold occurrence are defined based on metallographic studies of both the gossan and drill cores. Gold I occurs encapsulated in primary sulfide minerals, mainly arsenopyrite and pyrite; Gold II is also associated with the main primary sulfides, but occurs along grain boundaries and in microfractures of the sulfides or in associated quartz veins; and Gold III occurs as free gold particles in iron oxides within the gossan. In the gossan samples, it is difficult to distinguish whether the gold particles hosted in oxides correspond to Gold I, Gold II, or both, so these particles are described as Gold I–II and they are commonly surrounded by very much smaller particles of Gold III. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) data for the different gold particles reveal that Gold I is poorer in Ag (~15.5–39.76%) than Gold II (37.46–51.45%), whereas Gold III corresponds to native gold (<16.11% Ag). Gold III is thought to reflect gold enrichment in the upper level of the deposit, resulting from weathering processes that affected the primary Au (Bi) mineralization.
The site of Tappeh Asiab in Iran is one of only a handful of Early Neolithic sites known from the Zagros Mountains. Discovered during Robert Braidwood's ‘Iranian Prehistory’ project, the site has seen limited publication of its early excavations. Here, the authors challenge some of the initial assumptions made about the site by discussing the first findings of renewed excavations, in the hope of substantially improving our currently limited knowledge of the Early Neolithic in this region.
Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content.
To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia.
Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance.
Controls outperformed patients on all syllogism types, but the difference between the two groups was only significant for valid syllogisms presented with unusual content. However, when adjusting for intelligence and neuropsychological test performance, all group differences became non-significant.
When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.
Studies of the association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown mixed results.
To study the inflence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on PTSD symptoms 6–8 months post-deployment in a large population while controlling for pre-deployment education and deployment-related variables.
Study linking prospective pre-deployment conscription board data with post-deployment self-reported data in 9695 Danish Army personnel deployed to different war zones in 1997–2013. The association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment PTSD was investigated using repeated-measure logistic regression models. Two models with cognitive ability score as the main exposure variable were created (model 1 and model 2). Model 1 was only adjusted for pre-deployment variables, while model 2 was adjusted for both pre-deployment and deployment-related variables.
When including only variables recorded pre-deployment (cognitive ability score and educational level) and gender (model 1), all variables predicted post-deployment PTSD. When deployment-related variables were added (model 2), this was no longer the case for cognitive ability score. However, when educational level was removed from the model adjusted for deployment-related variables, the association between cognitive ability and post-deployment PTSD became significant.
Pre-deployment lower cognitive ability did not predict post-deployment PTSD independently of educational level after adjustment for deployment-related variables.
Theories of public policy change, despite their differences, converge on one point of strong agreement: the relationship between policy and its causes can and does change over time. This consensus yields numerous empirical implications, but our standard analytical tools are inadequate for testing them. As a result, the dynamic and transformative relationships predicted by policy theories have been left largely unexplored in time series analysis of public policy. This article introduces dynamic linear modelling (DLM) as a useful statistical tool for exploring time-varying relationships in public policy. The article offers a detailed exposition of the DLM approach and illustrates its usefulness with a time series analysis of United States defense policy from 1957 to 2010. The results point the way for a new attention to dynamics in the policy process, and the article concludes with a discussion of how this research programme can profit from applying DLMs.